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such directions respecting his affairs as the shortness of the fatal warning permitted. While on his sick bed every needful and possible aid was afforded him. In the airiest room of Colonel Nicholl's residence, receiving the unremitting attention of that humane and gallant officer (the Governor of Fernando Po), with the best medical assistance and the most soothing services, his pains were alleviated, and his spirit was cheered. He was conscious of his approaching dissolution ; talked with calmness to those around him, and anticipated the termination of his career with composure and with hope. His body was laid in the grave amid the vivid regrets of the whole population, who accompanied the funeral.

When the news of the death of their brave and enterprising townsman reached the inhabitants of Truro, a meeting was held at the Council Hall, at which Humphry Willyams, Esq. presided, and which resolved,

“ To express its sincere sympathy with the sorrowing family, and its sense of the loss which science, commerce, and civilisation had sustained by the death of this enterprising traveller. Further, that the sum of 841. having been raised for the purpose of presenting pieces of plate to Messrs. Richard and John Lander, and the altered circumstances of the case having induced the survivor generously to decline any participation in the fund so raised, and to request that the same might be appropriated to some other memorial of the respect and esteem of his native town for his lamented brother, it was their opinion, that if an adequate amount be obtained, a column should be erected in their native town to commemorate the intrepidity of the two brothers, and that an appeal be made to the county to co-operate in their object.”

About ten days after a second meeting took place, when the following address was proposed and unanimously adopted :

- To the inhabitants of Cornwall. “ The lamentable fate of the African traveller, Richard Lander, calls for some marked expression of public sym

pathy and respect; and more especially does it behove Cornishmen to show their esteem and sorrow for their adventurous countryman.

Whether to testify this natural sentiment, or to declare our admiration at the energy of mind which raised the departed, and his enterprising brother, from humble station to such enviable pre-eminence, or to evince that deep interest which every philanthropist and Christian must feel in all that concerns the civilisation of Africa, we are assured that there can be but one opinion as to the propriety of raising some lasting memorial of the travellers. The effects likely to result from their discoveries, followed up by such indomitable resolution as characterised Richard Lander, may be inferred from the melancholy circumstance that this courageous man has, in all probability, fallen a victim to the suspicions of those concerned in the atrocious slave-trade. But the grand object has been accomplished, though great the cost: the path now opened for mercantile enterprise will make plain the way for civilisation, freedom, and religion. Park, Denham, Ritchie, Clapperton, and Lander have led the forlorn hope against the seemingly impregnable fastnesses of African barbarism; and though each has perished, the cause of humanity has been advanced. once, therefore, to celebrate the progress of discovery, and to record individual merit, it is proposed to erect a column in some conspicuous part of Truro, the birthlace of the Landers, which, while it commemorates the melancholy fate of one brother, will render a just tribute to both.

And to this end it is intended to apply the amount already obtained for a testimonial of respect of another description; which sum, however, being inadequate, the committee appeals to the liberality of the county, confident that contributions will be immediately forthcoming, to render the memorial worthy of the occasion.”

His Majesty bas granted a pension of 701. a year to Mr. Lander's widow (the daughter of Mr. William Hughes of London), and has made a donation of 501. to his daughter.

We cannot better conclude than with the following extract of a letter from Mr. John Lander to the editor of 6 The Literary Gazette," to which publication we are indebted for a large portion of the materials of which the foregoing little memoir has been composed. The feelings expressed with so much simplicity of heart by Richard Lander's deeply-attached brother are honourable to him and to our common nature, and cannot be read without sympathy.

“ Richard Lander was of short stature, but he possessed great muscular strength, and a constitution of iron. No stranger could help being struck, as Sir Joseph Banks was with Ledyard, ' with the breadth of his chest, the openness of his countenance, and the inquietude of his eye. He was gifted, in an eminent degree, with that passive courage which is so requisite a qualification in an African traveller. His manners were mild, unobtrusive, and highly pleasing, which, joined to his cheerful temper, and ingenuous, handsome countenance, rendered him a favourite with every one that knew him, by most of whom he was beloved in the fullest sense of the word. The many distinguished individuals of the metropolis to whose society be was introduced after his return from the Niger discovery will subscribe to the truth of this assertion; but no one knows, to the fullest extent, except the companions of his boyhood, and the friends of his riper years, the unaffected benevolence of his character, and the excellence of his warm and generous heart. To them, and to every member of his disconsolate family, who were tenderly attached to him, his melancholy and most distressing fate will be the bitterest ingredient in the cup of life. So greatly was Richard Lander beloved by the untutored Africans, that, at various places in the interior, where he had remained some time, — at Katunga, Boussà, Yàoorie, and other places, – numbers of the inhabitants ran out of their huts to embrace him on his leaving their town; and, with hands uplifted, and eyes filled with tears, they blessed him in the name of their god. He has left a fatherless child, and an afflicted, brokenhearted widow, to mourn their distressing bereavement.

; “ How melancholy has been the fate of most travellers in Africa! The daring Ledyard, who had been a wanderer over a great part of the globe, fell a victim to the climate, not long after he first set foot on African soil; the brave but unfortunate Major Houghton, plundered and forsaken by the Moors of Ludamar, perished miserably in the wilderness ; the justly-celebrated Mungo Park was attacked by the natives with

spears and arrows, and terminated his career in the Niger; Major Denham escaped all the dangers of the vast and dreary Sahara, only to die at Sierra Leone; Belzoni, in an attempt to explore the Niger, fell a sacrifice to the climate of Berim. Many European travellers in Africa have never been heard of after setting out on their journey; the enterprising, kind-hearted Clapperton, borne down by disappointment, and by a languishing disorder that reduced him to a skeleton, breathed his last in a wretched hovel at Socatoo; and, to complete the list, owing to the sullen ferocity of a band of savages, Richard Lander is also gone down to the grave. But the fate of these brave men is not an inglorious one : their names are embalmed in the memory of their countrymen; and every friend of humanity and honourable enterprise will mourn over the melancholy termination of their labours

so" To live in hearts we leave behind

Is not to die.'"

169

No. XII.

LIEUTENANT-GENERAL SIR JOHN MACLEOD,

G. C.H.

SENIOR COLONEL COMMANDANT AND DIRECTOR-GENERAL OF

ARTILLERY.

Sir John MACLEOD was of the Raaza family; and his grandfather, Colonel Eneas Macleod, served with great distinction in the campaigns and sieges of the Duke of Marlborough.

He was born on the 29th of January, 1752 ; joined the Royal Military Academy at Woolwich, as a Cadet, in the year 1767; and obtained a commission as Second Lieutenant on the 15th of March, 1771.

On obtaining his commission, he was ordered to Gibraltar, where he had an opportunity, on a large scale, of viewing and practising the garrison duties of his profession.

In 1775 he sailed from England with the forces destined to suppress the colonial rebellion in North America. Little occurred on his first arrival in that country, beyond the usual events of ordinary service; but in 1781 he joined the force detached under Earl Cornwallis, which he accompanied into North Carolina, during an arduous march of above 600 miles, and had the good fortune to command the artillery engaged in the signal victory of Guilford, over the combined continental and American forces, on the 15th of March.

In describing his movements previous to the battle, Lord Cornwallis observes, “ The woods on the right and left were reported to be impracticable for cannon: but as that on our right appeared to be most open, I resolved to attack the left wing of the enemy; and whilst my disposition was making

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