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notice, the authorities have the right of deporting their families whithersoever they may find convenient. Likewise the inhabitants of the houses in which armed persons or criminals in general are found concealed, shall be deported. The heads of the police shall transmit to the Prefecture a report on the deportation procedure, which is to be put in force immediately. The Minister of the Interior shall, if he think desirable, rescind deportation measures (Article 4).” The Macedonian Bulgars are required to be spies under penalty of the law. “Anyone who knows a malefactor and does not denounce him to the authorities shall be punished by five years' penal servitude (Article 16).” And finally, by Article 26, “the Prefects have the right to prescribe in their name police measures to safeguard the life and property of those subject to their administration. They shall fix penalties applicable to those wbo refuse to submit to such measures. The penalty shall consist of a maximum period of three years' imprisonment or of a pecuniary fine up to a thousand dinars (francs). The edicts of the Prefects shall come into force immediately, but the Prefects are bound to communicate them at once to the Minister of the Interior."

Aside from this code, which puts autocratic Czardom to shame, the government of Belgrade has not only closed all the Bulgarian native schools, but has imposed heavy fines on all natives whose children do not attend the Serb schools, and a double fine on all natives whose children attend non-Serb schools. The unspeakable Turk never practised such exquisite tyranny-it has remained for the Belgrade “liberators” to add the Christian scorpions to the Moslem whips, as if to show precisely what sentiments they harbor towards the natives of Macedonia whom they proclaim to the world as “veritable Serbs."

Now it may be asked, why should Macedonian natives be so obstinately Bulgar in their aspirations? Why don't they turn Serb or Greek, as Belgrade and Athens demand, and end this ethnic nightmare? This question must be answered by another question. Will it be for the ultimate advancement of Balkan civilization if Serb and Greek should succeed in their projects, should eliminate all the freer Bulgar spirits from Macedonia, and successfully achieve the denationalization of the rest? Will it be a step forward for humanity if Bulgarian Macedonia becomes Servian or Greek? In other words, are the civilization, spirit, and ideals of Bulgaria's neighbors superior to her own?

To answer this latter question is to enter into comparisons, which are proverbially odious, but sometimes necessary. To the Greek, the Bulgarians have ever been Vulgarians, Scyths; the Serb has complacently spoken of himself as the civilizer of non-Serb Southern Slavdom, notably of his benighted neighbor to the east; the Rumanian has proclaimed on every European bazaar his mission as the Kulturträger of the Balkans. All of Bulgaria's neighbors, while disputing among themselves for the palm of cultural leadership, have been accustomed to treat the Bulgarians as barbarians, half-Tartars, rustic churls.

Facta, non verba. Educational statistics of the four Balkan states may serve to introduce us to the actualities. To confirm these figures, the reader is referred to The Statesman's Year Book for 1913, F. Buisson's Nouveau Dictionnaire de Pédagogie, 1911, the Minerva Jahrbuch for 1911-12, and the official report, published 1910, of the Bulgarian Ministry of Public Instruction.

Let us compare first the public school systems of the four nations, excluding the Moslem population, which is proverbially unschooled. For every 1,000 non-Moslems in Servia there were, in the year 1910, 50 pupils attending the public primary and secondary schools of Servia. The corresponding figures for Rumania were 55, for Greece 94, for Bulgaria 109. The last item becomes all the more striking when it is remembered that Rumania and Servia had organized school systems long before independent Bulgaria was born in 1878, and that for centuries during the undisputed sway of the Greek Patriarch at Constantinople the Turkish government allowed only Greek schools in the Balkans.

But if a nation's general standards of education are a gauge of its civilization, the education of its women is a doubly sure index. Of the 145,973 pupils in Servia, 31,938, or less than 23 per cent, were girls. Of the 252,880 pupils in the public primary and secondary schools of Greece, 65,162, or less than 26 per cent were girls. Of the 405,472 pupils in Bulgaria, the girls numbered 151,031, or more than 36 per cent. I have no statistical data covering this point for Rumania, but the following comparison of secondary schools will show, I think, how the Rumanian woman fares culturally.

The 1,136 girls enrolled in the secondary public schools of Rumania form less than 8 per cent of the total number of students. In Greece, the 1,221 girls in the secondary public schools form barely 4 per cent of the total. In Servia of a total of 9,899, the 2,335 girls form less than 24 per cent. In the public gymnasia and progymnasia of Bulgaria there are 38,585 pupils; of these, 12,382 or 32.6 per cent, or almost one-third, are girls. The Serb is the poorest educator in the Balkans, treating his boys and girls with fairly equal indifference, and a comparison of the last two tables shows also just where Greek and Rumanian public school education of women usually ends: with the primary schools.

