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good End. Lycurgus, the most virtuous and perfect LiMen forced to

giflator that ever was, invented this unjust afe bad Means Practice of making the Helotes, who were for obtaining a their Slaves, drunk by Force, by so doing good End.

" to teach his People Temperance", to the • End, that the Spartiates, seeing them so demolished and . drowned in Wine, might abhor the Excess of this Vice.' And yet they were more to blame, who, of Old, gave Leave, that Criminals ", to what sort of Death foever they were condemned, should be diffected alive by the Phyficians, that they might make a Discovery of our inward Parts in the Life, and build their Art upon greater Certainty : For, if we must run into Exceslès, 'tis more excurable to do it for the Health of the Soul, than that of the Body; as the Romans trained up the People to V2lour, and the Contempt of Dangers and Death, by those furious Spectacles of Gladiators and Fencers, who fought it out till the last, cut, and killed one another in their Presence :

Quid vefani aliud fibi vult ars impia ludi,
Quid mortes juvenum, quid fanguine pasta voluptaso?

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Of such inhuman Sports what further Use?

What Pleasure can the Blood of Men produce? And this Custom continued till the Emperor Theodofius's Time.

Arripe dilatam tua, dux, in tempora famam,
Quodque patris fupereft succesor laudis habeto :
Nullus in Urbe cadat, cujus fit pæna Voluptas,
Jam folis contenta feris infamis arena,
Nulla cruentatis homicidie ludat in armis P.

Prince, take the Honours destin'd for thy Reign,
Inherit of thy Father what remain,
Henceforth let none at Rome for Sport be Nain.



m Plutarch in the Life of Lycurgus, C. 21. of Amyot's Translation.
^ This is reported by Celfus

, who does not disapprove it. A. Corn. Celli Medicina in Præfat. p. 7. Edit. Th. I. ab Almeloven. Amst. 1713.

o Prudent. lib. ult. 'v. 643. | Idem, ibid.

Let none but Beasts Blood stain the Theatre,

And no more Homicides be acted there. It was, in Truth, a wonderful Example, and of very great Advantage for the Instruction of the People, to see every Day before their Eyes a hundred, two hundred ; nay, a thousand Couples of Men armed against one another, cut one another to Pieces with such Intrepidity, that they were never heard to utter so much as one Syllable of Weakness or Commiseration; never seen to turn back, nor so much as to make one cowardly Motion to evade a Blow, but rather exposed their Necks to the Adversaries Sword, and presented themselves to receive the Stroke. And many of them, when mortally wounded, have sent to ask the Spectators, if they were satisfied with their Bebaviour ? and then they lay down to give up the Ghost upon the Place. It was not enough for them to Fight and Die bravely, but chearfully too ; infomuch that they werë kissed and cursed, if they made any Dispute about receiving their Death. The very Maids themselves egged

them on.

consurgit ad iftus :
Et quoties vi&tor ferrum jugulo inserit, illa
Delicias ait effe fuas, peétusque jacentis
Virgo modesta jubet conservo pollice rumpi %.

The modest Virgin is delighted so
With the fell Sport, that she applauds the Blow;
And when the Victor bathes his bloody Hand
In's Fellow's Throat, and lays him on the Sand;
Then she's most pleas’d, and shews, by Signs, she'd faini

Have him rip up the Bosom of the Slain. The ancient Romans only imployed Criminals in this Lesson; but they afterwards imployed innocent Slaves in the Work, and even Freemen too, who fold themselves to this Effect ; nay, moreover, Senators and Knights of Rome ; and also Women: Vol. II.

I i

Nunc A Prudent. lib. ult. v. 6i7i

Nunc caput in mortem vendunt, et funus arena,
Atque bostem fibi quifque parat cum bella quiefcunt".

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They sell themselves to Death, and, since the Wars
Are ceasid, each for himself a Foe prepares,
Hos inter fremitus, novosque Iufus,
Stat sexus rudis, insciusque ferri,
Et pugnas capit improbus viriles.

i. e.
Amidst these Tumults and Alarms,
The tender Sex, unskill'd in Arms,
Challeng'd each other to engage,

And fought, as Men, with equal Rage.
which I should think strange and incredible, if we were
not accustomed every Day to see, in our own Wars,
many Thousands of Men, of other Nations, staking their
Blood and their Lives for Money, often in Quarrels
wherein they have no manner of Concern.


Of the Roman GRANDEUR.


