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alongside of faces that repelled by their prognathic negroidism and figures that were distinctly pigmy. And Firé, the young native of Metalanim who guided me in his canoe through the water-streets of the ruined city, had a face that in its oval outlines and fine features could not have been distinguished from the European.
A MONGOLOID INTRUSION FROM JAPAN
But I had another guide, Alipin, an assistant whom the governor gave me to manage my long expedition to the ruins, and I assumed that he was Japanese till I found that he was a native of the southeast of Ponape; he had the straight raven-black hair, the laterally projecting cheekbones, the swollen eyelids with the slit across them to peer through and the Mongolian fold over the tearduct that mark the typical Japanese. And faces and small figures like his were not infrequent throughout Ponape nor in fact throughout the Carolines and the northern Marshalls. They were still more frequent in the Mariannes to the north, whilst the mongoloid element gets fainter and fainter as we go southwards and eastwards.
There are sporadic but by no means faint indications of a Japanese intrusion even in the culture. The distinctive headgear in the Carolines, where any is used, is a conical hat exactly like that of the Japanese coolie. And in Truk certain families have a secret grip in wrestling which paralyzes exactly like the Japanese jiu jitsu. There is a loom in the Mariannes and the Carolines that is distinctly akin to the ancient Japanese loom, and it gets down on to the coast of German and Dutch New Guinea and even as far as the Santa Cruz group between the Solomons and the New Hebrides. To the west in Yap and the Pelews and to the east in the Marshalls and Gilberts and all through Polynesia there is no trace of such a loom. So on the north coast of British New Guinea and in some islands (Vuatom) off the coast of German New Guinea there has been dug up ancient pottery with markings and decorations that resemble those of the pottery found in the Japanese shellmounds; and I heard of pottery of a similar advanced primitive type being dug up in one of the northern islands of the Marshall group, a group that has not got the industry; but it had long ago been scattered beyond the possibility of description. And in the coralline limestones beneath the forests of the Mariannes have been found not only pieces of pottery but bronzes that are distinctly Japanese.
A GREAT MEGALITHIC CAPITAL OF THIS ALSATIA
The observant traveller through ths region cannot avoid the conclusion that all three divisions of mankind have been intermingled in the population. And that this did not prevent the region attaining to considerable culture and organization is a conclusion inevitable from a visit to the great megalithic ruins that stand on the reef in the southeast of Ponape. Here is a Venice that with its public buildings made of immense basaltic crystals brought from twenty miles distance is said to cover eleven square miles. I spent several hours . canoeing along the waterstreets and yet left many island blocks with their buildings unvisited. The right-angled islets have been artificially formed on the flat surface of the reef. A great breastwork from five to six feet high has been built of huge basalt beams, some of them four or five feet in diameter. The space enclosed has then been filled up with coral débris. On each of them has been erected an edifice with walls from six to fifteen feet thick of the same columnar basalt. The largest that remains, Nan Tauach, I examined with some care. Part of its walls is still thirty feet high. But the hundreds of great stones that cover the floor and are strewn around seem to indicate that they were once at least another ten feet higher. The entrance is spacious and stepped; and in front of it stand basalt columns on end whereon the priests are said to have made the kava to offer to the gods and the chiefs. A bench about ten feet high and broad runs round the inside of this great wall and a less broad platform runs around outside of the wall of the inner courtyard. The inner and outer walls are about thirty feet apart. And in the center of this eighty-five by seventy-five feet court is a megalithic altar which has evidently had the vault below used as a burial place, probably of the kings. In the earth of this were excavated fragments of human bones, shell ornaments and axes, mother-of-pearl hookshanks and shell-beads in quantity, one piece of obsidian and one iron spearhead. It is not unlikely that the vault had been ransacked before and the ground overhauled in search of treasure. It is the usual fate of underground chambers in impressive ruins. The iron is probably an accident of later history. The rest indicates a culture of the same type as that of the surrounding regions. The shellhooks may be homed to Polynesia and the shell-discs . beads to Melanesia or to the Pelews and Yap.
