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good End. Lycurgus, the most virtuous and perfect LiMen forced to
giflator that ever was, invented this unjust afe bad Means Practice of making the Helotes, who were for obtaining a their Slaves, drunk by Force, by so doing good End.
" to teach his People Temperance", to the • End, that the Spartiates, seeing them so demolished and . drowned in Wine, might abhor the Excess of this Vice.' And yet they were more to blame, who, of Old, gave Leave, that Criminals ", to what sort of Death foever they were condemned, should be diffected alive by the Phyficians, that they might make a Discovery of our inward Parts in the Life, and build their Art upon greater Certainty : For, if we must run into Exceslès, 'tis more excurable to do it for the Health of the Soul, than that of the Body; as the Romans trained up the People to V2lour, and the Contempt of Dangers and Death, by those furious Spectacles of Gladiators and Fencers, who fought it out till the last, cut, and killed one another in their Presence :
Quid vefani aliud fibi vult ars impia ludi,
Of such inhuman Sports what further Use?
What Pleasure can the Blood of Men produce? And this Custom continued till the Emperor Theodofius's Time.
Arripe dilatam tua, dux, in tempora famam,
m Plutarch in the Life of Lycurgus, C. 21. of Amyot's Translation.
, who does not disapprove it. A. Corn. Celli Medicina in Præfat. p. 7. Edit. Th. I. ab Almeloven. Amst. 1713.
o Prudent. lib. ult. 'v. 643. | Idem, ibid.
Let none but Beasts Blood stain the Theatre,
And no more Homicides be acted there. It was, in Truth, a wonderful Example, and of very great Advantage for the Instruction of the People, to see every Day before their Eyes a hundred, two hundred ; nay, a thousand Couples of Men armed against one another, cut one another to Pieces with such Intrepidity, that they were never heard to utter so much as one Syllable of Weakness or Commiseration; never seen to turn back, nor so much as to make one cowardly Motion to evade a Blow, but rather exposed their Necks to the Adversaries Sword, and presented themselves to receive the Stroke. And many of them, when mortally wounded, have sent to ask the Spectators, if they were satisfied with their Bebaviour ? and then they lay down to give up the Ghost upon the Place. It was not enough for them to Fight and Die bravely, but chearfully too ; infomuch that they werë kissed and cursed, if they made any Dispute about receiving their Death. The very Maids themselves egged
consurgit ad iftus :
The modest Virgin is delighted so
Have him rip up the Bosom of the Slain. The ancient Romans only imployed Criminals in this Lesson; but they afterwards imployed innocent Slaves in the Work, and even Freemen too, who fold themselves to this Effect ; nay, moreover, Senators and Knights of Rome ; and also Women: Vol. II.
Nunc A Prudent. lib. ult. v. 6i7i
Nunc caput in mortem vendunt, et funus arena,
They sell themselves to Death, and, since the Wars
And fought, as Men, with equal Rage.
CHA P. XXIV.
Of the Roman GRANDEUR.
WILL only say a Word or two of this infinite Ar
gument, to fhew the Simplicity of those who compare the pitiful Grandeurs of these Times to that of Rome. In the seventh Book of Cicero's Familiar Epistles, (but let the Grammarians put out that Surname of Familiar, if they please, for, in Truth, it is not very proper, and they whó, instead of familiar, have substituted ad familiares, may gather something to justify them for so doing,
QUE Manil. Astroñ. lib. iv. v. 225, 226. • Statius, Syl. 6. lib. i. v. 52, 53, 540 * Witness the Swiss, who, though of the fame Country, and perhaps of the same Family, ferve one again't another, for Pay, in the Armies of France, Holland, &c.
dut of what Suetonius says, in the Life of Cæfar, That
From Pontus, Lydia, and the Galates.
A great King Years before Anthony, they had dechroned his Conquefts, one amongst the rest with so wonderful Au- by a Letter thority, that, in all the Roman History, I from the Ro
man Senate. have not observed any Thing that more denotes the Height of their Power. Antiochus poffefed all Egypt, and was, moreover, ready to conquer Cyprus, and other Appendixes of that Empire ; when, being upon the Progress of his Victories, C. Popilius came to him from the Senate, and, at their first Meeting, refused to take him by the Hand, till he had read his Letters, which after the King had perused, and told him, he would consider of
them, u Lib. vii. Ep. 5. Ciceronis Cæfari Imper. w Cic. de Divinat. lib. ii. c. 37. * Claud. in Eutrop. lib. i. c. 203. y Plutarch, in the Life of Anthony, c. 8,
1 i 2
them, Popilius made a Circle about him with the Stick he had in his Hand, saying, Return me an Answer, that ! I may carry it back to the Senate, before thou stirrest
out of this Circle 2.' Antiochus, astonished at the Roughness of so urgent a Command, after a little Pause, replied,
I will obey the Senate's Command ;' and then it was that Popilius faluted him as a Friend to the People of Rome. After having quitted Claim to so great a Monarchy, and in such a Torrent of successful Fortune, upon three Words in Writing; in Earnest he had Reason, as he did, to send the Senate Word, by his Ambassadors,
that he had received their order with the same Respect, as if it had arrived from the immortal Gods ?'
All the Kingdoms, that Augustus gained by the Right Why the Ro
of Conquest, he either restored to those who mans reftored had lost them, or prefented them to Strantheir conquered gers.
And Tacitus, in Reference to this, Kingdoms to
speaking of Cogidunus, King of England, gives their Owners.
• us a wonderful Instance of that infinite Power : · The Romans, says be, were, from all Antiquity, ac' customed to leave the Kings they had subdued, in Pof• session of their Kingdoms under their Authority, that
they might have even Kings to be their Slaves : Ut ba
berent inftrumenta servitutis, et Reges . 'Tis likely, that Solyman, whom we have seen make a Gift of Hungary, and other Principalities, had therein more Respect to this Consideration; than to that he was wont to alledge, viz. · That he was glutted and overcharged with so many · Monarchies, and so much Dominion, as his own Va
lour, or that of his Ancestors, had acquired.'
z Tit. Liv. lib. xiv. C. 12. Vitâ Julii Agricolæ.
· Idem, ibid. c. 23.
6 Idem, in