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of Invectives, which they practised upon one another, I mean the greatest Chiefs of War of both Nations, where Words were only revenged with Words, without any other Consequence.
Of Liberty ^conscience.
,*Tp IS usual to see good Intentions, if pursued wlthX, out Moderation, push Men on to ve- Reiigioui Zed ry vicious Effects. In this Dispute, which often extravahas now engaged France in a Civil War, the &ant> and conheft, and the soundest Cause, no Doubt, is fiv*b»yf. that which maintains the ancient Religion and Government of the Kingdom. Nevertheless, amongst the good Men of that Party (for I do not speak of those that make a Pretence of it, either to execute their own particular Revenge, or to gratify their Avarice, or to court the Favour of Princes •, but of those who engage in the Quarrel out of true Zeal to Religion, and a pious Affection to maintain the Peace and Government of their Country) of these, I say, we see many whom Passion transports beyond the Bounds of Reason, and sometimes inspires with Counsels that are unjust and violent, and alfa rash. ■ It is true, that, in those primitive Times, when our Religion began to gain Authority with the Laws, Zeal armed many against all Sorts of ju"d tie Pagan Books, by which the Learned suffered Christians, an exceeding great Loss; which, I conceive, TMfe» *f"y t"did more Prejudice to Letters, than all the camjM<>PrS> Flames kindled by the Barbarians. Of this g^B^oiu' Cornelius Tacitus is a very good Witness ; ■ for though the Emperor Tacitus, his Kinsman, had, by express Order, furnished all the Libraries in the World with his Book, nevertheless, one intire Copy could not escape the curious Search of those who desired to abolish it, for only five or six idle Clauses in it, that were contrary to our Belief.
j*d t aise They were also very ready to lend undue had Emperors, Praises to all the Emperors who did any -whofavoured Thing for us, and universally to condemn Christianity, &\\ the Actions of those who were our Adin, an'do- versaries, as is evidently manifest in the Emtiers, 'who of- peror Julian, surnamed the Apostate; who posed it. was, in Truth, a very great and rare Man, a
The Cbaraaer Man in whose Soul that Philosophy was imtf the Emperor printed in lively Characters, by which he Julian the A- professed to govern all his Actions; and, in p0 tc' Truth, there is no sort of Virtue, of which
he has not left behind him very notable Examples. In His Chastity. Chastity (of which the whole Course of his Life has given manifest Proof) we read the like of him, as was laid of Alexander and Scipio % that, being in the Flower of his Age (for he was (lain by the Parthians at one and thirty) of a great many very beautiful Captives, he would not touch, nor so much as look upon one. As to his Justice p, he took himself the Paina to hear the Parties, and although he would, out of Curiosity, enquire what Religion they were of, nevertheless the Hatred he had to ours, never turned the Balance. He made several good Laws, and cut off a great Part of the Subsidies and Taxes levied by his Predecessors, *.
We have two good Historians, who were Eye-witnesses Julian blamed °^ ^'s Actions i °"e of whom, Marcellinus, by tivo Hip- in several Places of his History, sharply rerians. Eye- proves an Edict of his, whereby 'he inter
lla£ °fhit 'dicted a11 Chr'fiian Rhetoricians and Gram
* marians to keep School, or to teach' •, and,
fays, * he could wish that Act of his had been buried in
* Silence '.' It is very likely, that, had he done any more severe Things against us, the Historian, who was so affectionate to our Party, would not have passed it over in Silence.
0 Ammian. Marcell. lib. xxiv, c. 8. t Idem, ibid. lib. xxii. c. is.
* Idem, lib. xxv. c. 5, 6. r Idem, lib. xxii. c 10. .
He was, indeed, sharp against us, but yet no cruel Enerny: For our own People tell this Story HisModera_ of him, 'That, one Day, walking about tion, by the 'the City of Chalcedm, Marts, Bishop of that Report of a 'Place, called out to him, and told him, Christian ^«
* that he was an Atheist, and an Apostate:'
To which he only answered, 'Go, Wretch, and lament 'the Loss of thy Eyes:' To this the Bishop replied again, 'I thank Jesus Christ for taking away my Sight, that I
* might not see thy impudent Face '.' So it is, that this Action of his savours nothing of the Cruelty that he is said to have exercised towards us 5 though they fay, that his Answer to the Bishop was but an Affectation of Philosophic Patience. 'He was (fays Eutropius ', my other Witness) ' an Enemy to Christianity, but without shedding
* Blood.' And, to return to his Justice, there „. y
is nothing in that whereof he can be accused, "J*fi*<*but the Severity he practised in the Beginning of his Reign, against those who had followed the Party of Consiantius, his Predecessor \
As to his Sobriety, he lived always a Soldier's kind of Life; and kept a Table, in Times of the „. Sol>r^ most profound Peace, like one that prepared and inured himself to the Rigours of War w.
