« AnteriorContinuar »
soft and cartilaginous. It consists of two tables, as its bony plates are called, lying parallel to each other, having between them a soft substance called the diplöe. These two tables correspond to each other, so that the head, in a state of health, may be considered to be exactly the shape of the brain : hence any particular developement of any particular part of the brain, is indicated by a corresponding rounded developement of that part of the head lying external to it.
“ The discoveries of Dr. Gall embrace two sets of things in their nature most distinct,—the MENTAL FACULTIES and the ORGANS by which they are manifested."* These faculties are classed under two great divisions ; the AFFECTIVE, or those which feel Emotions which may be named Feelings; and the INTELLECT or Faculties which procure and digest Knowledge. Each class has two orders; the first, comprising those common to man and the lower animals;
* Crook's “ Compendium of Phrenology,” p. 7. A most useful little work, in which some interesting views are unfolded.
the second, those peculiar to human nature. Those feelings common, are called the ANIMAL Feelings; those peculiar, the HuMAN or MORAL: and those Intellectual Faculties which are common, are generally the PERCEPTIVE, which “form Ideas and Conceptions respecting the Existence, Qualities, Properties, and Relations of the External World." Those Intellectual Faculties that belong particularly to man, are the REFLECTIVE. These constitute the
general power called Reason.
A table of these faculties may be given :
CLASS I. AFFECTIVE, OR Feelings.
ORDER I.-FEELINGS COMMON.
1. Amativeness.... Sexual desire.
Affection for offspring. 3. Inhabitiveness Attachment for particular places 4. Adhesiveness Attachment to particular persons 5. Combativeness .. Boldness-Courage. 6. Destructiveness.. The destructive energy. 7. Gustativeness ... Discrimination of tastes and
flavours, 8. Acquisitiveness.. Desire to possess. 9. Secretiveness.... Fondness for secrecy.
10. Cautiousness.... Apprehension of danger. 11. Love of Approba- Desire of the esteem and aption
proval of others. 12. Self-Esteem .... The feeling of personal dignity.
ORDER II.- FEELINGS PECULIAR TO MAN. 13. Firmness
Feeling of determination. 14. Justice or Consci.
entiousness The feeling of moral fitness. 15. Hope..... Expectation of some good. 16. Ideality.. Feeling of the beautiful and the
perfect. 17. Marvellousness .. Disposition to believe in things
that transcend the usual
course of nature. 18. Imitation
Inclination to copy. 19. Benevolence,... 20. Veneration .... Reverence for superiors. CLASS II.-INTELLECTUAL FACULTIES.
ORDER I.-PERCEPTIVE. 21. Individuality To perceive individual objects. 22. Form... To note configuration or shape. 23. Size
To note magnitude or dimension, 24. Weight
To estimate gravity. 25. Colour
The perception of hues and
tints. 26. Order ... To mark 'the disposition of
things. 27. Number
The properties of numbers. 28. Constructiveness Fondness for contrivance. 29. Melody. The properties of sound, 30. Time..
*To perceive duration. 31. Locality .. To perceive space with its rela
tions. 32. Eventuality. .... To take cognizance of events.
ORDER II.--REFLECTIVE FACULTIES. 33. Comparison Perception of the agreement
and congruity of ideas. 34. Causality ...... Perception of cause and effect. 35. Wit
Perception of the disjunction
or incongruity of ideas. The last faculty is that of 36. Language Power of learning words.
This arrangement, with some modifications, is the one adopted in the work already quoted; and from the same, some further general observations, modified to our purpose, may be taken. Upon a review of the Faculties, the following series of facts demand especial attention. In class I., the disposition of the organs is very striking. The first four facultiesAmativeness, Philoprogenitiveness, Inhabitiveness, and Adhesiveness, occupying the posterior and lower region of the head, form the group of the Domestic affections. The general object of the next groupCombativeness, Destructiveness, and Gustativeness, situated in the line extending from the back to the side-ridge on the
forehead, is the PRESERVATION of the animal life. Acquisitiveness, Secretiveness, Cautiousness, situated in the line above the former, are the PRUDENTIAL group. Love of Approbation, Self-Esteem, Firmness, and Justice, occupy the posterior and upper regions of the head, and REGULATE, though in very different ways, the activity of the other feelings. We trace in Hope, Ideality, and Marvellousness, a group of IMAGINATIVE faculties. And finally, in Imitation, Benevolence, and Veneration, the BENEFICENT group whose only delight is to promote the present and future happiness of all the creatures of God.
In the 2nd Class, the line of organs at the lowest part of the forehead, beginning with Individuality and ending with Number, may be called the OBSERVING group; the line in the middle of the forehead, from Contructiveness to Eventuality, the SciENTIFIC group; and at the summit of the forehead, is placed the group of the ReaSONING faculties.
There is no analogous function to coalesce with the faculty of