The Thirty Years War
New York Review of Books, 2005 - 520 páginas
Europe in 1618 was riven between Protestants and Catholics, Bourbon and Hapsburg--as well as empires, kingdoms, and countless principalities. After angry Protestants tossed three representatives of the Holy Roman Empire out the window of the royal castle in Prague, world war spread from Bohemia with relentless abandon, drawing powers from Spain to Sweden into a nightmarish world of famine, disease, and seemingly unstoppable destruction.
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alliance allies Alsace ambassador Anhalt Archduke army Arnim attack Austria Baner battle Bernard Bethlen Gabor bishopric Bohemia Brefvexling Briefe und Akten burg burghers Calvinist Cardinal-Infant Catholic cause cavalry Christian Church command Crown danger defeated defend Denmark diplomacy Duke Dutch Edict of Restitution Elbe Elector of Brandenburg Elector of Saxony Elector Palatine Emperor Empire enemy Estates Europe feared Ferdinand Feuquieres forces France Frederick French George of Saxony German princes Germany Geschichte Gindely Gustavus Hallwich hand Hapsburg dynasty Hurter Ibid imperial imperialists infantry John George King of Hungary King of Sweden lands League Leipzig less Lundorp Lutheran Magdeburg Mansfeld Maximilian of Bavaria Meanwhile ment negotiations Nordlingen once Oxenstierna party Peace of Prague peasants political Protestant Regensburg religion revolt Rhine Richelieu rulers Saxe-Weimar Silesia soldiers Spain Spaniards Spanish Swedish thousand Tilly Tilly's tion Torstensson town treaty troops United Provinces Val Telline Vienna Wallenstein
Página viii - The war solved no problem. Its effects, both immediate and indirect, were either negative or disastrous. Morally subversive, economically destructive, socially degrading, confused in its causes, devious in its course, futile in its result, it is the outstanding example in European history of meaningless conflict.