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I HAVE been none of the least able in this Exercise, which is proper for Men of my Pitch, well-set and short; but I give it over, it shakes us too much to continue long. I was just now reading, « That King Cyrus, Toft Horsis * the better to have News brought him from first set up by 'all Parts of the Empire, which was of a Cyrus. * vast Extent, caused it to be tried, how far
'a Horse could go, in a Day, before he baited; and at
* that Distance appointed Men, whose Business it was to
* have Horses always in readiness, to mount those on who
* were dispatched away to him *.' And some say, that this swift Way of Travelling is equal to the Flight of Cranes.
Cæsar fays, * Thatc Lucius Vllulus Rufus, being in great they -were * Haste to carry Intelligence to Pompey, rid used by the <■ Day and Night, often taking fresh Horses Romans. , for the greater Speed .' ancj < himself \ as
Suetonius reports, 'travelled a hundred Miles a Day in a
* hired Coach ', but he was a furious Courier, for, where 'Rivers stopped his Way, he always passed them by 'swimming, without turning out of his Way to look
* for either Bridge or Ford.' Tiberius Nero, going to fee his Brother Drusus % who was sick in Germany, travelled two hundred Miles in four and twenty Hours, having three Coaches. In the War of the Romans, against King Anticchus, T. Sempronius Gracchus, fays Livy, Per dispositos equos prope incredibili celeritate ab Amphissa tertio die Pellam pervenit '. * By Horses purposely laid on the Road, he rid
* with almost incredible Speed, in three Days, from^B
* phisfa to Pella.' And it appears there, that they were established Posts, and not just ordered for this Occasion.
Cecinna'% Cecinna's Invention, to send back News to his Family,
b Xenofi/jon's Cyropredia, lib. viii. c. 6. sect. 9.
'De Bello Civ'ili, lib. iii. c. 4.
d In Cæfare, sect. 57.
• Plin. Nat. Hist. lib. vii. c. 20.
( Tit. Liv. lib. xxxvii. c. 7.
was performed with much more Speed, for 5aua/W w \ he g took Swallows along with him, from Pigeons taught 1 Home, and turned them out towards their t0 carry Letters.
* Nests, when he would fend back any News; setting a
* Mark of some Colour upon them so signify his Mean
* ing, according to what he and his People had before 4 agreed upon.' At the Theatre at Rome, Masters of Families carried Pigeons in their Bosoms, to which they tied Letters, when they had a mind to fend any Orders to their People at Home; and the Pigeons were trained up to bring back an Answer. h D. Brutus made Use of the same Device, when besieged in Mutina; and others elsewhere have done the same.
In Peru, they rid Post upon Men's Shoulders, who took them up in a kind of Litter, and ran Hvw they trawith full Speed, the first Bearers throwing veiledPcjf at their Load to the second, without making Peruany Stop •, and so on.
I understand, that, the Walachians, who are the Grand Seignior's Couriers, perform wonderful Diligences, by reason they have Liberty to dismount the first Horseman they meet on the Road, giving him their own tired Horse: To keep themselves alert, they gird themselves tight about the Middle with a broad Belt, as many others do; but I could never find any Relief by it.
C II A P. XXIII.
Of ill Means imployed to a good End.
THERE is a wonderful Relation and Correspondence in this universal System of the p0iilicai States Works of Nature, which makes it plainly ap- /ubjea to the pear, that it is neither accidental, nor carried foTM Accident on by diverse Masters. The Diseases and %*£ ****** Conditions of our Bodies are also manifest in **' ** "• States,
t P!in. Nat. Hifl. lib. to. c. 24. h Idem, ibid, c. 37.
