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panies Bac.

chus.

• Hand,'which Cæfar was constrained to do to avoid farther Suspicion. This proved to be a Love Letter, that Servilia, Cato's Sifter, had written to him ; which Cato Cæsar called

having read, he threw it back to him, sayDrunkard by ing. There, Drunkard, take it. This, I say, Cato, in the was rather a Word of Disdain and Anger, Senatc.

than an express Reproach of this Vice, as we often rate those that anger us, with the first injurious Words that come into our Mouths, though by no Means applicable to those we are offended at. To which may be added, that the Vice which Cato cast in his Dish, is won derfully near a-kin to that wherein he had caught Cæfar; Venus accom

for Baccbus and Venus, according to the Proverb, agree like Hand in Glove ; but, with

me, Venus is most sprightly when I am most sober.

The Examples of his Mildness and Clemency to those Cæsar's Cle by whom he had been offended, are infinite mency towards I mean, besides those he gave during the bis Enemies. Time of the Civil Wars, which, as plainly enough appears by his Writings, he practised to cajole his Enemies, and to make them less afraid of his future Dominion and Victory. But I must also say, that, if these Examples are not sufficient Proofs of his natural Good Temper, they, at loaft, manifest a marvellous Confidence and Magnanimity in this Personage. He has often fent back whole Armies, after having overcome them, to his Enemies, without Ransom, or deigning so much as to bind them by Oath, if not to favour him, at leaft no more to bear Arms against him. He has, three or four pimes, taken some of Pompey's Captains Prisoners, and as oft set them ar Liberty. Pompey declared all those to be his Enemies, who did not follow him to the War, and he proclaimed all those to be his Friends, who sat still, and did not actually take Arms against him. To such Captains of his, as ran away from him to alter their Condition, he fent, moreover, their Arms, Horses, and Equipage. The Cities he had taken by Force, he left at full Liberty to cake which Side they pleased, imposing no other Garrison

upon I Cæfar's Life, by Suetonius, fect. 75.,

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upon them, but the Memory of his Mildness, and Clemency. He gave strict Charge, on the Day of his great Battle of Pharsalia, that, without the utmost Necessity, no one should lay a Hand upon the Citizens of Rome. These; in my Opinion, were very hazardous Proceedings; and 'tis no Wonder, if those in our Civil War, who, like him, fight against the ancient State of their Country, do noc follow his Example; they are extraordinary Means, such as only Cæfar's Fortune and his admirable Foresight could happily conduct. When I consider his incomparable Maghanimity, I excuse Victory, that it could not disengage itself from him, even in that most unjust and wicked Cause. To recurn to his Clemency, we have many strong Examples of it in the Time of his Government, when, all Things being reduced to his Power, he had no more Need to dissemble. Caius Memmius had writ very severe Orations against him, which he as sharply answered : Yet he soon after used his Interest to make him Consul. Caius Calvus, who had composed several injurious Epigrams against him, having imployed his Friends to mediate a Reconciliation with him, Cesar, of his own Accord, wrote first to him. And our good Catullus, who had fo ruffled him, under the Name of Mamurra, coming to make his Excuses to him, he made him, the same Day, sup with him at his Table, Having Intelligence of some who fpoke ill of him, he did no more but, in a public Oration, declare that he had Notice of it. He also less feared his Enemies than he hated them. Some Conspiracies and Çabals that were made against his Life, being discovered to him, he satisfied himself, in publishing by Proclamation, that they were known to bim, without further prosecuting the Conspirators.

As to the Respect he had to his Friends ; Caius Oppius being with him upon a Journey, and finding himself ill, • he left him the only Lodging he had for himself, and lay

all Night upon the hard Ground in the open Air." As to his Justice ; he put a beloved Servant of his to Death for Flying with a Noble Roman's Wife, though there was no

Complaint made. Never had Map more Moderation in his Victory, nor more Resolution in his adverse For+ tyne,

But

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But all these good Inclinations were stilled and spoiled

by his furious Ambition, by which he sufBoundless Am- fered himself to be so far transported, that a bition the only Ruin of

Man may easily maintain, that that Passion far's Axions, was the Rudder whereby all his Actions were and the Bane

steered : Of a liberal Man, it made him a of bis Memory with all Goca public Robber, to supply his Bounty and Men,

Profusion, and made him utter this vile and

most unjust Saying, “That, if the most wick• ed and profligate Persons in the World had been faith• ful in serving him towards his Advancement, he would • cherish and prefer them to the utmost of his Power, as • much as the best of Men :' It intoxicated him with such exceffive Vanity, that he dared to boast, in the Presence of his Fellow-Citizens, " That he had made the great « Commonwealth of Rome a Name without Body, and « without Form ;' and to say, “That his Answers, for 6 the future, should stand for Laws; and also to receive the Body of the Senate, coming towards him, fitting ; to fuffer himself to be adored, and to have Divine Honours paid to him in his own Presence. To conclude, this sole Vice, in my Opinion, spoiled, in him, the richest Fund of Good-nature that ever was, and has rendered his Name abominable to all good Men, for aiming to erect his Glory upon the Ruins of his Country, and the Subversion of the greatest and most flourishing Republic the World shall ever fee. There might, on the contrary, many Examples be produced of great Men, whom Pleasures have made to neglect the Conduct of their Affairs, as Mark Anthony, and others; but where Love and Ambition should be in equal Balance, and come to jostle with equal Forces, I make no Doubt but the last would have the Turn of the Scale.

