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differed greatly as to the longevity of this often, lapping like a dog; but in this proanimal. Button stated it to be from 20 to cess his tongue is bent downward : his 22 years; but it far exceeds this, as the breath is very offensive, and the odor of one in the Tower of London, which died his urine insupportable. There is some in 1760, lived in captivity abore 70 years; variation, in the lions of different countries and another died in the same place, at the in external appearance, though, in essenage of 63. The lioness brings forth from tial particulars, their habits are identical. three to four at a birth. The cubs, when The Asiatic variety seldom attains an first born, are about the size of a small equal size with the Cape lion; its color is pug dog, and continue to suck the mother a more uniform and pale yellow, and its for about a year. At this tine, their color mane fuller and more complete, and being, is a mixture of reddish and gray, with a moreover, furnished with a peculiar apnumber of brown bands. The mane of pendage of long hairs, which, commencthe male begins to make its appearance ing beneath the neck, occupy the whole when the animal is about three to three of the middle line of the body beneath. years and a half old. The inale attains Even the Cape lion presents two varieties, maturity in seven, and the female in six known as the pale and the black, distinyears. The strength of the lion is pro- guished, as their appellations imply, by digious, a single stroke with his paw the lighter or darker color of their coats. being sufficient to destroy most animals. The latter of these is the larger and more The bone of the fore leg is remarkably ferocious of the two. The Barbary lion fitted to sustain the great muscular strain has the same full mane as the Asiatic, but so powerful an exertion occasions. Its exceeds him in size. The number of texture is so compact, that it will strike lions, as has been observed, has greatly fire with steel. The lurking-place of the diminished, judging from the multitudes lion is generally chosen near a spring, or spoken of by ancient writers, and those hy the side of a river, where he has an carried to Rome. Thus Sylla the dictator opportunity of surprising such animals as exhibited, during his pretorship, 100 of resort to the water to quench their thirst. these animals; and Pompey presented 600 Here he lies in wait, crouched in some in the circus. Lion-fights were common thicket, till his prey approaches, and then, under the consulate, and during the emwith a prodigious leap, seizes it at the first pire. Adrian, it is said, often caused 100 bound; if, lowever, unsuccessful in this, to be destroyed at one exhibition ; and he immediately retires to wait another Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius opportunity. In the night, more particu- were equally prodigal in gratifying the larly, the lion prowls abroad in search of people. · At the cape of Good Hope, lions liis prey, the conformation of his eyes are hunted, not only for the purpose of being, like those of the common cat, well extermination, but also for their skins. fitted for seeing in a dim light. The roar In the day time, and in an open country, of the lion is loud and terrific, especially from 10 to 16 dogs will easily overcome a when heard in the solitary wilds he in- lion of the largest size; nor does there habits: this roar is his natural voice; for, appear to be any necessity that the dogs when enraged, he utters a short and sud- should be very large; as he is less swift denly-repeated cry, whilst the roar is a than these animals, they readily overtake prolonged effort, a kind of deep-toned him, on which the lion turns round, and grumbling, mixed with a sharp, vibrating waits for the attack, shaking his mane, noise. It has been usually stated, that the and roaring in a short and sharp tone, or lion had constant and stated times for sits down on his haunches to face them. roaring, especially when in captivity ; but The dogs then surround him, and, simulthis has been shown to be erroneous in taneously rushing upon him, subdue him some degree. It appears, however, that, by their united efforts, though not before in summer time, and especially before at- he has destroyed several of them. But mospheric changes, he uniformly com- the mode of destroying them, usual among mences about dawn; at no other time is the Bushmen, is by shooting them, either there any regularity in his roar. When with fire-arms or poisoned arrows. The enraged, his cry is still more appalling inhabitants know that the lion generally than his roar; he then beats his sides with kills and devours his prey at sunrise and his tail, agitates his mane, moves the skin sunset. On this account, therefore, when of his face and his shaggy eyebrows, they intend to hunt them, they notice thrusts out his tongue, and protrudes bis where the antelopes are feeding at daydreadful claws. The lion requires about break : if they perceive that these animals 15 pounds of raw flesh a day; he drinks are alarmed, they conclude that they have LION-LIPOGRAMMATIC COMPOSITIONS.

