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being reproved by his Physician, as a Thing prejudicial to his Health, An Emperor, said he, must die standing '. A -fine Saying, in my Opinion, and worthy of a great Princeu. The Emperor Adrian afterwards made Use of one to the same Purpose; and Kings mould be often put in mind of it, to make them know, that the great Office conferred upon them, of the Command of so many Men, is not an idle Employment; and that there is nothing can so justly disgust a Subject, and make him unwilling to expose himself to Labour and Danger for the Service of his Prince, than to fee him, in the mean Time, devoted to his Ease, and to vain and unmanly Amusements: Nor will the Subject be sollicitous of his Prince's Preservation, who so much neglects that of his People.

Whoever offers to maintain, that 'tis better for a Prince to carry on his Wars by others, than in his He ^ u own Person, Fortune will furnish him with command his Examples enough of those whose Lieute- Armies in Pernants have brought great Enterprises to a •'**" happy Issue, and of those also whose Presence has done more Hurt than Good. But no virtuous and valiant Prince can bear to be tutored with such scandalous Lessons; under Colour of saving his Head, like the Statue of a Saint, for the Happiness of his Kingdom, they degrade him from, and make him incapable of, his Office, which is Military throughout. I know one, who had much rather be beaten, than to fleep whilst another fights for him; and who never, without Envy, heard of any brave Thing done, even by his own Officers, in his Absence: And Selima the First said, with very good Reason, in my Opinion, That Vi£loriesy obtained without the Sovereigns, were never Complete. Much more readily would he have said, that that Sovereign ought to blush for Shame, to pretend to any Share in it, when he had contributed nothing to it, but his Voice and Thought •, nor even so much as those, considering, that, in such Works as that, the Direction and Command that deserve Honour, arc only such as are given upon the Place, and in the Heat

II h 4 of

1 Suetonius in Vespasian, sect. xxiv.

u Æl. Spartiani Ælius Verus, sect. xvi. Hilt August.

of the Business. No Pilot performs his Office by standing still. The Princes of the Ottoman Family, the chiefest in the World in Military Fortune, have warmly embraced this Opinion ; and Bajazet the Second, with his Son that swerved from it, spending their Time in the Sciences, and other Employments within Doors, gave great Blows to their Empire: And Amurath the Third, now reigning, following their Example, begins to do the fame. Was it not Edward the Third, King of England, who said this of our King Charles the Fifth ?' There ne

* ver was King who so seldom put on his Arms, and yet 'never King who cut me out so much Work.' He might well think it strange, as an Effect of Chance more than of Reason: And let those seek out some other Advocate for them than me, who will reckon the Kings of Castile and Portugal amongst the warlike and magnanimous Conquerors, because, at the Distance of twelve hundred Leagues from their lazy Residence, by the Conduct of their Agents, they made themselves Masters of both /«dies •, of which, 'tis a Question, if they had but the Cou^ rage to go and enjoy them.

The Emperor Julian said yet further, ( That a PhilosoThejaivity * pher, and a brave Man, ought not so much and Sobriety 'as to breathe' •, that is to fay, not to allow requisite m any more to bodily Necessities, than what we Princes. cannot refuse; ' keeping the Soul and Body

* still intent and busy about Things Honourable, Great,

* and Virtuous:' He was ashamed, if any one in Public saw him spit or sweat, (which is said by some also of the Lacedæmonian young Men, and which Xenophon says of the Persian) because he conceived, that Exercise, continual Labour, and Sobriety, ought to have dried up all those Superfluities. What Seneca fays will not be unfit for this Place \ which is, 'That the ancient Romans kept

* their Youth always standing, and taught them nothing

* that they were to learn, sitting V

'Tis a generous Desire to wish to Die usefully, and like a Man; but the Effect lies nor so much in our Refold {ion, as in our good Fortune. A thousand have proposed

to

» Senpe, Ep. 88;

to themselves, in Battle, either to Conquer or Die, who

have failed both in the one and the other:

"Wounds and Imprisonment crossing their De- TieP*fa f

r- J ii- 1 1 • n. making a ufi

sign, and compelling them to live against fui £*it it their Wills. There are Diseases that demolish laudable, tho* even our Desires, and our Knowledge. For- '*' Thing be tune was not obliged to second the Vanity of p^J^ the Roman Legions, who bound themselves, by Oath, 'either to Overcome, or Die.' ViElor, Marce Fabi, revert ar ex acie; si fallo, Jovem patrem, Gradivumque Mart em, aliosque iratos invoco Deos x. * I will return '(Marcus Fabius) a Conqueror from the Army; and, if

* I fail, I wish the Indignation of Jove, Mars, and the c other offended Gods, may light upon me.' The Portuguese fay, ' That, in a certain Place of their Conquest

* of the Indies, they met with Soldiers, who had damned 'themselves, with horrible Execrations, to enter into no

