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ing nor emphasis enters into the expression. As the concrete movement of the voice on the successive syllables is made through the interval of a tone, so the discrete movement from syllable to syllable is made only through the same space.

This may be presented to the eye by calling again to our aid the musical scale.

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The learner, especially if accustomed to read music, will readily catch the melody of the two readings here suggested ; and can satisfy himself that others might still be given which would not differ from what we often hear in plain discourse. They both contain the conditions proposed as to the concrete and discrete changes of pitch ; and however the order of the concrete tones may at first seem to vary, they will all be found reducible to the six following combinations.

Where two or more successive notes occupy the same place of radical pitch, it is called the phrase of the Monotone.

Where, of two successive notes, the one is next in radical pitch above the other, the phrase is called the Rising Ditone; and where next below, the Falling Ditone.

Where the radicals of three successive notes ascend, it is called the Rising Tritone, and where they descend, the Falling Tritone.

Where there is a succession of three or more notes alternately a tone above or below each other, it is called the Alternate Phrase.

Where the falling tritone occurs at the end of a sentence, it is called the Triad of the Cadence.

These several Phrases of Melody are thus presented by Dr. Rush, on the following lines.

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Thus, even for the expression of plain thought, has nature furnished an interesting and beautiful variety in the elements provided for the use of the human voice. Yet under the influence of bad habits, this rich provision is often entirely disregarded, and the ear is literally pained by listening to the sentiments of those who might be good speakers, doled out in an infinitely extended monotone, or varied only to exhibit at set intervals the uniform recurrence of the same phrases of melody, producing thus a mechanical variety scarcely less inexpressive, or less offensive to the improved ear than the dullest monotony.

We now proceed to enumerate some of the more simple Melodies of the Voice, and to show how they are constituted.

1. The Diatonic Melody.— This is produced by the varied succession of all the phrases just enumerated ; and is the only one adapted to the expression of plain thought, interrupted neither by interrogation, emphasis, nor emotion.

2. The Melody of the Monotone. This is produced whenever the Phrase of the Monotone predominates, as it naturally and properly does in all dignified and solemn subjects.—When the speaker rises near to the top of his Natural Voice, his utterance is apt to degenerate into the monotone, simply because he cannot take a higher pitch without falling into the Falsette. And, in passing, we may express the belief, that this defective intonation of the voice, from whatever cause it arises, produces more of disease in the vocal organs, and brings more speakers to an untimely grave, than all the causes connected with the healthful use of these organs, and with necessary fatigue and exposure conjoined.

3. The Melody of the Alternate Phrase.—This designation is applied to the melody, where the Alternate Phrase predominates. It is well suited to the expression of the higher passions, and to facetiousness.

4. The Melody of the Cadence. This indicates the melody at the close of sentences; and in unimpassioned discourse, it is usually produced by the Falling Tritone,--the last constituent, at least, taking the downward slide.—This subject will be treated at length in another place.

To these may be added two other forms of melody not arising immediately out of the principles laid down in this section.

5. The Chromatic Melody.This designates the plaintive melody in which there is a predominance of the semitone. The term is borrowed from music.

6. The Broken Melody. This marks the peculiar expression of pain, deep grief, and of extreme exhaustion or weakness; where the current melody, whatever it may be, is broken by frequent pauses, beyond what the grammatical connection requires or allows.

Here we shall close what may be called the technical part of our work. We have now presented all the elements, so far as the voice is concerned, which we deem essential to an effective elocution; and most of those which are developed in perfect oratory. And the learner who has gone carefully over the preceding pages, successfully mastering the difficulties he has had to meet, and training his voice by the exercises which have been suggested for his practice, may feel assured that the course thus commenced will soon place at his command all the vocal functions necessary for the expression of every passion of the human heart, and for the execution of whatever a good taste can dictate as excellent in the highest efforts of the finished orator.

That these vocal functions may again be brought before the mind and with some additional suggestions, we shall close this chapter with a brief enumeration of such as are hereafter to be applied to the execution of the principles of the orator's art.

SECTION X.

RECAPITULATION.

In Section I, after enumerating the alphabetic elements, the Vocule was referred to as an incident connected with the utterance of several of the consonants, and of the mutes in particular. It will also be heard in the utterance of all words terminating with one of these elements, and will become more full and distinct just in proportion to the energy with which the word is pronounced. From this it appears, that the vocule is not only a means of giving emphasis, but is the exact measure of the emphasis given on such words.

It is the improper use of this element that is sometimes heard at the close of each sentence, most frequently in the language of prayer. Thus employed it is a great defect; and is always the result of habit, which generally arises from a slovenly mode of articulation, but may however have its origin in the imitation of some bad model.

SECTION II is devoted exclusively to practice for the purpose of acquiring a distinct and ready articulation.

In SECTION III, Time as appropriated to syllables was treated as long or short ; but it should be borne in mind

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