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been attacked by a lion. Marking the in the Mediterranean, which take their spot whence the alarm took place, about name from the principal one of the group, mid-day, when the sun is very powerful, about 24 miles from the north coast of and the object of their attack asleep, they Sicily. Lon. 15° 12 E. ; lat. 38° 34' E. ; carefully examine the ground, and, if they population, about

. 20,000. These islands find him, they lodge a bullet or poisoned were called, by the ancients, Æolia, Vularrow in him. Sometimes, however, he caniæ, and Insula Liparæorum, and feignis fairly brought to bay in the day time, ed to be the residence of Æolus and Vulby the hunter, as the following account can. Lipari, the largest, is populous and from Pringle testifies. After his retreat is well cultivated, producing great quantities found, “ the approved plan is to torment of corn and fruit, especially figs and raihim with dogs till he abandons his covert, sins ; it likewise produces alum, sulphur, and stands at bay in the open plain. The nitre and cinnabar. It is about 15 iniles whole band of hunters then march for- in circumference; the air is healthy, and ward together, and fire deliberately, one the inhabitants industrious and good seaby one. If he does not speedily fall, but men. On the eastern coast is situated a grows angry, and turns upon his enemies, town of the same name. In this island they must then stand close in a circle, were formerly pits, which emitted fire and and turn their horses' rear outward, some smoke, but have long ceased to do either. holding them fast by the bridles, while the Population, 15,000 ; square miles, 100. others kneel to take a steady aim at the The other islands are Stromboli

, Panaria, lion as he approaches, sometimes up to Vulcano, Salini, Alicudi and Felicudi, with the very lorses' heels, crouching every two or three smaller ones. The volcanic now and then, as if to measure the eruptions, formerly frequent in the island distance and strength of his enemies. of Lipari, ceased in the sixth century, but This is the moment to shoot him fairly in the whole island is composed of pumicethe forehead, or some other mortal part, stone, lava, volcanic glass, and black sand; If they continue to wound him ineffectue and the warm baths, and heated vapors ally, till he becomes furious and desperate, of the Stoves (excavations which emit hot, or if the horses, startled by his terrific sulphureous exhalations), prove the activity roar, grow frantic with terror, and burst of the subterranean fires. The celebrated loose, the business becomes rather serious, crater of Vulcano was visited by general and may end in mischief, especially if all Cockburn in 1812 (Voyage to Cadiz); the the party are not men of courage, coolness volcano is probably only slumbering, and and experience." Very full accounts of not extinct. Stromboli is at present the the lion and his habits are to be found in most remarkable of the islands ; its fires the travels of Sparmann, Barlow, Levail- are in unremitting activity, the eruptions lant, Burchell, &c., in Southern Africa, taking place at regular intervals, varying and also in the Library of Entertaining from three to eight minutes. (See the Knowledge, and the Power Menagerie, works of Dolomieu, Spallanzani, Bryfrom which the above account has been done, &c.) condensed.

LIPINSKI, Charles, one of the greatest Lion's GULF. This is the proper violinists, was born in 1790, at Radeyn, spelling of the gulf generally called Gulf Poland. His father gave him his first inof Lyons. The name is derived from struction in music. In 1810, he was aplion, on account of the fierceness of the pointed director of music at the German gales, at some seasons, in this gulf. The theatre in Lemberg, and gave up the vioproper mode of writing it in French is loncello, till then his chief instrument, and Golfe du Lion. (See Lyons, Gulf of.) devoted himself more to the violin. In

Lion's SHARE; the whole, or a dispro- 1814, he was so attracted by Spohr's portionate share of the advantages of a playing, that he resigned his place, in orcontract, claimed by one of the parties, der to have leisure for practising that and supported by the right of the strong- artist's manner. He remained in his est. The phrase is derived from a fable native country until 1817, when he went of Æsop.

to Italy to hear the celebrated Paganini. LIPANO, COUNTESS OF (Caroline An- (q. v.) In Piacenza, he played with him nunziada); the widow of Murat (q. v.), in a concert. Since that time, he has and the sister of Napoleon. She be- travelled in Russia, Germany and France. came grand-duchess of Berg, and queen His style inclines to the elevated. of Naples. She was born March 26, LIPOGRAMMATIC COMPOSITIONS ; those 1782

in which certain letters are purposely LIPARI; a cluster of volcanic islands left out. Thus Lope de Vega wrote a 8

LIPOGRAMMATIC COMPOSITIONS-LIPSIUS. novella without l or a. Kotzebue wrote LIPSIUS, Justus; an acute critic and erone without r. The word is derived from udite scholar of the sixteenth century, horn the Greek derav (signifying to omit