WILL only say a Word or two of this infinite Ar

gument, to fhew the Simplicity of those who compare the pitiful Grandeurs of these Times to that of Rome. In the seventh Book of Cicero's Familiar Epistles, (but let the Grammarians put out that Surname of Familiar, if they please, for, in Truth, it is not very proper, and they whó, instead of familiar, have substituted ad familiares, may gather something to justify them for so doing,

QUE Manil. Astroñ. lib. iv. v. 225, 226. • Statius, Syl. 6. lib. i. v. 52, 53, 540 * Witness the Swiss, who, though of the fame Country, and perhaps of the same Family, ferve one again't another, for Pay, in the Armies of France, Holland, &c.

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dut of what Suetonius says, in the Life of Cæfar, That
. he had a Volume of Letters of his, ad familiares')
there is one directed to Cæsar, being then in Gaul, where
in Cicero repears these Words, which were in the End of
another Letter that Cæfar had writ to him : “ As for Mar-
"cus Furias, whom you have recommended to me, I will
' make him King of Gaul; and, if you would bave me
' advance any other Friend of yours, send him to me."
It was no new Thing for a mere Citizen of Rome, as Ces
far then was, to dispose of Kingdoms ; for he took away
that of King Deiotarus from him, to give it to a Gentle-
man of the City of Pergamum, called Mithridates. And
they who writ his Life, record several Cities by him fold;
and Suetonius fays, " That he had, at once, from King
Ptolomy, near 6000 Talents, or three Millions and fix
• hundred thousand Crowns, which was almost the same
as selling him his own Kingdom.
Tot Galatæ, tot Pontus, tot Lydia nummis *.

i. e.
Such Sums of Money did he raise, as these,

From Pontus, Lydia, and the Galates.
Mark Anthony said, “That the Grandeur of the People of
Rome was not so much seen in what they
cook, as in what they gave . Yet, many deprived of

A great King Years before Anthony, they had dechroned his Conquefts, one amongst the rest with so wonderful Au- by a Letter thority, that, in all the Roman History, I from the Ro

man Senate. have not observed any Thing that more denotes the Height of their Power. Antiochus poffefed all Egypt, and was, moreover, ready to conquer Cyprus, and other Appendixes of that Empire ; when, being upon the Progress of his Victories, C. Popilius came to him from the Senate, and, at their first Meeting, refused to take him by the Hand, till he had read his Letters, which after the King had perused, and told him, he would consider of

them, u Lib. vii. Ep. 5. Ciceronis Cæfari Imper. w Cic. de Divinat. lib. ii. c. 37. * Claud. in Eutrop. lib. i. c. 203. y Plutarch, in the Life of Anthony, c. 8,

1 i 2

them, Popilius made a Circle about him with the Stick he had in his Hand, saying, Return me an Answer, that ! I may carry it back to the Senate, before thou stirrest

out of this Circle 2.' Antiochus, astonished at the Roughness of so urgent a Command, after a little Pause, replied,

I will obey the Senate's Command ;' and then it was that Popilius faluted him as a Friend to the People of Rome. After having quitted Claim to so great a Monarchy, and in such a Torrent of successful Fortune, upon three Words in Writing; in Earnest he had Reason, as he did, to send the Senate Word, by his Ambassadors,

that he had received their order with the same Respect, as if it had arrived from the immortal Gods ?'

All the Kingdoms, that Augustus gained by the Right Why the Ro

of Conquest, he either restored to those who mans reftored had lost them, or prefented them to Strantheir conquered gers.

And Tacitus, in Reference to this, Kingdoms to

speaking of Cogidunus, King of England, gives their Owners.

• us a wonderful Instance of that infinite Power : · The Romans, says be, were, from all Antiquity, ac' customed to leave the Kings they had subdued, in Pof• session of their Kingdoms under their Authority, that

they might have even Kings to be their Slaves : Ut ba

berent inftrumenta servitutis, et Reges . 'Tis likely, that Solyman, whom we have seen make a Gift of Hungary, and other Principalities, had therein more Respect to this Consideration; than to that he was wont to alledge, viz. · That he was glutted and overcharged with so many · Monarchies, and so much Dominion, as his own Va

lour, or that of his Ancestors, had acquired.'

z Tit. Liv. lib. xiv. C. 12. Vitâ Julii Agricolæ.

· Idem, ibid. c. 23.

6 Idem, in

снА Р.

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