States, and the Governments of the World: Kingdoms and Republics rife, flourish, and decay with Age, as we do. We are subject to a Repletion of Humours that are useless and dangerous, either of those that are good, for even those the Physicians are afraid of: And, since we have nothing in us that is stable, they fay, 'That a too
• brisk and vigorous Perfection of Health must be lower« ed and abated by Art, lest, as our Nature cannot rest 'in any certain Situation, and has not whither to rife to « mend itself, it should make too sudden and too disor
* derly a Retreat -,' and therefore they prescribe to Wrestlers to purge and bleed, to take down that superabundant Health; 'or else a Repletion of evil Humours, which is 'the ordinary Cause of Maladies.' States are very often sick of the like Repletion, and therefore diverse sorts of Purgations have commonly been used. Sometimes a great Multitude of Families are turned out to clear the Country; who seek out new Abodes elsewhere, or live upon others. After this manner our ancient Francs came from the Heart of Germany, seized upon Gaul, and drove thence the first Inhabitants •, so was that infinite Deluge of Men formed, that came into Italy under the Conduct of Brennus, and others: So the Goths and Vandals, also the People who now possess Greece, left their native Country, to go and settle Abroad, where they might have more Room; and there are scarce two or three little Corners of the World, that have not felt the Effect of such Removals. The Romans, by this Means, erected their Colonies; for, perceiving their City to increase beyond Measure, they eased it of the most unnecessary People, and sent them to inhabit and cultivate the Lands by them conquered.
Sometimes also they purposely fomented Wars with Why tlx Ro- some of their Enemies, not only to keep their mans chose to Men in Action, for fear, lest Idleness, the' make Wan. Mother of Corruption, should bring some worse Inconvenience upon them,
Et patimur longa pads mala, savior armis Luxttria incubuii, vifiumqiie ulciscitur orb em '. 1 • /, e.
1 Juv. Sat. vi. v. 192.
i. e. For Luxury has introduc'd such Harms, As take Revenge for our victorious Arms.
but also to serve for a Blood-letting to their Republic,' and a little to exhale the too vehement Heat of their Youth, to prune and clear the Branches from the too luxuriant Trunk; and to this End it was, that they formerly maintained so long a War with Carthage.
In the Treaty of Brittany, Edward the Third, King of England, would not, in the general Peace he p0iitia cf then made with our King, comprehend k the Edward ill. Controversy about the Dutchy of Brittany, King °f Engthat he might have a Place wherein to dis- d# charge himself of his Soldiers; and that the vast Number of Englijh he had brought over to serve him in that Expedition, might not return back into England. And this was also one Reason why our King Philip consented to send his Son John on the. Expedition beyond Sea, that he might take along with him a great Number of hotbrained young Fellows, that were then in his Troops.
In our Times, there are many who talk at this rate, wishing that this hot Commotion that is now amongst us, might discharge itself in some aJ,Jga%%.. neighbouring War, for fear lest the peccant Humours which now reign in this politic Body of ours, if not diffused farther, should keep the Fever still raging, and end in our total Ruin; and, in Truth, a Foreign is much more supportable than a Civil War -, but I do not believe, that God will favour so unjust a Design, as to offend and quarrel with others for our own Advantage.
Nil mihi tarn valde placeat, Rbamnujia virgo,
In War that does invade another's Right,
And yet the Weakness of our Condition does often push us upon the Necessity of making Use of ill Means to a
• k Froislart., Vol. I. c. 213. 'Catul. Carm. 66. v. 78.
good End. Lycurgus, the most virtuous and perfect LiMenforcedto gisiator diat ever was» invented this unjust use bad Means Practice of making ' the Helotes, who were for obtaining a c thejr slaves, drunk by Force, by so doing good End. « to teach his pe0pie Temperance m, to the
'End, that the Spartiates, feeing them so demolished and 'drowned in Wine, might abhor the Excess of this Vice.* And yet they were more to blame, who, of Old, gave Leave, that Criminalsn, to what sort of Death soever they Were condemned, should be dissected alive by the Physicians, that they might make a Discovery of our inward Parts in the Life, and build their Art upon greater Certainty: For, if we must run into Excesses, 'tis more excusable to do it for the Health of the Soul, than that of the Body -, as the Romans trained up the People to Valour, and the Contempt of Dangers and Death, by those furious Spectacles of Gladiators and Fencers, who fought it out till the last, cut, and killed one another in their Presence:
Quid vefani aliudfibi vult ars impla ludi,
^uid mortes juvenum, quid sanguine past a voluptas °?
i. e. Of such inhuman Sports what further Use? "What Pleasure can the Blood of Men produce?
And this Custom continued till the Emperor Vheodofiufs
Arripe dilatam tua, dux, in tempera famam, ^
• m Plutarch in the Life of Lycurgus, c. 21. of Jmyoi's Translation.
n This is reported by Ce/fus, who does not disapprove it. A. Corn. Celsi Medicina in Præfat. p. 7. Edit. Th. I. ab Almcloven. Amst. 1713. 0 Prudent, lib. ult. v. 643. P Idem, ibid.