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cessary to examine Affairs with so much Subtlety, and so deeply: A Man loses himself in the Consideration of so many contrary Lustres, and various Forms. Volutantibus res inter fe pugnantes, obtorpuerant animi" : Whilst they • considered of Things so inconsistent in themselves, they were astonished.' 'Tis what the Ancients say of Simo

• That by reason his Imagination suggested to him, upon the Question King Hiero had put to him (to answer which, he had many Days to consider it) several witty and subtle Arguments, whilst he doubted which was the most likely, he totally despaired of the Truth.' He that dives into, and in his Inquisition comprehends all Circumstances and Consequences, hinders his Choice: A little Engine, well handled, is sufficient for Executions of less or greater Weight and Moment: The best Managers are those who are least able to tell us why they are fo; and the greatest Talkers, for the most part, do nothing to Purpose. I know one of this sort of Men, and a most excellent Manager in Theory, who has miserably let an hundred thousand Livres yearly Revenue Nip through his Hands. I know another, who says, that he is able to give better Advice than any of his Council ; and there is not, in the World, a fairer Shew of a Soul, and of a good Understanding, than he has ; nevertheless, when he comes to the Ter, his Servants find him quite another Thing ; not to bring his Misfortune into the Account.

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HE Emperor Vespafian, being sick of the Disease

whereof he died, did not, for all that, neglect to In wbat Pof inquire after the State of the Empire ; and, ture a Prince

even in Bed, continually dispatched very mabught to die. ny Affairs of great Consequence; for which,

being : Livy, lib. xxxii. c. 20.

King Hicro had desired him to define what God was. Cic. de Nat. Deor. lib. i. c. 22.

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being reproved by his Physician, as a Thing prejudicial
to his Health, An Emperor, said he, must die standing'. A
fine Saying, in my opinion, and worthy of a great Prince“.
The Emperor Adrian afterwards made Use of one to the
same Purpose ; and Kings should be often put in mind of
it, to make them know, that the great Office conferred
upon them, of the Command of so many Men, is not an
idle Employment; and that there is nothing can so justly
disgust a Subject, and make him unwilling to expose him-
self to Labour and Danger for the Service of his Prince,
than to see him, in the mean Time, devoted to his Ease,
and to vain and unmanly Amusements : Nor will the
Subject be follicitous of his Prince's Preservation, who
so much neglects that of his People.

Whoever offers to maintain, that 'tis better for a Prince
to carry on his Wars by others, than in his He ought to
own Person, Fortune will furnish him with command his
Examples enough of those whose Lieute- Armies iv Per-
nants have brought great Enterprises to a

happy Issue, and of those also whose Presence has done
more Hurt than Good. But no virtuous and valiant
Prince can bear to be tutored with such fcandalous Lef-
fons; under Colour of saving his Head, like the Statue of
a Saint, for the Happiness of his Kingdom, they degrade
him from, and make him incapable of, his Office, which
is Military throughout. I know one, who had much ra-
ther be beaten, than to sleep whilst another fights for
him ; and who never, without Envy, heard of any brave
Thing done, even by his own Officers, in his Absence :
And Selima the Firit said, with very good Reason, in my
Opinion, That Victories, obtained without the Sovereigns,
were never Complete. Much more readily would he have
said, that that Sovereign ought to blush for Shame, to
pretend to any Share in it, when he had contributed no-
thing to it, but his voice and Thought ; nor even fo
much as those, considering, that, in such Works as that,
the Direction and Command that deserve Honour, are
only such as are given upon the Place, and in the Heat

Suetonius in Vefpafian. sect. xxiv.
u Æl. Spartiani Ælius Verus, fect. xvi. Hift. August,

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of the Business. No Pilot performs his Office by standing still. The Princes of the Ottoman Family, the chiefeft in the World in Military Fortune, have warmly embraced this Opinion ; and Bajazet the Second, with his Son that swerved from it, spending their Time in the Sciences, and other Employments within Doors, gave great Blows to their Empire : And Amurath the Third, now reigning, following their Example, begins to do the fame. Was it not Edward the Third, King of England, who said this of our King Charles the Fifth ? · There ne

ver was King who fo feldom put on his Arms, and yet • never King who cut me out so much Work.' He might well think it strange, as an Effect of Chance more than of Reason: And let those seek out some other Advocate for them than me, who will reckon the Kings of Castile and Portugal amongst the warlike and magnanimous Conquerors, becaute, at the Distance of twelve hundred Leagues from their lazy Residence, by the Conduct of their Agents, they made themselves Masters of both Indies ; of which, 'tis a Question, if they had but the Courage to go and enjoy them. The Emperor Julian said yet further, "That a Philofo

spher, and a brave Man, ought not so much and Sobriety as to breathe', that is to say, not to allow requifite in any more to bodily Necessities, than what we Princes.

cannot refuse ; • keeping the Soul and Body still intent and busy about Things Honourable, Great,

and Virtuous :' He was ashamed, if any one in Public faw him spit or sweat, (which is said by some also of the Lacedæmonian young Men, and which Xenophon says of the Persian) because he conceived, that Exercise, continual Labour, and Sobriety, ought to have dried up all those Superfiuities. What Seneca says will not be unfit for this places which is, “That the ancient Romans kept

their Youth always standing, and taught them nothing that they were to learn, fitting ".'

