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Porte. Down to our own day these conditions have remained singularly unchanged. Exactly as Austria secured from Turkey the privilege of Austrian mails in 1794, so that all the Powers have their post offices in Turkey, the mails of Morocco are in foreign hands so far as any exist. Exactly as the foreign trader has the advantage of his own contracts and courts over the native in the Levant, he has had this also in the sheriffian empire. To one who had travelled in Turkey as a boy in the fifties, there was when travelling in Morocco something similar in the respect paid to the European before the recent revolts, which have practically ended European travel in Morocco for the last eight or ten years, to the respect shown for the European 50 years ago in outlying parts of Turkey. But Morocco, unlike Turkey, has never been able to organise a new administration, a disciplined army, or a successful sovereignty. The structure of the kingdom already described made this difficult, and Morocco, owing to the fiery wall of persecution which separated the two races and religions in the sixteenth century, never enjoyed that intermingling and interpenetration of European ideas which has existed in the Ottoman Empire, fortunate in never having to face the mercies of the Holy Inquisition, to embitter the relations of Moslem and Nazarene. For half a century, until in 1844 the Prince de Joinville bombarded Tangiers and Mogador, Morocco was as completely out of all European contact as it was in the 17th and 18th centuries. The French treaty of September 10, 1844, began the train of negotiations which ended in the European conference of Algeciras and the present diplomatic situations. For the first time a boundary between Morocco and its eastern neighbor Algeria was delimited; Morocco agreed to give France jurisdiction over certain tribes; and the treaty left a broad area uncharted with provisions in regard to wandering tribes and desert villages (kessour). These last provisions were the basis of the declaration of August 5, 1890, by which the British and French governments, Article Two, recognized the sphere of influence of France to the south of her Mediterranean possessions up to a line from Saye on the Niger and Barrava on Lake Chad drawn in such a manner to comprise in the sphere of action of the English Niger Company all that fairly belonged to the kingdom of Sokoto and leave all above to France. These, joined to the early and ancient rights which France had in one of the very first of its colonies in Senegal, enclosed Morocco in the great curve of French territory which begins at the northern edge of Senegal and ends today in the occupation by France—temporary in name but permanent in character-of Oudja. All enclosed by the right angle of which one side was Algeria and the other Senegal was Morocco. With the exception of the territory claimed by Spain on the Gold River (Rio Oro), latitude 23° 36" north, longitude 9° 49" west; at Angradecrintra, 23° 6" north, longitude 10° 01' west; and at Western Bay, latitude 20° 51", longitude 10° 56", as specified in the Spanish notification of January 29, 1885, accepted by England January 28, 1885, Ceuta, the solitary remnant of the expedition of Charles V, confirmed to Spain at the same time as Joinville treaty by Spanish treaties of October 7, 1844, and May 6, 1845. Between 1844 and 1890, in which the position of Morocco as enclosed in the enciante of French possessions had been accomplished, a period just short of half a century, a profound change had taken place in the character of the relations between Morocco and Europe. A succession of strong sovereigns had established a reasonable degree of peace and order in the interior of the empire up to an elevation of 1500 or 2000 feet, where the territory of the mountain tribes remained little controlled by the Sultan and unentered by Europeans, save as an occasional venturesome traveler crossed this unmarked boundary at his own risk. But in all the ports in the territory around them and in the trade of the interior cities, the possession of the European trader of protection, consular trial and the ability to enforce contracts through the ruthless Moorish governors by paying for it had destroyed the trade of the Moorish merchant. It had transferred to European hands very considerable areas of land and a still larger share of the productive agriculture in cattle and in grain. Any native who could secure a partner could afford to pay heavily for the privilege if he had large properties, and there were plenty of Europeans living in the coast towns who derived a very fair support by simply lending their names as partners. Jewish traders took advantage of this with a celerity unpracticed by the Moor. The cheap manufactures of Europe destroyed bit by bit all local industry. Moslem families which had held their property and possessions untouched through an unbroken line, often of sacred descent, literally of a thousand years of known and recorded ancestry, found themselves reduced to beggary. A Spanish colony outnumbering the Moorish population appeared in Tangiers. Through all the coast of Morocco every new house and every sign of prosperous trade or farming represented some foreign partnership. Foreign diplomacy had for its chief task the collection of debts but too often fraudulent, the protection of contracts agair st the whole spirit and intent of the exterritorial jurisdiction, and the aid and comfort of imports under a low tariff created by treaty and incapable of revision, which destroyed all local industries, precisely similar to those which existed in the mountains of Portugal, which had the happier fortune of being protected by a high tariff until their final collapse has come in the last five or ten years, leading to the revolution now in progress. The village tribes protected themselves from all this by their prowess, their fighting power, and the swiftness with which they re-armed themselves—the Remington with its ounce ball being their favorite weapon, a circumstance aided by the steadiness with which some of our consular agents used their inviolable position to smuggle arms by day and by night into Morocco in violation of our treaties and in defiance of Moslem law. Once Spain, in 1859, made a vain effort to acquire conquest in northern Morocco. The treaty of Tetuan, April 26, 1860, ended this vain effort, whose failure was due to the same significant circumstance which brought to an ignominious end the hostilities in 1893 between Melilla and the Moors of the neighborhood, and the more recent "war" of two years ago. In each instance the returns of Spanish casualties, with their very large proportion of officers and their small proportion of privates, told their story to one


