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• also prevented their Flight after the Defeat, so that,

finding all Passages possessed and shut up, they were « constrained to clofe up together again ; coacervanturque ' non solum cæde, sed etiam fuga ; and there they who stood, " and they who fled, were slain in Heaps upon one ano

ther, leaving to the Conqueror a very bloody and intire Victory. As he was dying, he caused himself to be carried and hurried from Place to Place, where most Need was; and, passing thro' the Files, encouraged the

Captains and Soldiers one after another. But, a Corner • of his main Battle being broke, he was not to be re< strained from mounting on Horseback, Sword in Hand, « He did his utmost to break from those about him, and • to rush into the thickest of the Battle, they all the while

stopping him, some by the Bridle, some by his Robe, ' and others by his Stirrups. This last Effort totally de

prived him of the little Life he had left; they again laid 6

him upon his Couch, but, coming to himself again, he < started, as it were, out of his Swoon, all other Faculties

failing, to give his People Notice, that they were to con

ceal his Death (the most necessary Command he had is then to give, that his Soldiers might not be discouraged

with the News) he expired with his Finger upon his

Mouth, the ordinary Signal for keeping Silence a. Who ever lived so long and so far in Death? Who ever died more like a Man ? The most extreme, and the most natural Degree of entertaining Death, is to look upon it, not only without Astonishment, but without Care, continuing the wonted Course of Life even into it; as Cato did, who entertained himself in Study, and went to sleep, having a violent and bloody Design upon himself in his Heart, and the Weapon in his Hand, to execute it.

* Thuanus, lib. v. p. 248, observes, that it was said Charles of Bourbon

gave the fame Signa!, when he was expiring at the foot of the Walls of Rome, which his Troops took by Storm, just after his Death.

С НА Р.

CH A P. XXII.

Of POSTS.

I

HAVE been none of the least able in this Exercise,

which is proper for Men of my Pitch, well-set and short ; but I give it over, it shakes us too much to continue long. I was just now reading, · That King Cyrus, PA Horses • the better to have News brought him from forft set up by • all parts of the Empire, which was of a Cyrus. « vast Extent, caused it to be tried, how far • a Horse could go, in a Day, before he baited ; and at • that Distance appointed Men, whose Business it was to • have Horfes always in readiness, to mount those on who * were dispatched away to him.' And some say, that this swift Way of Travelling is equal to the Flight of Cranes.

Cæsar says, "That Lucius Vibulus Rufus, being in great They were · Haste to carry Intelligence to Pompey, rid used by the

Day and Night, often taking fresh Horses Romans. ' for the greater Speed ;' and 'himfelf

himself “, as Suetonius reports, travelled a hundred Miles a Day in a

hired Coach ; but he was a furious Courier, for, where • Rivers stopped his Way, he always passed them by • swimming, without turning out of his Way to look • for either Bridge or Ford.' Tiberius Nero, going to see his Brother Drusus ', who was sick in Germany, travelled two hundred Miles in four and twenty Hours, having three Coaches. In the War of the Romans, against King Antiochus, T. Sempronius Gracchus, says Livy, Per dispositos equos propè incredibili celeritate ab Amphissâ tertio die Pellam pervenit: * By Horses purposely laid on the Road, he rid

with almost incredible Speed, in three Days, from Amphisa to Pella.' And it appears there, that they were established Posts, and not just ordered for this Occasion.

Cecinna's Xenophon's Cyropeedia, lib. viii. c. 6. fect. 9. « De Bello Civili, lib. iii. c. 4. * In Cæfare, fect. 57. • Plin. Nat. Hift. lib. vii. C. 20. f Tit. Liv. lib. xxxvii. c. 7.

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Cecinna's Invention, to send back News to his Family, was performed with much more Speed, for Swallows ard « he took Swallows along with him, from Pigeons taught « Home, and turned them

out towards their to carry Letters, • Nefts, when he would send back any News ; setting a « Mark of some Colour upon them to signify his Mean

ing, according to what he and his people had before agreed upon

At the Theatre at Rome, Masters of Families carried Pigeons in their Bofoms, to which they tied Letters, when they had a mind to send any Orders to their People at Home ; and the Pigeons were trained up to bring back an Answer. D. Brutus made Use of the fame Device, when besieged in Mutina ; and others elsewhere have done the same.