, and at Overysche, in Brabant, a village situated used in many compound words), and between Brussels and Louvain, in Octoypappa (letter).

ber, 1547. Martinus Lipsius, the intimate LIPPE. The ancient principality of friend of Erasmus, was his uncle. His Lippe is, at present, divided between two genius developed itself very early, bis reigning houses: 1. Lippe-Detmold con- memory being considered wonderful. Betains about 490 square miles, with 71,200 fore he had completed bis ninth year, he inhabitants. Detmold, with 2700 inhab- had written some miscellaneous poetry, itants, is the capital. Public revenue, much above mediocrity. He was instruci490,000 guilders. The prince furnishes a ed at Brussels, and, subsequently, in the contingent of 600 men to the German colleges of Ætb, Cologne and Louvain. confederacy. The constitution granted He removed to Rome in his 20th year, by the mother of the present prince to the and, having secured the patronage of carcountry is still suspended, because the no- dinal Granvella, by dedicating to him his bility will not allow the peasants to be treatise Variarum Lectionum, was received represented. 2. Schauenburg-Lippe. The into his household, in the nominal capaci. dominions of the prince of Lippe-Bück- ty of secretary. With this distinguished eburg-Schauenburg contain 212 square prelate he remained till 1569, sedulously miles, with 25,500 inhabitants; revenue, consulting the treasures of the Vatican, 215,000 guilders; contingent to the Ger- and other principal libraries, especially manic confederation, 240 men. Bücke- employing himselt in the collation of rare burg, the capital, is on the river Au. In and ancient manuscripts. On his return 1810, the prince abolished the last traces to the Netherlands, after a short time spent of bondage, and, Jan. 15, 1816, established at Louvain, he visited the capital of the a constitution.

German empire, and then accepted a proLIPPI. There were three Florentine fessorship in the university of Jena. Here artists of this name. Of these, the eldest, the fickleness of his disposition, and the Francesco Filippo, born in 1421, and sur- vacillating state of his opinions respecting named the Old, had taken the vows as a religious matters, which eventually fixed Carmelite monk, but afterwards abandon- the imputation of imbecility on a characed the church, and underwent many vi- ter in other respects estimable, first became cissitudes of fortune. On one occasion, apparent. He renounced the Romish he fell into the hands of a Barbary corsair, church, and became a Lutheran ; but, who sold him to slavery in Africa. The quitting Jena, at length, with an avowed successful exertion of his talents, upon the intention of spending the remainder of his portrait of his purchaser, was rewarded life in retirement in his native country, by his restoration to liberty. On his re- he repaired to Overysche, and, soon after, turn to Italy, he was received into the ser recanted his supposed errors, and became vice of the grand-duke of Florence. His reconciled to the see of Rome. In 1577, death took place in 1488; and, although however, he again removed to Leyden, he was then 67, it is said to have been the when he embraced the doctrines of Calresult of an intrigue with a female of a re- vin, and, during the 13 years which he spectable family, poison being employed spent in that university, gave to the world by her relatives for his destruction.--He the most esteemed of his works. In 1590, left one son, Filippo, also a painter of he returned finally to Louvain, and once considerable reputation, born in 1460. more became a Catholic, and that of the Many of his works are yet to be found in most bigoted description. Many temptthe city of which he was a native. He ing and honorable offers were made died in 1505.—Lorenzo, the third of the him by various potentates, to engage him name, descended of the same family, unit- in their service; but he refused them all; ed to considerable skill as a historical and and, at length, died at Louvain, in the portrait painter the arts of poetry and mu- spring of 1606. Superstition led him, a sic. He was born in 1606, and is advan- short time before his death, to dedicate a tageously known as the author of a bur- silver pen, and his fur gown, to the virgin lesque poem, entitled Malmantile Racquis- Mary. His principal works are the Varia tato. Of this work there have been three Lectiones above-mentioned ; an excellent editions; two printed at Florence, in 1688 Commentary on the Works of Tacitus ; and 1731, the other, in 1768, at Paris. It ap- treatises De Constantia ; De Militia Ropeared originally under the fictitious name mana ; De Amphitheatris ; De Pronuntiaof Zipoli. His death took place in 1664. tione recta Linguæ Latina ; De Cruce;