But to return to my Subject : 'Tis a very An extraordinary Instance great Point to bridle our Appetites by the of a young

Discourse of Reason, or, by Violence, to conMan, of very strain our Members within their Duty: But fine Features, who scarified

to lash ourselves for our Neighbour's Interest,

and not only to divest ourselves of the charmover, to herp

ing Passion that tickles us, and of the Pleapress the Paf- fure we feel in being agreeable to others, and

courted

his Face all

be apt to fire

courted and beloved of every one ; but also fion with to conceive a Hatred and Aversion to the which such

Beauty might
Charms which produce that Effect, and to
condemn our Beauty because it infames an- those that are
other, is what, I confess, I have met with few the most Consi
Examples of. This, indeed, is one : Spu-
rina, a young Man of Tuscany,

Qualis gemma micat fulvum qua dividit aurum,
Aut collo decus, aut capiti, vel quale per artem
Inclusum buxo, aut Oricia Terebintho,
Lucét ebur

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As a Gem shines in yellow Gold enchac'd,
On Neck, or Head, for Decoration plac'd;
Or as by Art Iv'ry does Luftre get
Amidst the meaner Soil of Sable Jet.

being endowed with singular Beauty, and so excessive, " that the chastest Eyes could not chastely behold its Luf• tre; displeased with himself for leaving so much Flame

and Fever as he every-where kindled, without Relief, • entered into a furious Spite against himself, and chofe

rich Endowments Nature had so liberally conferred upon him; as if a Man were responsible to himself for the

Faults of others :: And purposely Dashed and disfigured, • with many Wounds and Scars, the perfect Symmetry • and Proportion that Nature had so curiously imprinted « in his Face "." To give my free Opinion, i more admire than honour fuch Actions : Such Excesses are Enemies to my Rules.

The Design was conscientious and good, but, I think, a little defective in Prudence.

What if his Wherein the Deformity served afterwards to make others Aktion was guilty of the Sin of Hatred, or Contempt, or

blameable. of Envy, at the Glory of fo commendable an Action; or of Calumný, interpreting this Humour a mad Ambition ? Is there any form from whence Vice cannot, if it will, extract Occasion to exercise itself one way or another? It had been more just, and also more noble, to have made

of. Æneid. lib. X. V. 134, &c. . Val. Max, in Externis, lib. iv. fect. 1.

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Society have

of these Gifts of God a Subjeót of exemplary Virtue and
Regularity
They who secrete themselves from the common Offices,

from that infinite Number of crabbed and They who fin double-meaning Rules that fetter a Man of crete themselves

ftrict Honefty in civil Life, are, in my:Opifrom the common Offices of nion, very discreet, what peculiar Severity

soever they impose upon themselves in fo dothe best Bar

ing: 'Tis, in Tome Sort, a Kind of dying to gain.

avoid the pain of living well. They may have other Reward, but the Reward of the Difficulty Í never could think they had, nor that in Uneasiness there can be any Thing beyond keeping himself upright in the Waves of the busy World, truly and exactly performing and answering all Parts of his Duty. 'Tis peradventure more easy for a Man to live clear from the whole Sex, than to maintain himself exactly in all Points in the Company of his Wife; and a Man may more incuriously flip into Want than Abundance, duly dispensed. Custom, carried on according to Reason, has in it more of Sharpness than Abstinence has : Moderation is a Virtue that has' more Work than Sufferance. The Well-living of Scipio has a thousand Fashions, that of Diogenes but one. This as much excels the ordinary Lives in Innocency, as the moft exquisite and accomplished excel that in Utility and Force.

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CHA P. XXXIV.
Observations on JULIUS CÆSAR's Methods of

making War.
'T

IS faid of many great Leaders, . That they have “had certain Books in particular Esteem, as Alex

las ander the Great, Homer ; Scipio Africanus, Cæfar's Commentaries a

Xenophon; Marcus Brutus, Polybius ; Charles proper Lefon the Fifth, Philip de Comines; and 'tis said, for every Ge

that, in our Times, Machiavel is elsewhere in Repute ;' but the late Marshal Strolly,

who

merah

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