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in that they had not been pleased to cut him off by Sur• prise, having, long before, advertised him of the Place ! and Hour of his Death ; nor by a mean and unmanly • Death, more becoming lazy and delicate People; nor

by a Death that was languishing, long, and painful ; • and that they had thought him worthy to die after that ''noble manner, in the Career of his Victories, and in the · Height of his Glory. He had a Vision, like that of Marcus Brutus, that first threatened him in Gaul b; and afterwards appeared to him in Persia, just before his Death . These Words, that some make him say, when he felt himself wounded, "d Thou hast overcome, Nazarene ;' or, as others, Content thyself, Nazarene,' would hardly have been omitted, had they been believed by my Witneffes, who, being present in the Army, have set down even the least Motions and Words of his latter' End, no more than certain other strange Things that are recorded of him.

And, to return to my Subject, “He long nourished, says Marcellinus, Paganism in his Heart; He aimed to but, all his Army being Christians, he durft re-efablish Panot own ito: But, in the End, seeing him- ganism, and self strong enough to dare to discover him to deftroy the

Christians, by self, he caused the Temples of the Gods to keeping up their • be thrown open, and did his utmost to set Divisions by a ' on foot Idolatry. The better to effect this, general-Toleran

having, at Constantinople, found the People

disunited, and also the Prelates of the Church divided • amongst themselves, and having convened them all

before him, he gravely and earnestly admonished them < to calm those civil Diffensions; and that every one • might freely, and without Fear, follow his own Reli

gion : This he did the more fedulously follicit, in ? hopes that this License would augment the Schisms and • Faction of their Division, and hinder the People from re-uniting, and consequently fortifying themselves aVol. II.

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gainst b Ammian. Marcell. lib. xx. C. 5. c Idem, lib. xxv. C. 2. d Vicilti, Galilæe. Theodoret. Hift. Ecclef. lib. iii. Có 2014 e Idem, lib. xxi. Ć. 2.

Ammian. Marcell. lib. xxii. Cs 3.

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'gainst him by their unanimous Intelligence and Con-
• cord ; having experienced, by the Cruelty of some
. Christians, that there is no Beast in the World so much
• to be feared by Man, as Man.'
These are very near his Words, wherein this is very

worthy of Confideration, that the Emperor
Reflections on
this Policy,

Julian made Use of the same Receipt of Liwith regard

berty of Conscience, to inflame the civil Difto the Liberty sensions, that our Kings have now done to of Conscience granted, in

extinguish them: So that it may be said, on Montaigne's one side, · That to give the People the Reins Time, to the

• to entertain every Man his own Opinion Protestants.

is to scatter and low Division, and, as ir were, to lend a Hand to augment it, there being no • Barrier nor Correction of Law to stop and hinder its • Career ;' but, on the other side, a Man may also say,

That to give People the Reins to entertain every Man • his own Opinion is to mollify and appease them by

Facility and Toleration, and dulls the Point which is (whetted and made sharper by Singularity, Novelty, and • Difficulty.'. And, I think, it is more for the Honour of the Devotion of our Kings, that, not having been able to do what they would, they have made a Shew of being willing to do what they could.

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CH A P. XX.

That we Taste nothing Pure,

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O weak is our Condition, that Things cannot fall
into our Use in their natural Simplicity and Purity;

the Elements that we enjoy, are changed;
There is no
Conveniency even Metals themselves; and Gold must be
without its In- debafed, by some Alloy, to fit it for our
convenience.

Service. Neither has Virtue, so simple as that which Aristo, Pyrrbo, and also the Stoics have made the principal End of Life ; nor the Cyrenaic and Aristippic Pleasure beën useful to it without a Mixture. Of the 3

Pleasure

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Dxicoyun 1

cture Moral Good

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DU U

Man.

h

Ch. XX. That we

where he is afraid of Pleasure and Goods that we from some Mixture of Evil a

I find, that the best medio de fonte leporun.

and Evil con Surgit amari aliquid, quod in ipn.

founded in

i. e. Something that's Bitter will arise,

is Ear Even amidst our Jollities.

ard Our extremelt Pleasure has some Air un complaining in it: Would you not say, that it is dying of Anguish? Nay, when we forge the Image of it, in its Excellency, we paint it with fickly and painful Epithets, Languor, Softness, Feebleness, Faintness, Morbidezza, a great Testimony of their Consanguinity and Consubstantiality : Profound Joy has more of Severity than Gaiety in it: The extremest and fullest Contentment, more of the Sedate than of the Merry. Ipsa felicitas, se nisi temperat, premit : 'Even Felicity, unless it moderate itself,

oppresseth.' Pleasure preys upon us, according to the old Greek Verse ', which says, “That the Gods fell us all ' the Good they give us ;' that is to say, that they give us nothing Pure and Perfect, and which we do not pura chase but at the Price of some Evil.

