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put to Death.

Tyrants, at once both to kill, and to make their AnTyrants con

ger felt, have pumped their Wic to invent trive to length- the most lingering Deaths : They will have en the Torments their Enemies dispatched, but not so fast that of those they

they may not have Leisure to taste their Ven

geance : And herein they are mightily perplexed; for, if the Torments they inflict are violent, they are short ; if long, they are not then so painful as they desire; and thus torment themselves, in contriving how to torment others. Of this we have a thousand Examples in -Antiquity, and I know not whether we, unawares, do - not retain some Traces of this Barbarity.

All that exceeds a simple Death, appears to me mere Executions of Cruelty; neither can our Justice expect, that Justice beyond he, whom the Fear of Death, by being bemerely putting headed or hanged, will not restrain, should to Death, abfo- be any more awed by the Imagination of a lute Cruelty.

flow Fire, burning Pincers, or the Wheel : And I know not, in the mean Time, whether we do not drive them into Despair ; for in what Condition can the Soul of a Man be, who expects Death four and twenty Hours together, whether he is broke upon a Wheel, or, after the old Way, nailed to a Cross ? Josephus relates, 6 That, in the Time of the War which the Romans made ' in Judea, happening to pafs by where they had, three * Days before, crucified certain Jews, he knew three of

his own Friends amongst them, and obtained the Fa'vour of having them taken down. Two of them, be

says, died, the third lived a great while after.'

Chacondilas, a Writer of good Credit, in the Records Barbarous Pu

he has left behind him of Things that hapnishments in pened in his Time, and near him, tells us, flicted by the

as one of the most exceffive Torments, of Emperor what the Emperor Mechmed often practised, Miechmed.

viz. 'cutting off Men in the Middle, by the Diaphragma, with one Blow of a Scymeter ; by which it followed, that they died, as it were, two Deaths at

once, and both the one Part, says be, and the other • were seen to stir, a great while after, with the Torment.' I do not think there was any great Suffering in this Mo

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tion: The Torments that are most dreadful to look on, are not always the greatest to endure ; and, I think, those that other Historians relate to have been practised upon the Epirot Lords, to be more cruel, who were con• demned to be flead alive, by piece-meal, in so mali, ' cious a manner, that they continued in this Misery a Fortnight : As also these other two that follow.

Cræsus, having caused a Gentleman, the Favourite of « his Brother Pantaleon, to be seized on, car

In? ried him into a Fuller's Shop , where he stances of ex( caused him to be scratched and carded with ceffive Cruelty, • Cards and Combs belonging to that Craft, till he died.

George Sechel, chief Commander of the Peasants of Po

land, who committed so many Mischiefs, under the Ti• tle of the Crusado, being defeated in Battle, and taken " by the Vayvod of Transylvania, was three Days bound • naked upon the Rack, exposed to all sorts of Torments « that any one could inflict upon him ; during which « Time, many other Prisoners were kept fasting At y last, while he was living, and looking on, they made « his beloved Brother Lucat, for whose Safety alone he

intreated, by taking upon himself the Blame of all their • evil Actions, to drink his Blood, and caused twenty of « his most favoured Captains to feed upon him, tearing • his Flesh in pieces with their Teeth, and swallowing the • Morsels : The Remainder of his Body and Bowels, as « soon as he was dead, were boiled, and others of his Fol• lowers compelled to eat them.'


All Things have their SEASON,

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UCH as compare Cata the Censor with the younger

Cato that killed himself, compare two beautiful Natures, and Forms much resembling one another. The first acquired his Reputation several Ways, and excelled

in i Herodot. lib. i. p. 44.

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in Military Exploits, and the Utility of his public Vo

<cations;' but the Virtue of the Younger, The Virtue of Cato of Ut besides, that it were Blasphemy to compare ca preferable any to him in Vigour, was much more pure, to that of Cato For who can acquit the Censor of Envy and the Cenfor.

Ambition, after he had dared to offend the • Honour of Scipio, a Man, in Goodness and all excellent " Qualities, infinitely beyond him, or any other of his


That which they report of him, amongst other Things, Cato the Cen.

that, in his extreme Old-age, he fet himfor took to

felf to learn the Greek Tongue, with fo greeLearn Greek dy an Appetite, as if he was to quench a too late in Life. " long Thirst,' does not seem to make for his Honour; it being properly what we call being twice a Child.

