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hazards. The work of carrying out the Algeciras Convention has been indefinitely postponed.

The diplomatic relations of Morocco close therefore with France so situated that it is difficult for it to withdraw from Casa Blanca and impossible for it to advance. Moorish sentiment has been embittered. The Sultan regards Germany as his friend. England, which yielded to France, has lost in position and prestige. Meanwhile the wretched land, which has lost what little order it possessed, has had its foreign trade destroyed, its opportunity for development checked, and the misery which broods over all its area adds another to the pitiful chapters which have attended the loss of Mohammedan power since the Biscayan provinces were first freed from the invader eight centuries ago.

This conception of Moorish sovereignty has confused all diplomatic relations which on the side of the Europeans have always insisted as regarding the Sultan of Morocco as in the European sense "sovereign," while all the people of Morocco look upon his rights, however extreme and arbitrary they may be in their exercise, as limited by the purpose for which he exists. Nor is there a village in the Atlas which for an instant would accept the view that any sultan of Morocco could cede the soil upon which it stood.

This gap between the conceptions of both systems of civilization was widened by the circumstances which attended the ebb of Mohammedan power in the west Mediterranean. The advance of Moslem power in eastern Europe began with the Ottoman Empire in the thirteenth century, reached its culmination in the siege of Vienna, when in the churches of Boston and New York thanksgiving was said for the defeat of the Turk, and has continued its ebb for the last two hundred years. The culmination of Moslem conquest in the western Mediterranean was reached at the battle of Tours in the ninth century, reached the full height of organization in the eleventh, and beginning to ebb, had disappeared in the same year in which Columbus discovered America. The ebb in the east Mediterranean has been accompanied in general, though not always, by the steady refluent march of the Moslem population going on today in Crete, in Bul

garia, and in the territory ceded to Greece thirty years ago, ever since the white-crossed flag was raised there. For four centuries from the beginning of Christian conquest in the 11th century to its triumph in the 15th, no such migration took place in Spain. The system of “capitulations ” under which Christian races lived in the Ottoman Empire has been exercised in the eastern Mediterranean almost exclusively for the protection of those of our own faith. In all of Spain, from Galicia south, after four centuries, in which the Christian had lived under Moslem rulers with treaties and agreements which matched the capitulations of Mahmud, and having of course a far earlier origin, then in the first place granted by Moslem rulers to Christian subjects, were succeeded by precisely similar capitulations and agreements granted by Christian rulers to Moslem subjects. Down to the end of the fifteenth century all the coast and interior cities of Morocco, practically all the territory of Spain was familiar with the spectacle of Moslems living at peace under Christian rulers and of Christians living at peace under Moslem rulers, so that even cities which half a century ago were visited with difficulty by Europeans, like Morocco City, had tolerably large colonies of Europeans, as late as the 17th century of whom one for a brief season was John Smith, the head of the Virginian colony, who lived for a while in Morocco City in his wandering life. AN ANCIENT RACE-BLENDING REGION IN THE


By J. Macmillan Brown, LL.D., Christchurch, New Zealand


It is generally admitted by ethnologists that there is no pure race in the strictest sense of the term on the face of the earth. Crossing began early in the history of mankind especially on the borders of the regions in which the three great types were getting fixed, the negroid, the mongoloid and the caucasoid. Before the formation of empires and still more before the growth of tribal organization there was fuller scope for this hybridization. The widespread, almost universal, exogamy of the period of clan organization crystallized the custom of crossing different strains into a fixed convention, and this defined and circumscribed the old freedom of blending. The circumscription became still more pronounced when the military empires arose and blocked the free migration-routes across the world. They raised a barrier between nation and nation and internally between the subject peoples and the free. And a definition of the scope of intermarriage, though only traditional and social, held as strict dominance as in the narrower clanexogamy. It was only the inevitable tendency of the ruling classes or wealthier classes to die out that turned the barriers into filters for new blood and new types of crosses. The enfeeblement of the Roman Empire and the irruption of the hordes from the East rent the bonds that had made Asia and Europe one continent for so many tens of thousands of years. And in the meantime there has grown up a strict marriage-quarantine between Oriental and Occidental, made stricter by the barriers of differentiation of language, religion and culture. And it will be many generations, if not centuries, before these taboos can be even partially neutralized.

This marriage-quarantine seems to be less strict on islands, especially on oceanic islands. There is an inclination to welcome the stranger instead of sacrificing him, unless their area is narrowing and getting less capable of supporting their native population. Sea-traffic seems to keep the racial pores opened and the sailor seems less strict in his insistence on racial superiority and inferiority. Searoutes were never blocked even partially till the days of piracy or efficiently till the days of modern navies. Archipelagoes therefore have tended to have more racial intermixture than land-areas.


Of one region in the Pacific that is now but an oceanic desert stippled with islets is this particularly true. This is Micronesia proper, lying north of the Equator and east of the Philippines, and covering the Carolines in the center, the Pelews and Yap to the west, the Marshalls to the east and the Mariannes to the north. They extend two thousand miles east and west and fifteen hundred north and south. But between the groups and even the separate islands of some groups run vast seas that for intercourse between them demand a voyage of hundreds of unisleted miles. Here there is evidence in the physique of the people that the three great divisions of mankind have intermixed. None of them exist pure in any part of the region. For the islands are too small to afford refuges for defeated peoples like the mountains in the Philippines and New Guinea, which have hidden away and protected fragments of the primeval pigmy or negritto race. But in Ponape, as in many of the larger islands of the Pacific, the natives will not venture far inland from fear of the fairies or little people; and in the forested mountains of Metalanim in the southeast of the island there are megalithic graves that are said to be those of the Kichin Aramach or Little Men, who are described as having had dark skin and spreadout nostrils. The size of the graves, four to four and a half feet, may have suggested the tradition that the aboriginal negrittos were buried here, though the crouched position of the bodies might account for this. But in the faces of many of the existing Ponapeans and in their stature there is manifest a distinct negritto strain, round head, flattened nostrils, thick lips, protruding underjaw and tufted hair. So far from uncommon is this phenomenon through all the islands of Micronesia that we need not be afraid to assume a primeval negritto basis for the population, as in all those archipelagoes that stretch out from the coasts of southeast Asia even as far as Fiji. And in their languages there is something distinctively Papuan, marking them off from the Polynesian on the one side and the Indonesian on the other. But if these little people of the mountains are assumed to be the relics of the primeval population of these farsprinkled archipelagoes, as it is rational, if not also scientific, to assume, then we shall also have to assume narrower sea-spaces between them in early human days. The unoceanic character of primitive navigation makes it an axiom that the pigmy negrittos could not have reached so far into the Pacific as Fiji or the Marshall Islands unless there had been wider island-areas with narrower straits between them.

The ethnological phenomena of the lands and islands of the old world seem to make it certain that there was an early expansion of the Caucasoid people over most of them. And over Micronesia the new wave flowed, perhaps partially from the west, more probably from the northwest because of the more numerous and closer steppingstones from the continent in that direction; and it flowed right over Polynesia, and probably helped to give the sporadic tall forms and European faces to so many of the peoples of Melanesia and the coasts of New Guinea. In many of the islands of Micronesia the handsome European faces and figures form quite a striking feature of the population. In my notes of my visit to the little low coral islet of Uleai on the extreme west of the Carolines I find repeated marks of admiration for the straight fine Grecian noses, the short upper lips, the Tartar-bow-shaped mouths, the oval faces, the brown wavy hair and the tall graceful figures of the natives,

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