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De una Religione ; De Bibliothecis ; Satira properties, to many others which inhabit
Menippæa; Saturnalia ; and an Oration our forests.
on the Death of the Duke of Saxony. LIQUORICE (glycyrhiza); a genus of
The best edition of them is that printed at leguminous plants, containing eight spe-
Antwerp, in 1637.

cies, one of which is a native of North LIQUEUR (from the French); a palat- America, and the others are confined to able spirituous drink, composed of wa- the northern and temperate parts of the ter, alcohol, sugar, and some aromatic eastern continent. They have pinnated infusion, extracted from fruits, seeds, leaves, and small, blue, violet, or white &c. The great difference in the quali- flowers, which are disposed in heads or ties of the different liqueurs is owing spikes, and are remarkable for the sweetprincipally to a variation in the propor- ness of the roots. The common liquorice tions of the sugar and alcohol. The (G. glabra) grows wild in the south of French distinguish three qualities : the Europe, and is cultivated in many places, first are the ratafias, or simple liqueurs, even in England, for the sake of the root, in which the sugar, the alcohol and the which is much used in pharmacy, and aromatic substance are in small quantities: forms a considerable article of commerce. such are the anise-water (q. v.), noyau, More than 200 tons of the extract are manthe apricot, cherry, &c. ratafias. The ufactured annually in Spain, a considerasecond are the oils, or the fine liqueurs, ble portion of which is sent to London, with more saccharine and spirituous, and employed in the brewing of porter. matter ; as the anisette, curaçao, &c. It is often administered medicinally, in which are those commonly found in the coughs and pulmonary affections, and the cafés. The third are the creams, or su- aqueous infusion is exposed for sale in all perfine liqueurs, such as rosoglio, maras- the European cities, as a refreshing bevechino, Dantzic water, &c. The same ar- rage. A deep, light and sandy soil is best omatic infusion may, therefore, give its adapted to its culture. The American name to liqueurs of different qualities, in species (G. lepdota) inhabits the plains of which the materials are the same, but the the Missouri, from St. Louis upwards, exproportions different: thus one propor- tending even to the borders of the Pacific, tion of ingredients gives eau-de-noyau ; an- but is not found in the Atlantic states. other, crême-de-noyau, &c.

LIRIODENDRON. (See Tulip-Tree.) LIQUIDAMBAR STYRACIFLUA, or SWEET LISBON (Lisboa), the chief city of Gum. This tree is widely diffused through Portugal, and the residence of the court, the U. States, from lat. 43° to Florida, and in the province of Estremadura, on the along the shores of the gulf into the prov- right bank of the Tagus, which is here a inces of Mexico. The leaves, which mile and a half in width, and not far from somewhat resemble those of some maples, the mouth of the river, is built on three are very regularly five-lobed, and the hills, in a romantic country, and exhibits a lobes are serrated on the margin. The grand appearance from the harbor. Inflowers are inconspicuous. The fruit con- cluding the suburbs Junqueira and Alcansists of a sort of bur, supported on a long tara, it is about five miles in length, and a pedicle, and is somewhat similar to that mile and a half in breadth. It contains of the button-wood, or plane-tree, but is 40 parish churches, 75 convents, and 100 much less even, on the surface. It is chapels, 44,000 houses, and, before 1807, abundant every where throughout the had' 300,000 inhabitants, but, at present, Middle, Southern, and Western States, has not more than 200,000, among whom and sometimes has a trunk five feet in are many foreigners, Negroes, Mulattoes, diameter, with a proportional summit. Creoles, and 30,000 Galicians, who come The usual diameter, however, is from one from Spanish Galicia, and serve as porto three feet. The wood is compact, ca- ters and water carriers, and perform other pable of receiving a fine polish, and has menial occupations. The town is open, been used for articles of furniture ; but, without walls or gates. The highest hill for this purpose, it is inferior to either the only has a castle, now in ruins; but the wild cherry or black walnut. It is, how- harbor is beautiful, capacious and safe, ever, employed for lining mahogany, for and is defended by four strong forts bedsteads, and for a variety of purposes in on the banks of the river (St. Juliana, St. the interior of houses, possessing great Bugio, the tower of Belem, &c.). Many strength, but requiring protection from the of the streets are very uneven, on account weather. The bark, on being wounded, of the hilly situation of the city. The yields a small quantity of a fragrant resin. finest are on the banks of the river. This tree is, however, inferior, in useful There are no elegant private buildings.

