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10-14 Notice how these similes melt into metaphor, through

the phrases on the flood and of the sea. The two prepositions have the same force, the expressions being equivalent to "sea-burghers," "sea-pageants.” In the verb curtsy the transition is complete, and we have metaphor, in that particularly vivid form which takes another name, because

it ascribes personality to the object. 18 It was usual to say “The wind sits in a certain quarter.”

What forms do we now use ? What is here gained by the substitution of sits for “sat”? Would not the latter, fol

lowing should be, be more correct ? 19 The repetition of sound in this line is an instance of the taste

of Shakespeare's time. The Elizabethan loved alliterations, jingles, and plays upon words. He enjoyed the sparkle of a pun just as he did the changing light in the jewel on his finger. See also sc. ii, lines 6, 7, “mean”; line 22, “will”; line 37, “colt”; and lines 58, 60, “say to.” Which of the dictionary definitions of road applies to the present

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case ?

27 Andrew: the supposed vessel's name. It has been conjectured

that it was then a favorite name for ships, taken from that

of the Genoese admiral, Andrea Doria. 27 dock’d. Bearing in mind the remarks in the Introduction, I,

what can you make of this participle, tracing its meaning

from the noun “dock”? 28 Vailing : lowering, as in salutation. 28 high-top: a ship's top or masthead. What picture of the

wrecked ship do you form? How is she lying ? 29 her burial: that which buries her, i.e. the sand. But defini

tion does not render all the suggestiveness of the phrase to

kiss her burial. 35 but even now worth this. How would you make the word

this emphatic, and intelligible to the audience, if you were

acting the part of Salarino ? 42 What figure of rhetoric do we find in bottom? Is there a

similar usage in Latin ? 44 Upon : dependent upon. There is an unaccountable incon

sistency here; compare the statement in 177. 46-50 Probably Antonio's gesture of denial, and a brief pause, with a searching look from Salarino, fill the time required for line 46, taking the place of the last foot. The irregularity of the succeeding lines well represents Salarino's rapid, informal talk. Line 47 may be read as a satisfactory pentameter by several methods :

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The third reading involves a change of emphasis. Er has
sometimes the sound of the French re. See Introduction

IV. a, and h. 1.
In line 48 the fourth foot may be read as an anapest, or it

may be held that the last syllable of merry is merged in

and. In line 49 the last foot may be contracted or not, according

to pleasure; an unaccented syllable is added, as in 48; see Introduction, IV. b. Line 50 is, the editor believes,

a hexameter. See Introduction, IV. e. What was the office of Janus, in the Roman mythology, and

how was he represented? Why is the oath by Janus appro

priate here? 52, 53 Describe the face which is pictured to your imagination

by these two lines, giving peep its full force. 54 other. Frequently used as a plural in Shakespeare's time, as

in Job xxiv. 24: “ They are taken out of the way as all

other, and cut off as the tops of the ears of corn.” 54 vinegar aspect. See Introduction, I. and IV. h. 3. 56 Nestor : the wise old king who appears in the Iliad ; here

made a type of gravity- by what figure of rhetoric? Compare Troilus and Cressida, Act I, sc. iii, line 65:

“As venerable Nestor, hatch'd in silver,'' etc.

61 prevented me: taken precedence of me, and forestalled my

intention. What is the derivation of the word ?

66 Bassanio presses his friends to appoint some time for a mirth

ful meeting; Salarino (line 68) prefers to leave it to him. 67 must it be so ? probably refers to the “strangeness” of which Bassanio playfully complains; but it may mean,

6 Must you really go now?” We still frequently hear, “You're

quite a stranger.” 69 Notice the pronunciation of both these proper names which

is demanded by the measure. Abbott notes (Section 469, Shakespearian Grammar) that polysyllabic names often

receive but one accent. 72 See Introduction, IV. d. 74 respect upon : care about, mindfulness of; literally, looking

upon. Compare Isaiah xvii. 7: “At that day shall a man look to his Maker, and his eyes shall have respect to the

Holy One of Israel.” 79 play the fool. This must have had a special meaning to

any one familiar with the Elizabethan stage. The Vice, or jester, was a favorite character in the earlier English plays; and Shakespeare, following the custom, created for his public a number of professional fools, such as Touchstone

in As You Like It and Olivia's clown in Twelfth Night. 82 mortifying. Here used in the sense indicated by the deriva

tion of the word: death-causing. It was then believed that

groans and sighs shortened life. 85 the jaundice. This malady may proceed from a troubled state

of mind. See Dr. Holmes, Autocrat of the Breakfast Table : “She did not write a mournful poem ... but she quietly

turned of a deep orange color with jaundice.” 88 sort: set, company. Compare Midsummer Night's Dream,

Act III, sc. ii, line 13:

a

“ The shallowest thick-skin of that barren sort."

