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not live a Month together without quarrelling and fight-
ing ; so that you would say, that this Peregrination were
a Thing purposely designed to give Strangers the Pleasure
of our Tragedies, and often to such as rejoice and laugh
at our Miseries. We go into Italy to learn to Fence, and
fall to practise at the Expence of our Lives, before we
have learned it : And yet, according to the Rule of Dil-
cipline, the Theory should precede the Practice. We dir-
cover ourselves to be but Learners.

Primitiæ juvenum miseræ, bellique futuri
Dura rudimenta

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Of Youth the first Instructions doleful are,

And hard the Rudiments of future War.
I know Fencing is an Art very useful to its End, and have
experimentally found, that Skill in it hath Fencing bath
inspired fome with Courage above their na- nothing Noble
tural Talent *: But this is not properly. Va- in it.
lour, because iç supports itself by Skill, and is founded
upon something besides itself : The Honour of Combat
consists in the Emulation of Courage, and not of Skill ;
and therefore I have known a Friend of mine, famed for a
great Master of this Exercise, make choice of such Arms,
in his Quarrels, as might deprive him of the Means of this
Advantage, and wholly depended upon Fortune and Afu-
rance, to the End that they might not attribute his Victo-
ry rather to his Skill in Fencing than his Valour. When I
was Young, Gentlemen avoided the Reputation of good
Fencers, as injurious to them; and learned to fence, with
all imaginable Privacy, as a Trade of Subtlety, derogat-
ing from true and native Virtue.
Non schivar, non parar, non ritirarsi,

Voglion costor, ne qui destrezza ha parte,
Non danno i colpi finti bor pieni, bor scarsi,

Toglie l'ira e il furor l’uso de l'arte.

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w Æneid. lib. xi. v. 156.

* In a Duel betwixt two Princes, Cousins German, in Spain, the Elder (says Pliny) by his Craft and Dexterity in Arms, easily Turmounted the aukward Strength of the Younger, lib. xxviii. c. 21.

i. e.

O di le spade horribilmente urtarsi

Amezzo il ferro, il pie d'orma non parte : Sempre è il pie fermo, è la man sempre in moto , Ne scende taglio in van ne punta à voto '. They neither shrank, nor Vantage sought of Grounds

They travers'd not, nor skipp'd from Part to Part; Their Blows were neither false, nor feigned found,

Their Wrath, their Rage would let themi use no Art. Their Swords together clash with dreadful Sound,

Their Feet stand fast, and neither stir nor start; They move their Hands, stedfast their Feet remain, Nor Blow, nor Foin they struck, or thrust in vain 2.

Butts, Tilts, and Tournaments, the Images of warlike Fights, were the Exercises of our Forefathers. This other Exercise is so much the less Noble, as it only

respects a private End; as it teaches us to An indecent Art, because ruin one another, against Law and Justice, it induces us and as it always produces mischievous Efto break the

fects. It is much more worthy and becomLaws.

ing to exercise ourselves in Things that strengthen, than that weaken our Governments, and that tend to the public Safety, and common Glory. · Publius Rutilius Consus was the first that taught the Soldiers • to handle their Arms with Skill, and joined Art to Va• lour ; not for the Use of private Quarrel, but for War, • and the Quarrels of the People of Rome : ' A popular and civil Art of Fencing. And, besides the Example of Cæjar, who commanded his Men to shoot chiefly at the • Faces of Pompey's Gens-d'Armes, in the Battle of Phar

salia ;' a thousand other Commanders have also bethought them to invent new Forms of Weapons, and new Ways of striking and defending, according as Occasion should require.

But as Philopæmen · condemned Wrestling, 'Tis useless and detrimental in

wherein be excelled, because the Preparatives, Military Com that were therein imployed, were different bats. from those that appertain to Military Dir

cipline, y Tasso Her. Cant. 12. Stanz. 55.

z Mr. Fairfax.

a Valer. Max. lib. ii. c. 3. fect. 2.

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• cipline, to which alone he conceived Men of Honour 'ought to apply themselves ;' so it seems to me, that this Address, to which we form our Limbs, those Writhings and Motions young Men are taught in this new School, are not only of no Use, but rather contrary and hurtful to the manner of Fight in Battle : And also our People commonly make Use of particular Weapons, peculiarly designed for Duel. And I have known, when it has been disapproved, that a Gentleman, challenged to fight with Rapier and Poniard, should appear in the Equipage of a Man at Arms; or that another should go thither with his Cloak instead of a Poniard. It is worthy of Consideration, that Lachez in Plato, speaking of learning to fence after our manner, says, " That he never knew any great · Soldier come out of that School, especially the Masters

of it b And, indeed, as to them, our own Experience tells us as much. As to the rest, we may, at least, conclude, that they are Abilities of no Relationi nor Correspondence. And, in the Education of the Children of his Government, Plató prohibits the Art of The Art of. Boxing, introduced by Amicus and Epeius; and Boxing prohithat of Wrestling, by Ant&us and Cecyo", be- bited by Plato. cause they have another End; than to render Youth fit

for the Service of the War, and contribute nothing to • it.' But I see I am too far strayed from my Theme.

