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Amongst our other Controversies, that about Fate h

Doarint crePt in> and to tie Th'ngs to come, and

•which estab- even our own Wills to a certain and inevitalijbes theNe- ble Necessity, we are yet upon this Argument

252s0"*' of Time Past' ' Since God foresces> that all o to,,,,. < Things shall so fall out, as doubtless he

* does, it will then necessarily follow, that they must so 'fall out:' To which our Masters reply, * That the seeing

* any Thing come to pass, as we do, and as God himself

* also does, (for, all Things being present with him, he

* rather sees, than foresees) is not to compel it to happen; 'Nay, we fee because Things do fall out, but Things

* do not fall out because we see: The Events cause the

* Knowledge, but the Knowledge does not cause the' E'vents: That which we see happen, does happen; but

* it might have happened otherwise: And God, in the Caxfesof E- 'Register of the Causes of Events, which he vents in the « has in his Prescience, has also those which Prescience of « we cajj accidental and voluntary, which deFmtLSu and 'Pend "P011 the Liberty he has given to our voluntary * Determination, and knows that we shall do Causes. « amiss, because we would do so.'

I have seen a great many Commanders encourage their Soldiers with this fatal Necessity; for, if our Life be limited to a certain Hour, neither the Enemies Shot, nor our own Boldness, nor our Flight and Cowardise, can either shorten or prolong it. This is easily said, but see who will put it in Practice; and, if it be so that a strong and lively Faith draws along with it Actions of the fame, certainly this Faith we so much brag of, is very light in this Age of ours, unless the Contempt it has of Works, makes it disdain their Company. So it is, that to thisvery Purpose the " Sieur de Joinville, as credible a Witness as any other whatever, tells us of the Bedoins, a Nation amongst the Saracens, with whom the King Saint Lewis had to in the Holy Lund, ' That they, in their Religion,

* did so firmly believe the Number of every Man's Days

* to be, from all Eternity, prefixed, and set down by an

* inevitable Predestination, that they went Naked to the

3 * Wars,

"Joinville's Memoirs, ch. 30. p. 190. Vol I.

* Wars, excepting a Turkish Sword, and their Bodies on»

* ly covered with a white Linen Cloth: And for the « greatest Curse they could invent, when they were angry,

* this was always in their Mouths, Cursed be thou, as he

* that always arms himself for fear of Death.' This is a Testimony of Faith very much beyond ours. And of this sort is that also which two Friars of Flo

rence gave in our Fathers Days w. Being en- ZoFriJ^f gaged in some Controversy of Learning, they Florence <w«* agreed each to undergo a fiery Trial, for the fa-submitting Verification of his Argument, in Presence of J*"T i'ItrtM all the People, and in the public Square; and all Things were already prepared, and just upon the Point of Execution, when it was interrupted by an unexpected Accident.

A young Turkijb Lord, having performed a notable Exploit, in his own Person, in phe Sight of AymmgTwk, both Armies, that of Amurath, and that of that had a Hunniades, ready to join Battle, being asked H?r*teach by Amurath, 'who it was, that, in so tender hhtt Coura&'

* and unexperienced Years, (for it was his first Sally inta

* Arms) had inspired him with a so noble a Courage, re

* plied, That his chief Tutor, for Valour, was a Hare: 1 For being, said he, one Day a hunting, I found a Hare

* sitting, and, though I had a Brace of excellent Grey

* hounds with me, yet, methought, it would be best, for

* Sureness, to make Use of my Bow, for she sat very fair.

* I then let fly my Arrows, and shot forty that I had in 4 my Quiver, not only without hurting, but without 'starting her from her Form: At last I flipped my Dogs 4 after her, but to no more Purpose than I had ihot: By 'which I understood, that she had been secured by her

* Destiny; and that neither Darts nor Swords can wound 'without the Permission of Fate, which we can neither

.' hasten, nor put back.' This Story may serve, by the way, to let us fee how flexible our Reason is to all sorts of Images.