If we turn next to higher education, the data are no less striking. The University of Bucharest, Rumania, registers 3,398 students, of whom 203, or less than 6 per cent, are women. In the University of Belgrade, Servia, only 65, or barely over 6 per cent, of the 960 students are women. I have found no record of any women students whatever at the Greek National University at Athens, with its enrollment of over 2,800. The University of Sofia, Bulgaria, is attended by 371 women, forming over 22 per cent of the total. Bulgaria is the only Balkan country in which womankind partakes normally of the advantages of public education: 37.5 per cent in the primary schools, 32.6 per cent in the secondary schools, 22.2 per cent in the university, And the tendency is to increase these percentages; the percentage of girls in primary schools, which today is about 38, was only 22 in 1888.

The position of girls and women in the educational life of the various Balkan nations may be understood also from


the following table. Of Servia's 1,305 primary public schools, 1,151 are for boys and 154 for girls. Greece has 3,418 public primary schools, of which 1,224 are for boys, 623 are for girls, and 1,571 are for both sexes. Bulgaria during the year 1908–09 had 18 primary public schools for boys only, not a single one for girls only, and 3,334 “mixed schools” for boys and girls together.

This universal policy of coeducation in the Bulgarian primary schools is characteristic of the Bulgar attitude toward womankind generally. A mere glance at the Greek secondary public school statistics (30,178 boys; 1,221 girls), will make unnecessary any further discussion of this matter touching Greece, nor is there any coeducation whatever in the Rumanian or Servian secondary schools. In Bulgaria, as early as 1900, secondary school coeducation was to be found in 14 department centers and in many large villages and small towns. In 1908–09 Bulgaria had 22 progymnasia (incomplete high schools) for boys, 22 for girls, and 50 for both sexes. Coeducation is farther advanced in Bulgaria than in most European countries. In the Bulgarian gymnasia young married men instruct girls seventeen and eighteen years old, and in the progymnasia young women are often the teachers of young men. I am not here urging the educational wisdom of the coeducation policy; its success, however, is conditioned by and indicates a certain relation between the sexes, which exists in Bulgaria and does not exist in any other country in Eastern Europe.

We turn now to the illiteracy statistics of the four nations. During the period of Turkish dominion, up to 1878, Bulgaria was as illiterate as it is possible for a country to be. In 1887 Bulgaria's illiteracy was 89.3 per cent (82.9 per cent for the men, 95.9 per cent for the women). Eighteen years later, in 1905, the illiteracy had been reduced to 72.1 per cent (59.3 per cent for the men, 85.3 per cent for the women). These figures are encouraging as they stand, but they require some interpretation, which will show how misleading the general statistics of illiteracy are concerning Bulgaria.

In the first place the population of the country before the Balkan wars (4,337,516) included some 576,014 Turks

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and Gypsies, and a considerable number of Tartars, all of whom are still 96 per cent illiterate (and their women 98.4 per cent illiterate) in spite of Bulgaria's efforts to civilize them. In the 24 Bulgarian gymnasia (complete high schools, which are open to Turks and Bulgars alike) with a total enrollment of 11,650 boys and 5,953 girls, there were in 1908-09 only five Moslem boys and not a single Moslem girl. These people are in Bulgaria what the Indians and negroes are in the United States. If the degree of intelligence of the Bulgarian people is to be discovered, these illiterate Moslems should be excluded; and then we find that the general illiteracy of the remaining population was in 1905 67.9 per cent, and of the population above seven years of age 60 per cent. This figure is lower than that of most Eastern European countries.

But it also is misleading. Bulgaria had her first chance at educating her people only thirty-six years ago. Previous to 1878, as already stated, Bulgaria could not help being illiterate. Even today 81.1 per cent of the total population over thirty-five years of age can neither read nor write (68 per cent of the men, 95.4 per cent for the women). In order to understand the real standard of intelligence of the free Bulgarian nation of today, therefore, we must examine the illiteracy of the non-Moslem population seven to thirtyfive years of age. The figures for 1905 show on this basis an illiteracy of 33 per cent (about 22 per cent for the men and 43 per cent for the women). When we finally approach the military statistics of Bulgaria, we find that in 1888 70 per cent of the army recruits could neither read nor write. Five years ago the young Bulgar soldier illiteracy had dwindled to 10 per cent, and today the Bulgar soldier is fast approaching complete literacy.

To appreciate the significance of this titanic cultural endeavor of the Bulgarian folk, one has to take note of the statistics (supplied by the U. S. Census Report) which show that the Belgian army is 8.5 per cent illiterate, the Italian 30.6 per cent, the British 13.5 per cent, and the army of fair France 3.5 per cent. The younger Bulgarian regiments are as free from illiteracy as the French. Greece,

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