* Composition, but either to kill, or be killed; and had *■ their Heads and Beards shaved in Token of this Vow.' 'Tis to much Purpose to hazard ourselves, and to be obstinate: It seems as if Blows avoid those that present themselves too briskly to Danger •, and do not willingly fall upon those who too willingly seek them, and so defeat their Design. There was one, who had tried all Ways, and could not obtain Dying by the Hand of the Enemy, was constrained, in order to make good his Resolution of bringing home Victory, or of losing his Life, to kill himself, even in the Heat of Battle. Among other Examples, this is one: 'Pkilijius, General of the Naval 'Army of Dionysus the Younger, against the Syracusans,

* presented them Battle, which was sharply disputed, their

* Forces being equal. In which Engagement he had the

* better at first, through his Valour: But, the Syracufans

* surrounding his Gaily, after he had, with great Feats of

* Arms y, tried to disengage himself, and hoping for no

* Relief, with his own Hand he took away that Life « he had so liberally, but in vain, exposed to the E

* nemy.'

* Muley * Tk, Liv. lib. ii. c. 45. 1 Plutarcb in the Life of Bion, c. 8.

'Muley Moluck, King of Fez, who, Anno 1578, won The imrepid 'tne Battle against Sebastian, King of PortuAeTivity »f 'gah so famous for the Death of three Kings, Muley Mo- « and the Tranilation of that great Kingdom luck, King of 1 to the Crown of Castile, was extremely sick tl?where he 'when tne Portuguese entered, in an hostile died Conqueror 'manner, into his Dominions; and, from cf the Portu- « that Day forward, grew worse and worse, .guefe. ( £tiH drawing nearer to, and foreseeing his

* End: Yet never did Man imploy his own Sufficien

* cy more vigorously and bravely, than he did upon « this Occasion. He found himself too weak to undergo

* the Pomp and Ceremony of entering into this Camp, » which, after their manner, is very magnificent, and full

* of Bustle; and therefore resigned that Honour to his

* Brother: But the Office of a General was all that he 'resigned •, all the rest, of Utility and Necessity, he most

* exactly and gloriously performed; his Body lying upon « a Couch, but his Judgment and Courage upright and

* firm to his last Gasp, and, in some fort, beyond it: He

* might have wasted his Enemy, who was indiscreetly

* advanced into his Dominions without striking a Blow;

* and it was very grievous to his Heart, that, for Want 'of a little Life, or Some-body to substitute in the Con

* duct of this War % and of the Affairs of a troubled 'State, he found himself compelled to seek a doubtful

* and bloody Victory, when he had another, better and

* surer, already in his Power: Yet he wonderfully ma

* naged the Continuance of his Sickness, in wasting the

* Enemy, and in drawing them from the Naval Army,

* and the Sea-Ports in the Coast of Africa, even till the 'last Day of his Life, which he designedly reserved for 1 this great Battle. He formed the main Battle in a Cir

* cle, environing the Portugal Army on every Side •, which

* Circle, coming to draw up close together, did not only

* hinder them in the Conflict, (which was very Iharp, 'through the Valour of the young invading King) con

* sidering they were, every Way, to make a Front; but

* also % Thuanus, Hist. lib. Ixv. p. 248. the Geneva Editi&n, in 1720. *

« also prevented their Flight after the Defeat, so that, « finding all Passages possessed and shut up, they were

* constrained to close up together again; coacervanturque

* nonsolum cade, fed etiamfuga; and there they who stood, 'and they who fled, were slain in Heaps upon one ano

* ther, leaving to the Conqueror a very bloody and intire 1 Victory. As he was dying, he caused himself to be

* carried and hurried from Place to Place, where most 1 Need was; and, passing thro' the Files, encouraged the 'Captains and Soldiers one after another. But, a Corner

* of his main Battle being broke, he was not to be re

* strained from mounting on Horseback, Sword in Hand.

* He did his utmost to break from those about him, and « to rush into the thickest of the Battle, they all the while « stopping him, some by the Bridle, some by his Robe, c and others by his Stirrups. This last Effort totally de

* prived him of the little Life he had left; they again laid

* him upon his Couch, but, coming to himself again, he 4 started, as it were, out cf his Swoon, all other Faculties « failing, to give his People Notice, that they were to con

* ceal his Death (the most necessary Command he had

* then to give, that his Soldiers might not be discouraged

* with the News) he expired with his Finger upon his c Mouth, the ordinary Signal for keeping Silence V Who ever lived so long and so far in Death? Who ever died more like a Man? The most extreme, and the most natural Degree of entertaining Death, is to look upon it, not only without Astonishment, but without Care, continuing the wonted Course of Life even into it; as Caio did, who entertained himself in Study, and went to sleep, having a violent and bloody Design upon himself in his Heart, and the Weapon in his Hand, to execute it.

a Thuanus, lib. v. p. 248, observes, that it was said Charles of Bourbon gave the same Signal, when he was expiring at the Foot of the Walls of Rome, which his Troops took by Storm, just after his Death.

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