A Personage advanced in Years, Name, Dignity, and Learning, boasted to me, that he had been induced to a

certain certain very important Change in his Faith, by a strange* whimsical Incitation, and also so very absurd, that I thought it much stronger, being taken the contrary Way; He called it a Miracle, I look upon it quite otherwise.

* Memoirs of Philip dt Cominis, lib, viii. c. lg.

The Turkijb Historians fay* 'That the Persuasion, root7he common '* m tno^e °f r'ie'r Nation, of the fatal and Foundation of 'unalterable Prescription of their Days, does the Courage of * manifestly conduce to the giving them great tie Turks. « Assurance in Dangers;' and I know a great Prince, who makes very successful Use of it; whether it be, that he does really believe it, or that he makes it his Excuse for so wonderfully hazarding himself, provided fortune be not too soon weary of her Favour to him.

There has not happened, in our Memory, a more ad^ Assassination os mirable Effect of Resolution, than in those the Prince of two who conspired the Death of the Prince Orange. 0f Qrange \ 'Tis to be wondered, how the

second, that executed it, could ever be animated to an Attempt, wherein his Companion, who had done his utmost, had had so ill Success; and, after the fame Method, and with the fame Arms, to go and attack a Nobleman, armed with so fresh a Handle for Distrust, powerful in Followers, and of bodily Strength, in his own Hall, amidst his Guards, and in a City wholly at his Devotion. He, doubtless, imployed a very resolute Arm, and Courage inflamed with a furious Passion: A Dagger is surer for striking home, but by reason that more Motion, and a stronger Arm is required, than with a Pistol, the Blow is more subject to be put by, or hindered. That this Man ran upon certain Death, I make no great Doubt j for the Hopes any one could flatter him withal, could not find Place in any calm Mind, and the Conduct of his Exploit does sufficiently manifest, that he had no Want of that, any more than Courage. The Motives of so powerful a Persuasion may be diverse, for our Fancy does what it will, both with itself and us.

The Execution that was done near Orleans,

Guise was nothing n^e tn's » there was in that more

of Chance than Vigour, the Wound was n6t

mortal,

"The Founder of the Republic of Holland.

Amongst our other Controversies, that about Fate is

marine crePc in> and to tie Things to come, and •which eftab- even our own Wills to a certain and inevitaUjhes theNe- ble Necessity, we are yet upon this Argument of Time past •, « Since God foresees, that alj °' * Things shall so fall out, as doubtless he

* does, it will then necessarily follow, that they must so 'fall out:' To which our Masters reply, 'That the seeing

* any Thing come to pass, as we do, and as God himself

* also does, (for, all Things being present with him, he

* rather sees, than foresees) is not to compel it to happen;

* Nay, we fee because Things do fall out, but Things 'do not fall out because we see: The Events cause the

* Knowledge, but the Knowledge does not cause the' E'vents: That which we see happen, does happen; but 'it might have happened otherwise: And God, in the Caases of E- 'Register of the Causes of Events, which he •vents in the « has in his Prescience, has also those which *A?C"h'G d * we Ca^ acc'c'enta^ and voluntary, which deFmLtL and 'Pend uPon the Liberty he has given to our •voluntary * Determination, and knows that we shall do Causes. * amiss, because we would do so.'

I have seen a great many Commanders encourage their Soldiers with this fatal Necessity; for, if our Life be limited to a certain Hour, neither the Enemies Shot, nor our own Boldness, nor our Flight and Cowardise, can either shorten or prolong it. This is easily said, but see who will put it in Practice; and, if it be so that a strong and lively Faith draws along with it Actions of the fame* certainly this Faith we so much brag of, is very light in this Age of ours, unless the Contempt it has of Works, makes it disdain their Company. So it is, that to this, very Purpose the u Sieur de Joinville, as credible a Witness as any other whatever, tells us of the Bedoins, a Nation amongst the Saracens, with whom the King Saint Lewis had to in the Holy Land, 1 That they, in their Religion,

* did so firmly believe the Number of every Man's Days

* to be, from all Eternity, prefixed, and set down by an

* inevitable Predestination, that they went Naked to the

3 * Wars,

1 u Joinville's Memoirs, ch. 30. p. 190. Vol I.

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