versed in the interpretation of military reports. Under the treaty of 1859 a war indemnity of twenty million dollars was paid; under that of 1893, four million dollars, and under that of 1908, a sum still to be adjusted the only return which has been received for a prodigal expenditure by Spain of-one cannot say treasure, for the money was all borrowed—but of obligations to pay, and of heavy loss in battle and worse loss by disease due to the unspeakable neglect of sanitary precautions. Every military experience around Morocco on the Algerian frontier under Marshal Bugeaud in the three Spanish wars and at Casa Blanca two years ago has convinced every military man that the conquest of Morocco would be one of the most difficult military tasks. No European general would think of undertaking it without a force of at least a hundred thousand men, and twice this number would be engaged first and last before the task was completed.

When in 1890 under the direction of Lord Salisbury there began that wide delimitation of African possessions which saved the same devastating war over Africa which had been fought by Europe over the Americas and Asia, Morocco was unnoticed in international agreement save for the French declaration and acceptance already noted. Spain was the odd exception of the treaty in regard to Cape Spartel to which our own government was a party, May 31, 1868-committing itself in the treaty to various rights, responsibilities, and expenditure which only need to be extended to constitute a precedent for any acquisition of territory anywhere for almost any purpose. In addition a treaty-March 13, 1895– was negotiated between Great Britain and Morocco under which, in order to complete the unchallenged encircling of Moorish empire by France, the British government agree to the purchase by the Moorish government of the property of the Northwest African Company at Terfaya, better known as Cape Juby. This treaty recognized the land between Wad Graa and Bojador as belonging to Morocco. The principle of this treaty and its recognition of Moorish sovereignty over a wide stretch of territory where no Moorish power was exerted were the basis of the decision of the English courts in deciding that the SS. Tourmaline and the Sutrobe Venture Trading Company had no right to trade with a portion of the Moorish coast in full possession of local tribes but forbidden territory so far as the sheriffian administration was concerned. This group of treaties, including France, Spain, England and Morocco, between 1890 and 1895, had established for the three countries the principle that the entire coast down to Senegal, with the Spanish exception noted, was under Moorish sovereignty and that the French boundary in the interior merged with that of Morocco or, where it did not directly impinge on territory claimed by the Moorish sultan, was separated from it by tribes which France was at liberty to take whenever it desired.

This continuous diplomatic attitude had existed from the treaty of 1844 to the treaty of 1895 as far as the three countries were concerned, of which one, France, was the only European power bordering on Morocco, one, Spain, was the European power which had had the longest relations with the empire, and one, Great Britain, practically monopolised the trade of Moorish ports. Nothing appeared more certain in the diplomatic relations of the Mogul empire than its ultimate acquisition, at first under a directorate and later under annexation by the French Republic. In preparation therefore France diligently subsidised tribes on its border, gave its aid and countenance to the most conspicuous of Moslem ecclesiastical potentates in north Africa, the Sheriff of Wazan, and educated his sons in Algeria, giving them commissions in the Algerian service in the expectation of furnishing a pretender. They suffered from the usual effect of a European education on Moslem youth, but when a pretender appeared 10 years ago in the mountains bordering on Algeria, Boubamara, who so narrowly escaped seizing power in Morocco and was executed this year at Fez, his payments were made in freshly minted French gold for arms and supplies which mysteriously appeared. As a French minister at Tangier once smilingly said when questioned about it, this was "owing to the well known confidence of the north African tribes in the purity of French coinage.”

The rest of the Moslem Mediterranean world had by

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