A MONGOLOID INTRUSION FROM JAPAN
But the architecture of the place looks to the continent and its adjacent islands and most pointedly to Japan. The houses of Polynesia (except the Maori carved houses in New Zealand), of Melanesia, Papuasia, Indonesia, Siam, Burmah, China make much of the roof and little of the walls. It is in Japan we begin to see the walls take as important a place as the roof. And it is there we find cyclopean foundations and walls, whilst a frieze or coping projecting over the inner wall of Nan Tauach is not unlike the use of timber in the tombs at Nikko. And the use of the basalt crystals in Metalanim might well have been suggested by the great timbers in the temples and tombs of Japan. The roofs have long ago disappeared in the humid tropical climate; but the arrangement of Nan Tauach with its inner courtyard and outer walls had evidently as one of its purposes the erection of a roof like those we see in the great failus or men's club houses of Yap with their forests of pillars. The idea of a Venice or water-city is to be found in Niigata on the west coast of Hondo.
But whether the architects were Japanese or not the rulers were not Japanese but Polynesians. None but the Polynesians would have made such a ceremony of the making and drinking of kava; this drink manifestly originated in Polynesia and spread sporadically to the west in the southern hemisphere. In the north it has leaped the Ellice, Gilbert and Marshall groups and found a home in Ponape and the other megalithic island to the east, Kusaie. Nor does it go farther west than Ponape. Another Polynesian indication is that father-right obtains in the trans1 ion of chiefship, though mother-right is universal in family and clan. And Polynesia is the only realm of father-right in the Pacific Ocean till we come to Indonesia. The third Polynesian indication is the seacraft that must have been the basis of the power centered in this oceanic Venice. The founders of the city and the empire that it must have ruled were manifestly sailors who came from the southeast. For Metalanim has inside its long breakwater water-squares and water-streets for the manoeuvring of great fleets of war-canoes, and it is on the southeast of Ponape and has its only available deepwater entrance on the east. And the Polynesians were the only race that mastered oceanic navigation before the invention of the compass. The very name of the dynasty that ruled, Chaute-Leur, which is equivalent to Polynesian Hau-te-Roa or The Tall Monarch, points clearly to the stature of the Polynesians, one of the tallest of the races of the world.
SUNKEN EMPIRES IN THE PACIFIC
Such a city as this must have been, when beside these public buildings there were on the little island of Tomun against which it abuts and over the adjacent district of Ponape tens of thousands of huts for the retainers and workmen, indicates that there was an empire around it that must have had millions of inhabitants instead of the fifty thousand that at present inhabit Micronesia. And
THD JOURNAL OF RACE DEVELOPMENT, VOL. 5, NO. 2, 1914
this must have been highly organized by its rulers to be able to produce so marvellous an architectural work as this its capital with nothing but shell and stone culture. That there were subsidiary megalithic cities we can see in the islet of Lele on the coast of Kusaie some four hundred miles to the east. The ruins are not so great. But the stones of which they are built are even more colossal. And the same system of canals running along the walls prevails. Doubtless on the great islands that have sunk were similar architectural marvels. And with the submergence of the broad islands sank the rule of this great sea-power of the past.
That this was not the only imperial system in the Pacific islands I am convinced. The marvellously exact soundlaws that formulate the interchange of consonants in the Polynesian dialects, as Grimm's Law formulates consonantal interchange in the Indo-European languages, could not have been evolved at such vast distances as now separate them; some of them are from five to six thousand miles apart. They must have been developed when the dialects faced each other in the same island or island-region with close, almost daily, intercommunication, such as could be afforded only by a unified system of government. So on the southeast coast of Yap there is a relic of another imperial system. All the islets to the east even as far as a thousand miles off send every year tribute to the chief of Gatschepar under the belief that he is a great magician who could if they did not render it cause storms and earthquakes and do them unending mischief. This supernatural reason is the shadow of a great sea-power in the past that had its center in this obscure seacoast village in Yap. Even the stone-money of Yap, most of it huge stone-discs brought with great trouble and risk from Babelthuap in the Pelews four hundred miles away indicates the ancient traffic that implies wide if not imperial organization. It is probable the submergence of great islands, once forming steppingstones between, that dislocated and rent in sunder these great maritime organisms, and sent their inhabitants westwards before the tradewinds to find other resting places. In this