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The houses of the nobility are distinguish- serve to be particularly mentioned. Among
ed only by their size. The western part the literary institutions are the royal acad-
has been beautifully rebuilt since the emy of sciences, the college of nobles, the
dreadful earthquake (Nov. 1, 1755) which marine academy, with other seminaries, a
destroyed half of the city, with the loss botanical garden, three observatories, the
of 30,000 lives,* the streets being straight, royal cabinet of natural curiosities, and
and regularly laid out, with fine houses several public libraries, among which is
and squares. The eastern part of the city, the royal library, containing 80,000 vol-
which was not affected by the earthquake, umes. Lisbon is the seat of the supreme
has preserved its gloomy aspect-crooked authorities, and of the patriarch of Portu-
streets and old-fashioned houses, six and gal, with a numerous clergy. The inhab-
seven stories high. Lisbon was for- itants have but few manufactories: there
merly known to be extremely filthy and are not even mechanics enough to supply
unsafe; but, at present, regulations have the demands of the city. But Lisbon is
been made to provide for the public secu- the centre of Portuguese commerce, which
rity, and the streets are well lighted. extends to most of the countries of Eu-
Among the squares, the principal are rope, to the U. States, and to the Portu-
the Plaça do Commercio and the Rocio. guese possessions in other parts of the
They are connected by handsome, wide, world. There are about 240 Portuguese
straight streets. The former, on which and 130 foreign (principally English) mer-
the royal palace, now in ruins, was situ- cantile houses. From 1700 to 1800 ves-
ated, lies on the bank of the Tagus, at sels arrive annually at the port (Junquei-
the landing-place of the harbor, is an ob- ra). The beautiful environs of the town
long square, of 615 paces in length and are embellished by a great number
550 in breadth, and is surrounded, on (6—7000) country seats (quintas). In the
three sides, with fine buildings (the fourth vicinity are Belem and the castles Rama-
is open towards the river). In the centrelhao and Quelus.
there is a bronze statue of king Joseph I. Lisle, or Lille (Flemish, Ryssel); a
The Rocio, where the autos da fé were for- large and strong city of France, formerly
merly exhibited, is a regular oblong, 1800 the capital of French Flanders, and now
feet in length and 1400 in width, with of the department of the North, situated on
the new palace of the inquisition on one the Deule, in a dead flat. The Deule is
side. In this square 10 streets meet. navigable, and is divided into several
Among the churches, the new church is branches, part of which supply the moats
the finest, and is the most magnificent or great ditches of the citadel and town.
building erected since the earthquake. The form of Lisle is an irregular oval;
The patriarchal church, on an elevated its length, from north-west to south-east

, is situation, which affords a beautiful view, nearly two miles; its breadth, about three is magnificent in its interior, and contains

quarters; its circumference, between four rich treasures and many curiosities. The and five, exclusive of the earthen rampatriarch, the head of the Portuguese parts that surround the town, and which church, has a large annual income. The are, in their turn, surrounded by a moat. aqueduct, about seven miles in length, is a Lisle presents an imposing appearance, remarkable construction. The centre is from its extent, its fortifications, its canals, so high, that a ship of the line might pass its squares, and its public buildings. Few under it. The water is carried over the cities of France can vie with it in the valley of Alcantara, on 35 marble arches. straightness and width of its streets, the It withstood the force of the earthquake, regularity of its buildings, and its general although the keystones sunk a few inches. air of neatness. Several convenis have The St. Joseph's hospital, where 16,000 survived the revolution; the hospitals are sick, and the foundling hospital, where five, one very large. Lisle is a fortress of 1600 children, are annually received, de- the first rank. Its citadel, the masterpiece

of Vauban, is the first in Europe after that * The city then contained about 150,000 inhab- of Turin. It is a mile in circuit, and is itants. The shock was instantly followed by the fall of every church and convent, almost all the trade of Lisle is extensive. Its manufac

surrounded by a double moat. The large public buildings, and fourth of the houses. In about two hours after tures are of camlets, serges, and other the shock, fires broke out in different quarters, woollen stuffs, cotton, calico, linen, silk, and raged with such violence, for the space of nearly ihree days, that the city was completely leather, glass and earthenware. The ori

velvet, lace, carpets, soap, starch, tobacco, day, when the churches and convents were full of gin of this town is ascribed by tradition to people, very few of whom escaped

Julius Cæsar. Louis XIV took it from

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