The Emperor Maurice, being advertised, by Dreams and several Prognostics, that one Phočas, an obscure Soldier, should kill him, questioned his Son-in-Law, Philips

who this Phocas was, and what was his Nature, Quali<ties, and Manners, and as foon as Philip, amongst other Things, had told him, “That he was Cruel and bloo· cowardly and timorous,' the Emperor im- dy Men natumediately thence concluded, “That he was fally Cowards. • a Murderer and Cruel.: What is it that makes Tyrants fo bloody ? ?Tis only the Sollicitude for their own Safety, and that their faine. Hearts can furnish them with no other Means of securing themselves, than in extctmiVol. II.

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nating Plato's Dialogue, intitled, Lachez, p. 247. • De Legibus, lib. vii. p. 630. Or rather Cercyos Kéqxo wy, Plato de Legib. lib. vii. ibid.

nating those that may hurt them, even so much as the Women, for fear of a Scratch.

Cuneta ferit, dum cuneta timet.

i. e.

He strikes at all, who every one does fear.

The first Cruelties are exercised for themselves : From One AA of

thence springs the Fear of a just Revenge, Cruelty necef which afterwards produces a Series of new sarily produces Cruelties, to obliterate one by the other. PhiObers.

lip King of Macedon, who had so much upon his Hands with the People of Rome, agitated with the Horror of so many Murders committed by his Appointment, and doubting of being able to regain his Credit with so many Families, whom he had, at diverse Times, offended; resolved to seize all the Children of those he

had caused to be sain, to dispatch them daily one after • another, and thereby establish his own Repose. Good Subjects become any Place; and therefore I, who more consider the Weight and Utility of what I deliver, than its Order and Connexion, need not fear, in this place, to bring in a fine Story, tho’ it be a little by the bye ; for when fuch Subjects are rich in their own native Beauty, and are able to justify themselves, the least End of a Hair will serve to draw them into my Discourse.

. Amongst others condemned by Philip, Herodicus A remarkable • Prince of Thessaly, had been one. He had, Story on this ' moreover, after him, caused his two SonsSubject.

• in-Law to be put to Death, who each left a Son, very Young, behind him. Theoxena and Arche were the two Widows. Theoxena, tho' warmly courted to it, could not be persuaded to marry again :

che ' was married to Poris, the greatest Man of the Ænians, ' and by him had a great many great Children, which "she, dying, left all Minors. Theoxena, moved with a • Maternal Charity towards her Nephews, that she might • have them under her own Conduct and Protection, mar- ried Poris : When presently comes a Proclamation of the

King's e Claud. in Eutrop. lib. i. v. 182. { The intire Story je taken from Titus Livy, lib. xi. c. 4.

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to put off.

King's Edict. This bold-spirited Mother, suspecting

the Cruelty of Pbilip, and afraid of the Infolence of the • Soldiers towards these lovely young Children, was so i bold as to declare, that she would rather kill them with s her own Hands, than deliver them up. Poris, startled

at this Protestation, promised her to steal them away, s and to transport them to Athens, and there commit them

to the Custody of some trusty Friends of his. They • took therefore the Opportunity of an annual Feast, which < was celebrared at Ænia, in Honour of Æneas, and thither

they went. Having appeared by Day at the public Cere

monies and Banquet, they stole, the Night following, • into a Vessel laid ready for chat Purpose, to make their

escape by Sea. The Wind proved contrary, and find

ing themselves, in the Morning, within Sight of the • Land from whence they had launched over Night, were

pursued by the Guards of the Port ; which Poris perceiving, he laboured all he could to haften the Mariners

But Theoxena, frantic with Affection and Revenge, in Pursuance of her former Resolution, pre

pared both Arms and Poison, and exposing them be• fore them ; Go to, my Children, said me, Death is now

the only Means of your Defence and Liberty, and will (adminifter Occasion to the Gods to exercise their sacred

Justice: These drawn Swords, these full, Cups, will

open you the Way to it: Be of good Courage ; and • thou, my Son, who art the Eldest, take this Steel into

thy Hand, that thou may'st the more bravely die. The

Children having, on one side, so hearty a Counsellor, • and the Enemy at their Throats on the other; ran, ali

of them eagerly, to dispatch themselves with what was

next to Hand; and, when half dead, were thrown into " the Sea. Theoxena, proud of having so gloriously pro(vided for the Safety of her Children, clasping her Arms, • with great Affection, about her Husband's Neck; Lec

us, my Dear, said she, follow these Boys, and enjoy the ' fame Sepulchre they do : And, thus embraced, they • threw themselves headlong, overboard, into the Sea ; fo • that the Ship was carried back, without its Owners, into the Harbour.'

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Tyranis

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