All Things kave their Season, Good and Bad, and a Man may say his Pater-nofter out of Time ; as they accused T. Quintus Flaminius, that, being General of an Army, ! he was seen praying apart in the Time of a Battle thaç & he won.' Imponet finem fapiens, et rebus honeftis *

i. e. The wife Man limits event decent Things. Eudemonidas, seeing Xenocrates, when very Old, still very intent upon his School Lectures, "When will this Man & be Wise, said he, if he yet learn ?' And Philopæmon, to those who cried up King Ptolemy, for inuring his Perfon, every Day, to the Exercise of Arms: . It is not, faid

be, commendable in a King of his Age to exercise him( felf in those Things, he ought now really to imploy

them. The Young are to make their Preparations, the • Old to enjoy them, say tbe Sages;' and the greatest Vice they observe in us is, ? That our Desires, incessantly grow young again; we are always beginning again to live.

Our bo See Plutarch's Comparison of him to Philopæmon, fect. 2. * Juv. Sat. vi. v. 344.

k 'The Words which Montaigne applies here to his own Defign, have another Meaning in the Original.

Plutarck's Notable Sayings of the Lacedæmonianse

Our Studies and Desires should sometimes Our Defires
be sensible of Old-age : We have one Foot ought to be
in the Grave, and yet,our Appetites and Pur- mortified with
fuits spring up every Day. •

Tu secanda marmora
Locas fub ipfum funus, et sepulcri
Immemor, struis domos


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i. e.

When Death, perhaps, is near at Hand,
Thou faireft Marbles dost command
But cut for Use, large Poles to rear,

Unmindful of thy Sepulchre.
The longest of my Designs is not above a Year's Extent ;
I think of nothing now but my End; abandon all new
Hopes and Enterprises ; take my last Leave of every
Place I depart from, and every Day dispossess myfelf of
what I have. * Olim jam nec perit quicquam mibi, nec ac-
quiritur ; plus fupereft viatici, quam vie : I now shall nei-

ther lose, nor get ; I have more wherewith to defray
my Journey, than I have Way to go.
Vixi, et quem dederat cursum fortuna peregi o.

i. e.
I've liv'd, and finish'd the Career

Which Fortune had prescrib’d me here.
To conclude ; 'tis the only Comfort I find in my Old-
age, that it mortifies in me several Cares and Desires,
wherewith Life is disturbed, the Care how the World
goes ; the Care of Riches, of Grandeur, of Knowledge,
of Health, and myself. There are some who are learn-
ing to speak, at a Time when they should learn to be
filent for ever.

A Man may always study, but he must
not always go to School. What a contemptible Thing is
an old Man learning his A, B, C!
Diversos diversa juvant, non omnibus annis,

Omnia conveniunt.

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i. e.

m Hor. lib. ii. Ode 18, v. 17, &c. lib. iv. v. 653

Sen. Epift. 77.

• Æneid,

i. e. For several Things do several Men delight, And all Things are not for all Ages right.

If we must study, let us follow that Study which is What Study

suitable to our present Condition, that we suits best with may be able to answer as he did ; who being Old-age. asked, " To what End he studied in his de& crepid Age? That I may go the better off the Stage, { said be, and at greater Ease.' Such a Study was that of the younger Cato, at feeling his End approach, when he was reading Plato's Discourse of the Immortality of the Soul : Not as we are to believe, that he was not, long before, furnished with all sorts of Provision for such a Departure ; for, of Assurance, an established Will and Instruction he had, more than Plato had in all his Writings; his Knowledge and Courage were, in this respect, above Philosophy. He imployed himself thus, not for the Service of his Death, but as a Man whose Sleep is not once disturbed in the Importance of such a Deliberation ; he also, without Choice and Change, continued his Studies with the other customary Actions of his Life. The Night that he was denied the Prætorship he spent in Play : That wherein he was to die he spent in Reading : The Loss either of Life, or of Office, was all one to him.



Of V IR T U E, FIND, by Experience, that there is a vast Diffe rence betwixt the Starts and Sallies of the Mind, and

a resolute and constant Habit, and very well Man feldom attains to a

perceive, there is nothing we may not do, Capacity of nay, even to the surpaffing the Divinity itqeting Picadily self, says a certain Person, forasmuch as it is and regularly, according to

more for a Man to render himself impassible the Principles

or dispassionate, than to be such by his oriof solid Virtue. ginal Condition; and even to be able to conjoin to Man's. Imbecillity and Frailty a godly Resolution

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