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2. A System of Exchange Professors should be established with the Latin-American countries, similar to those between the United States, and Germany, France and Japan. Besides a deeper insight into Latin-American political institutions, literature and art, we have much to gain from the LatinAmerican point of view in such subjects as law, where the Roman law, the Napoleonic code and the philosophy of law have been developed and studied in republican governments and under conditions similar to our own.

3. Scholarships and Interchange of Students. A system of scholarships analogous to the Rhodes scholarships, available for study in the United States by students from each of the Latin-American countries would be the ideal plan. Such a system of Pan-American scholarships regarded as prizes, and, with conditions for securing students of high ability and character, would be a powerful influence extending far beyond the students directly concerned. Failing an endowment for this purpose, however, the existing traveling scholarships and exchange fellowships now offered by many of the Latin-American governments should be developed, with provisions for insuring a knowledge of the language and ability to benefit by the opportunity to the fullest extent. (The Argentine government is now considering the establishment of 100 such scholarships.)

4. International Hospitality. With better organization, the Spanish and Latin-American Clubs and Fraternities in the universities could become centers of hospitality and intimate intercourse for Pan-American students. The universities can assist directly, also, by the appointment of advisers for foreign students, and by strengthening the Cosmopolitan Clubs, which are devoting an increasing amount of attention to the students from Latin America.

5. Information. The value of study in the United States would be greatly increased by the publication of a handbook in Spanish and Portuguese (preferably by the Bureau of Education) giving advice in regard to preparation, and information concerning the requirements for admission, the special advantages offered by the various institutions, tuition, fees, cost of living, etc.

6. Pan-American Two-Cent Postage. This is a measure of far reaching educational inportamce, as a means for facilitating the communication of ideas, and thus creating closer intellectual relations between the Americas.

7. Pan-American Scientific Congress. The Conference might well pass a resolution in favor of the United States government making adequate provision for the Second PanAmerican Scientific Congress, and thus take a step toward the removal of this national discourtesy.

8. International Student Congresses. Wide publicity should be given in student publications to the Fourth International Congress of American Students, at Santiago de Chile in July, 1914, and to the Ninth International Congress of Students at Montevideo, Uruguay, August 15-30, 1915, in the effort to secure large and representative delegations of students from the universities of the United States.

9. International Study Tours. In connection with these congresses study tours through the principal countries of South America should be well organized.

10. Formation of Cosmopolitan and International Polity Clubs. The fundamental trouble with the public opinion in the United States which has led to the misunderstandings which now exist with Latin America is not wrong motive, but indifference, and ignorance (1) of the importance of international friendship and coöperation, (2) of the principles underlying these, and (3) of the practical means for attaining them. We should establish in every important college and university a club for the scientific study and the propaganda of the true principles of international relations, and thus create an educated and powerful public opinion which will insure more cordial relations with Latin America, as well as with Europe and Asia, in the future.



By Leopold Grahame, formerly editor of The Buenos Aires Heraldand of The Argentine

Year Book

To discuss the “Relations of the United States with the Latin-American Republics” without dealing with the conditions and policies which govern them, would be merely to re-affirm the noble and elevated sentiments expressed by the acts and declarations of the illustrious Presidents of the United States, from James Monroe down to the present eminently distinguished incumbent of that exalted office.

The relations of the United States with the Latin republics of the American continent, are based upon a mutual sympathy for those liberty-loving principles, essential to the greatness of any modern nation. It is a fundamental error to suppose that friendship with one nation implies the estrangement of another. The specific character of international relations differs according to the traditions and antecedents of the people and to the more material factors in their intercourse. The Latin republics, whilst indebted to a heroic generation of their own race for their emancipation from the yoke of colonial serfdom, owe the firm establishment and maintenance of their justly-claimed independence to the sympathies and active support of the people and early governments of the United States who initiated the policy which has made this country the champion of sovereign rights throughout the American continent and the guide of the younger nations in the evolution of their political conceptions and aspirations.

Those nations recognize with gratitude the help thus extended to them in their struggles for freedom and organic constitution; and they also recognize that in safeguarding

American independence from possible foreign foes, the United States has never encroached upon their individual liberty. Therefore, all the antecendents and all the traditions impel a sincere desire on their part for the development of American union, by harmony of thought and of action with the great representative of continental integrity. These are the links of gratitude which form the relations of the south with their elder sister of the north.

The reciprocal relations are to be found in the similarity of conditions which gave birth to all the nations of America and led to the attainment of the proud position they occupy today in the world's affairs. So, as the United States had to conquer savage Indians, to suffer war, and to endure misery and great sacrifices in the effort to develop the resources of vast uninhabited territories and to establish the principles of liberty and justice, many of the Latin nations of America have successfully overcome the same difficulties and today are inviting the rest of the world to add to their developments and to share their wealth. These are the sources whence have sprung the friendship and sympathy of the United States for those ardent democracies. It is that touch of human nature which makes us all kin. It is that inborn sentiment of admiration for high and just ideals which arouses in the minds of educated Englishmen of the present time, a reverential respect for the memory of the great men who framed and signed the Declaration of American Independence. It is the same spirit which inspires Spain to delight in the triumph of her truant children across the seas and in the magic awakening of Ibero-America. It is the conquest of the arts of peace and of true civilization over the feudalism and barbarism of the past. It is the worship of the Statue of Liberty gazing out from every harbour of the American continent; and it is upon the foundation of sympathy and friendship arising out of that lofty conception of true democracy, that American unity is being built up and the relations of all the American countries defined and maintained.

It has been urged that the phenomenal progress of the greater countries of South America has merged this sentimental view into more practical considerations; but those who are acquainted with enlightened public opinion in Latin America, regard the suggestion as devoid of all real foundation. The nations of the new continent should not and will not forget that from Great Britain they have received the bulk of the capital which has given vitality to their currents of commerce and industry; and that from other European countries they have secured the laborers to sow and reap their abundant harvests; but these conditions in no way impede an extension of friendly relations with the United States, looking towards further progress, increased trade, and a policy whereby to consolidate the destinies of all the American nations.

The causes which have chiefly operated to restrict the social and commercial intercourse of the southern countries with the United States, are the difficulties of distance and the lack of direct means of communication, but, above all, a mutual want of knowledge of the conditions, of the desires, and of the widely divergent racial characteristics of the people respectively inhabiting the two divisions of the continent. It is this ignorance of essential conditions, prevailing throughout America, that has led to international misunderstandings, to misconceptions and to doubts and suspicions, which have militated against an extension of commercial and friendly relations, so necessary to the welfare of the entire continent. If that not inconsiderable number of people in the United States who associate the term "South America” with all the elements of disorder and dishonesty; and those people of Latin America who regard the policy of the United States as being dictated by the ultimate purpose of territorial conquest and other selfish objects, were to examine the records of history and the actually existing circumstances, there would be a change of conditions that would give to the word “America” an interpretation signifying the highest ideals of justice, of peace, and of progress.

Warm-hearted, impulsive, and eager for political emancipation, the Latin-American people have invariably subordinated material advantage to social and intellectual

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