66

89 cream and mantle. See Introduction, I. 90 Supply "who" before do. For the commonness of ellipsis,

see Introduction, I; in particular, the nominative was often

omitted. 90 entertain: keep up, maintain. 91 to be dress’d in an opinion: to be invested with a reputation. 92 conceit: conception, thought.

moe : more.

93 As who should say. An idiom meaning, nearly, “as if one

shouid say,” or “like one who should say." 98 Supply they ” before would. See 90. 99 Cf. Matthew v. 22. 101 this melancholy bait: this bait of melancholy. 102 this fool gudgeon. The word fool has here an adjective

force, as also in Act II, sc. ix, line 26. Gudgeon is a certain fish easily caught, according to Izaak Walton. It would be well to determine what figures of rhetoric appear

in these two lines. 102 opinion: reputation, as before. For the pronunciation, see

Introduction, IV. g. 2. 108 110 for this gear: on account of this stuff [that you have said). 112 vendible : marketable, i.e. disposable in marriage. See As

You Like It, Act I, sc. ii, line 103, and Act III, sc. v, line 60. This bit of doggerel is in keeping with the “skipping spirit” of Gratiano. It would not be profitable to scan the

lines, which are quite lawless metrically. 113 “Now what does that amount to ?116 shall: may, as frequently in Shakespeare. The same usage

is to be found in Emerson's Essays, but not in the ordinary

speech of to-day. 124 something: somewhat. 124 swelling : extravagant. 124 port is usually explained as "state"; but it seems to have its

' usual force (carriage, bearing) extended to the general

conduct of life, the carrying on of affairs. 129 my time : i.e. time of life. See Sonnet LXXIII:

“That time of year thou mayst in me behold.”

Bassanio's “time of year” was “proud-pied April” (Sonnet

XCVIII), or “costly summer,” Act II, sc. ix, line 94. 130 gaged: pledged. 135 it: the enterprise you purpose. 136, 137 “If it be such that Honour may look upon it.” 139 occasions : necessities. See Introduction, IV. h. 2. 141 his. This was still used in Shakespeare's time as the posses

sive case of it, the form its being rare.

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141 flight: range of flight. The second arrow was exactly like

the first in length and weight, and hence would have the same range, and, if aimed “ the self-same way,” would fall

near its fellow. 142 advised : careful. How many syllables are required ? 143 In adventuring, the third syllable, being unaccented, was

probably softened in speaking the line, which may be read as an Alexandrine, unless one prefers to render the second foot “ th’ other forth.” According to Dr. Abbott's rules, we should contract thus: “th' o(th)er,” — reducing three syllables to one, and the line to a pentameter. See Intro

duction, IV. h. 1. 144 childhood proof: proof belonging to the period of childhood.

Childhood is here treated as a genitive used adjectively, as in Midsummer Night's Dream, Act III, sc. ii, line 202 :

“ All school-days' friendship, childhood innocence.” 146, 147 This is one of those twisted sentences, capriciously

changing its subject, which we are now taught to avoid. The logical and grammatical close would be, “that which

I owe, I have lost.” 148 self: same. 150, 151

Or and or are still used as corresponsive conjunctions in

poetry. Try to find a modern example. 154 circumstance: circumlocution ; “beating about the bush.” 160 prest: ready, prompt; from the Old French. It would be

interesting to the student to trace the connection with

presto. 163 sometimes : formerly; at a certain time in the past. Com

pare sc. ii, lines 98-106. 165 undervalued : inferior. 166 To know what this meant to Shakespeare, we must have read

Julius Cæsar, Act II, sc. i. How many syllables must we give to the naine Portia in this line? See Introduction,

IV. h. 2. 170 a golden fleece. Consult a classical dictionary for the whole

story of Jason's voyage in the Argo to seek the golden fleece, which, guarded by a dragon, hung in a sacred grove at Colchos. These old Greek stories were very familiar to

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