In Peru, they rid Post upon Men's Shoulders, who took them up in a kind of Litter, and ran How they trawith full Speed, the first Bearers throwing velled Poft te their Load to the second, without making Peru. any Stop; and so on.

I understand, that the Walacbians, who are the Grand Seignior's Couriers, perform wonderful Diligences, by reason they have Liberty to dismount the first Horseman they meet on the Road, giving him their own tired Horse : To keep themselves alert, they gird themselves tight about the Middle with a broad Belt, as many others do ; but I could never find any Relief by it.

CH A P. XXIII.

Of ill Means imployed to a good End.

T

HERE is a wonderful Relation and Correspondence in this universal System of the

Political States Works of Nature, which makes it plainly ap- Jubject to the pear, that it is neither accidental, nor carried Jame Accident on by diverse Mafters. The Diseases and as the Humor

Body.
Conditions of our Bodies are also manifest in

States, 6 Plin. Nat. Hid. lib. 10. C. 24. Idem, ibiche C. 37.

States, and the Governments of the World : Kingdoms and Republics rise, fourish, and decay with Age, as we do. We are subject to a Repletion of Humours that are useless and dangerous, either of those that are good, for even those the Physicians are afraid of: And, fince we have nothing in us that is stable, they say, “That a too • brisk and vigorous Perfection of Health must be lower• ed and abated by Art, left, as our Nature cannot reft • in any certain Situation, and has not whither to rise to • mend itself, it should make too sudden and too difor

derly a Retreat ;' and therefore they prescribe to Wrestlers to purge and bleed, to take down that superabundant Health; - or else a Repletion of evil Humours, which is the ordinary Cause of Maladies.' States are very

often sick of the like Repletion, and therefore diverse forts of Purgations have commonly been used. Sometimes a great Multitude of Families are turned out to clear the Country; who seek out new Abodes elsewhere, or live upon others. After this manner our ancient Francs came from the Heart of Germany, seized upon Gaul, and drove thence the first Inhabitants ; so was that infinite Deluge of Men formed, that came into Italy under the Conduct of Brennus, and others : So the Goths and Vandals, also the People who now possess Greece, left their native Country, to

and settle Abroad, where they might have more Room; and there are scarce two or three little Corners of the World, that have not felt the Effect of such Removals. The Romans, by this Means, erected their Colonies ; for

, perceiving their City to increase beyond Measure, they eased it of the most unnecessary People, and sent them to inhabit and cultivate the Lands by them conquered.

Sometimes also they purposely fomented Wars with Why the Ro

fome of their Enemies, not only to keep their mans chose to Men in Action, for fear, left Idleness

, the make Wars.

Mother of Corruption, should bring some worse Inconvenience upon them,

Et patimur longæ pacis mala, fævior armis
Luxuria incubuit, victumque ulcifcitur orbem '.

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i. e. For Luxury has introduc'd such Harms,

As take Revenge for our victorious Arms. but also to serve for a Blood-letting to their Republic, and a little to exhale the too vehement Heat of their Youth, to prune and clear the Branches from the too luxuriant Trunk; and to this End it was, that they formerly maintained so long a War with Carthage.

In the Treaty of Brittany, Edward the Third, King of England, would not, in the general Peace he Politics of then made with our King, comprehend * the Edward VII, Controversy about the Dutchy of Brittany, King of Engthat he might have a place wherein to dif- land. charge himself of his Soldiers ; and that the vast Number of English he had brought over to serve him in that Expedition, might not return back into England. And this was also one Reason why our King Pbilip consented to send his Son John on the Expedition beyond Sea, that he might take along with him a great Number of hotbrained

young Fellows, that were then in his Troops. In our Times, there are many who talk at this rate, wishing that this hot Commotion that is now

The Utility of amongst us, might discharge itself in some

a foreign War. neighbouring War, for fear left the peccant Humours which now reign in this politic Body of ours, if not diffused farther, should keep the Fever ftill raging, and end in our total Ruin; and, in Truth, a Foreign is much more supportable than a Civil War, but I do not believe, that God will favour so unjust a Design, as to offend and quarrel with others for our own Advantage. Nil mibi tam valde placeat, Rhamnusia virgo,

Quod temerè invitis fufpiciatur heris !.

i. e.

In War that does invade another's Right,
For sake of Plunder, may I ne'er delight.

And yet the Weakness of our Condition does often push us upon the Necessity of making Use of ill Means to a

good * Froillart, Vol. I. c. 213.

i Catul. Carm. 66. y. 78.

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