Labour and Pleasure, very unlike in Nature, associate, nevertheless, by I know not what natural Pain and PleaConjunction. * Socrates says, “That some sure joined at « God tried to mix in one Mass, and to con one End, as apo ' found Pain and Pleasure, but, not being pears from Me

lancholy. • able to do it, he bechought him, at least,

to couple them by the Tail.' Metrodorus ' said, “That « in Sorrow there is some Mixture of Pleasure. I know not, whether or no he intended any Thing else by that Saying : But, for my Part, I am of Opinion, that there is Delign, Consent, and Complacency in giving a Man's

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Self
8 Lucret. lib. iv. v. 1126;
h Senec. Ep. 74.

των πόνων
Πωλυσιν ημίν πάντα ταγαθα Θεοί.

Epicharmus apud Xenophon. lib. xi. Trost lacreen
k In Plato's Dialogue, intitled Phadon, p. 376.
· Metrodorus, Senec. Ep. 99.

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Self up to Melancholy; I say, that, besides Ambition, which may also have a Stroke in the Business, there is some Shadow of Delight and Delicacy, which smiles upon, and flatters us, even in the very Lap of Melancholy. Are there not some Complexions that feed upon it ?

eft quædam flere voluptas

m

i. e.

A certain kind of Pleasure 'tis to Weep.
And one Attalus, in Seneca, says, “That the Memory of

our deceased Friends is as grateful to us, as the Bitter-
ness in the Wine, very old, is to the Palate",
Minister vetulis puer Falerni
Ingere calices amarioreso

i. e.

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Thou, Boy, that fill'st the old Falernian Wine,
The bitt'reft

pour

into the Bowl that's mine. • and as Apples that have a sweet Tartness.' Nature discovers this Confusion to us. Painters hold, “That • the same Motions and Screwings of the Face that serve ' for Weeping, serve for Laughter too ;' and, indeed, before the one or the other be finished, do but observe the Painter's Conduct, and you will be in Doubt to which of the two the Design does tend : And the Extremity of Laughter is mixed with Tears : Nullum fine au£toramento malum est P: No Evil is without its Compensation.' When I imagine Man surrounded with all the Conve

niences that are to be desired, let us put the Conftant and universal Plea- Case, that all his Members were always feized Jure not to be with a Pleasure like that of Generation in its "borne by Man. moft excessive Height ; I fancy him melting under the Weight of his Delight, and see him utterly unable to support.fo Pure, fo Continual, and fo Universal a Pleasure : Indeed he is running away whilst he is there, and naturally makes Haste to escape, as from a Place

where

m Ovid. Trift. El. 3. v. 37.

n Senec. Epift. 63. Epilt. 25. v. 1, 2. Senec. Epift. 69.

o Catul. 3

Man.

where he cannot stand firm, and where he is afraid of sinking

When I religiously confess myself, I find, that the best good Quality I have has in it some Tincture Moral Good of Vice; and am afraid, that Plato, in his and Evil con. purest Virtue (I who am as sincere and per- founded in fect a Lover of him, and of the Virtues of that Stamp, as any other whatever) if he laid his Ear close to himself, and he did so) he would have heard some jarring Sound of human Mixture ; but so obscure as only to be perceived by himself: Man is wholly and throughout but a patched and motly Composition.

Even the Laws of Justice themselves cannot subfift without some Mixture of Injustice : Info

The justelt much that Plato says, “ They undertake to Lavis have 'cut off the Hydra's Head, who pretend Some Mixture ' to purge the Laws, of all inconvenience." of Injustice. Omne 4 magnum exemplum habet aliquid

ex iniquo, quod contra fingulos utilitate publicâ rependitur : • Every great Example

of Justice has in .it some Mixture of Injustice, which recompenses the Wrong done to particular Men, by its public Utility,' says Tacitus.

It is likewise true, that for the Business of Life, and the Service of public Commerce, there

Common Unmay be some Excesses in the Purity and

deytanding Perspicacity of our Mind; that penetrating more proper for Light has too much of Subtilty and Curiosi- Affairs than ty : It must be a little ftupified and blunted, what is mo? to be rendered more obedient to Example

refined. and Practice ; and a little' veiled and obfcured, to bear the better Proportion to this dark and terrestrial Life: And yet common and less speculative Souls are found to be more proper, and more successful in the Management of Affairs ; and the elevated and exquisite Opinions of Philosophy are unfit for Business : This acute Vivacity of the Mind, and the supple and restless Volubility of it, disturb our Negociations : We are to manage human Enterprises more fuperficially and roughly, and leave a great Part to the Prerogatives of Fortune: It is not ne

ceffary 9 Tacit. Annal, lib. xiv.

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