'Tis a generous Desire to wish to Die usefully, and like a Man; but the Effect lies not so much in our Resolu: tion, as in our good Fortune. A thousand have proposed

EO w Senec, Ep. 88.

The Astivity

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not in our

to themselves, in Battle, either to Conquer or Die, who
have failed both in the one and the other :
Wounds and Imprisonment crossing their De- The Desire of

making a ufesign, and compelling them to live againft ful Exit is their Wills. There are Diseases that demolish laudable, tho" even our Desires, and our Knowledge. For- the Thing be tune was not obliged to second the Vanity of

Power, the Roman Legions, who bound themselves, by Oath, either to Overcome, or Die.' Victor, Marce Fabi, revertar ex acie ; fi fallo, Jovem patrem, Gradivumque Martem, aliofque iratos invoco Deos *.

. I will return (Marcus Fabius) a Conqueror from the Army; and, if

I fail, I wish the Indignation of Jove, Mars, and the s other offended Gods, may light upon me.'

The Portuguese say, ' That, in a certain Place of their Conquest • of the Indies, they met with Soldiers, who had damned

themselves, with horrible Execrations, to enter into no Composition, but either to kill, or be killed ; and had

their Heads and Beards shaved in Token of this Vow.' 'Tis to much Purpose to hazard ourselves, and to be obftinate : It seems as if Blows avoid those that present themselves too briskly to Danger ; and do not willingly fall upon those who too willingly seek them, and so defeat their Design. There was one, who had tried all Ways, and could not obtain Dying by the Hand of the Enemy, was constrained, in order to make good his Resolution of bringing home Victory, or of losing his Life, to kill himself, even in the Heat of Battle. Among other Examples, this is one : Philiftus, General of the Naval • Army of Dionysus the Younger, against the Syracufans,

presented them Battle, which was sharply disputed, their • Forces being equal. In which Engagement he had the • better at first, through his Valour: But, the Syracufans « surrounding his Gally, after he had, with great Feats of • Arms", tried to disengage himself, and hoping for no

Relief, with his own Hand he took away that Life • he had so liberally, but in vain, exposed to the E



* Tit, Liv. lib. ii. c. 45.

y Plutarcb in the Life of Bion, c. 8.

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Muley Moluck, King of Fez, who, Anno 1578, won

" the Battle against Sebastian, King of PortuThe intrepid Activity of

gal, so famous for the Death of three Kings, Muley Mo

· and the Tranflation of that great Kingdom luck, King of to the Crown of Castile, was extremely fick Fez, in a Bat

" when the Portuguese entered, in an hostile tle, where he died Conqueror manner, into his Dominions; and, from of the Portu

" that Day forward, grew worse and worse, guefe.

• ftill drawing nearer to, and foreseeing his · End : Yet never did Man imploy his own Sufficien

cy more vigorously and bravely, than he did upon < this Occasion. He found himself too weak to undergo • the Pomp and Ceremony of entering into this Camp,

which, after their manner, is very magnificent, and full • of Bustle ; and therefore resigned that Honour to his < Brother: But the Office of a General was all that he

resigned; all the reft, of Utility and Neceflity, he most • exactly and gloriously performed; his Body lying upon "a Couch, but his Judgment and Courage upright and . firm to his last Gasp, and, in some sort, beyond it: He

might have wasted his Enemy, who was indiscreetly + advanced into his Dominions without striking a Blow; ' and it was very grievous to his Heart, that, for Want 6 of a little Life, or Some-body to substitute in the Con«duct of this War ?, and of the Affairs of a troubled · State, he found himself compelled to seek a doubtful • and bloody Victory, when he had another, better and

surer, already in his. Power : Yet he wonderfully ma• naged the Continuance of his Sickness, in wafting the

Enemy, and in drawing them from the Naval Army, " and the Sea-Ports in the Coast of Africa, even till the ? last Day of his Life, which he designedly reserved for " this great Battle. He formed the main Bacle in a Cir

cle, environing the Portugal Army on every Side; which « Circle, coming to draw up close together, did not only 4 hinder them in the Conflict, (which was very sharp,

through the Valour of the young invading King) con. fidering they were, every Way, to make a Front; but

« also Thuanus, Hilt. lib. lxv. p. 248. the Geneva Edition, in 1720. *

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