His Vigilancy was such, that he divided the Night into three or four Parts, of which always the B. y. ., least was dedicated to Sleep ;. the rest was ''*'a }"
spent either in visiting the Estate of his Army and Guards, in Person, or in Study -, for, amongst other rare Qualities, he was very excellent in all forts of Literature. 'Tis said of Alexander the Great, ' That, when he was in Bed, 'for fear lest Sleep should divert him from his Thoughts 4 and Studies, he had always a Bason set by his Bed-side, « and held one. of his Hands out with a Bullet of Copper « in it, to the End, that, if he fell asleep, and his Fingers
* left their Hold, the Bullet, by falling into the Bason,
- ^ might • might awake him \* But this Julian was so bent upon what he had a Mind to do, and so little disturbed with Fumes, by reason of his singular Abstinence, that he had Bo Need of any such Invention.
• Sozomenh Ecclesiastical History, lib. v. c. 4.
* Eutrop. lib. x. c. 8.
» Ammian. Marcell. lib. xxii. c. 2.
w Idem, lib. xvi, c. 2. «t xxvi. c. j. ■. _
As to his Military Experience, he was admirable in all the Qualities of a great Captain, as it was
£/S'r like]yhe mou,d» havinS been» almost aI1 his Life, in a continual Exercise of War, and
most of that Time with us in France, against the Germans and Franconians: We hardly read of any Man that ever encountered more Dangers, or that made more frequent Proofs of his personal Valour.
His Death has something in it like that of Epaminon
m D th ^as» ^or ^e was w0Unded wi£h an Arrow,
which he tried to pull out, and had done it,
but that, being two-edged, it cut the Sinews of his Hand.
He called out forthwith, * That they would carry him,
* in this Condition, into the Midst of the Battle to enc courage his Soldiers,' who very bravely disputed the Battle without him, till Night parted the Armies r. He was obliged to his Philosophy for the singular Contempt he had for this Life, and all human Things; and he had a firm Belief of the Immortality of the Soul.
In Matters of Religion, he was Vicious throughout, HetvaiaJ- anc* was sornamed the Jpojtate, for having JitieJ to the relinquished ours: Though, methinks, 'tis Worjbip of more likely, that he had never thoroughly false Gods. embraced it, but had dissembled, out of Obedience to the Laws, till he came to the Empire.
He was, in his own, so superstitious, that he was laughExcelUvel sti- ed at f°r 't' ^ those of the same Opinion of tcr/iitious. his own Time, who said, 'That, had he got * the Victory over the Partbians, he had de1 stroyed the Breed of Oxen in the World to supply his « Sacrifices *.* He was, moreover, a Bigot to the Art of Divination, and gave Authority to all sorts of Predictions. He said, amongst other Things, at his Death, 'That * he was obliged to the Gods, and thanked them. 'in that they had not been pleased to cut him off by Sur
* Ammian. Marcell. lib. xvi. c. 2. 'Idem, ibid. lib. xxv. c. 3.
'Idem, ibid. c. 6. • Idem, ibid. lib. xxv. c. 4.
* prise, having, long before, advertised him of the Place 'and Hour of his Death; nor by a mean and unmanly 'Death, more becoming lazy and delicate People •, nos
* by a Death that was languishing, long, and painful j 4 and that they had thought him worthy to die after that
* noble manner, in the Career of his Victories, and in the
* Height of his Glory.' He had a Vision, like that of Marcus Brutus, that first: threatened him in Gaul bj and afterwards appeared to him in Persia, just before his Death c, These Words, that some make him fay, when he felt himself wounded, 'd Thou hast overcome, Naza
* rene ;' or, as others, 'Content thyself, Nazarene,' would hardly have been omitted, had they been believed by my Witnesses, who, being present in the Army,'have set down even the least Motions and Words of his latter End, no more than certain other strange Things that are recorded of him. f
And, to return to my Subject, * He long nourished,
* says Marcellinus, Paganism in his Heart; r/ . ....
1 11 1 • * 1 • v,» •«• 1 1 n He aimed to
* but, all his Army being Cbrtjtians, he durst re-establijbYz.
* not own ite: But, in the End, seeing him- ganifm; and 4 self strong enough to dare to discover him- 'Zffi-Cy tbtt
'self, he caused the Temples of the Gods to keeping^tbdt
4 be thrown open, and did his utmost to set Divisions ly a
4 on foot Idolatry11. The better to effect this, general ToU—
* having, at Constantinople, found the People t,m'
4 disunited, and also the Prelates of the Church divided 4 amongst themselves, and having convened them all 4 before him, he gravely and earnestly admonished them
* to calm those civil Dissensions; and that every one
* might freely, and without Fear, follow his own Reli4 gion: This he did the more sedulously sollicit, in 4 hopes that this License would augment the Schisms and
* Faction of their Division, and hinder the People from 're-uniting, and consequently fortifying themselves a
Vol. II. H h 4 gainst
b Ammian. Marcell. lib. xx. c. 5. c Idem, lib. xxv. c. 2.
A Vicisti, Galilæe. Theodoret. Hist. Ectles. lib. iii. o aa, e Idem, lib. xxi. C. 2. - s Ammian. Marcell. lib. xxii. ct 3.