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ferences in the use of these inflections, more perhaps than any thing else, mark the provincial peculiarities which characterize the speech, in different parts of our country. The rules here laid down, it is believed, correspond with the best usage of the country; and a conformity to such usage alone can guard the speaker against the charge of provincialism, or impropriety.



The Rising and the Falling Slides are often united on the same long syllable, and this complex movement of the voice is called a Wave.* The parts of which it consists are called constituents. These upward and downward movements may pass through the same, or through different, intervals; for example, the wave may be formed by the rising and falling third conjoined ; or by a rising third, passing into and being terminated by a falling fifth. This gives rise to the designation of waves as equal or unequal. Whether equal or unequal, they may consist of two, three, or more constituents; and this gives rise to the distinction of waves as single, double or continued. And whether consisting of constituents of equal or of unequal length, or of two constituents or more, the wave may commence with an ascending or descending slide. The wave commencing with an upward movement is called the Direct Wave, the other the Inverted Wave.

When it is suggested that all the slides which we have. described, varying from a semitone to an octave, enter as

* This is called by Steele and Walker the circumflex accent.

constituents into these waves, it will appear, that, in theory at least, the wave may be almost endlessly varied. It is found however, that in the practice of those who speak the English language, the variations employed are not very numerous, and of these the following are the most important.

The Equal Wave of the Semitone. This cannot be represented to the eye in a manner to make the subject any more plain. If, on any long syllable, the learner will combine the Median Stress with the expression of pathetic or solemn sentiment, he cannot fail to give either the direct or inverted wave of the semitone. These are both heard in the slow utterance of the tender emotions, serving beautifully to vary this melody of the voice.

The Equal Wave of the Second. This movement of the voice, aside from the consideration of stress, may be repreDirect. Inverted. sented to the eye thus ;—the heavy

part simply marking the radical

point, which may or may not be characterized by fulness of sound. Indeed the median stress rather than the radical prevails in the wave of the second. It is by the frequent recurrence of these waves, that grave discourse, even where the words cannot be attended to, is distinguished from the gay and sprightly. They occur on the syllables of long quantity, and, for the sake of variety the direct and the inverted are interchanged instinctively by a well-trained voice. Whenever the waves of the semitone or of the second become double, it is for the purpose of lengthening the quantity, on a word which is intended to be strongly marked.

The Equal Wave of the Third. This is often heard in ordinary spirited conversation. It may be represented to

the eye, as may also the equal waves of the higher inter-' vals, thus:

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The Waves of the Fifth and the Octave, as also the Unequal Waves, are reserved for the expression of the stronger passions, as exhibited in dramatic dialogue, and in the higher efforts of the orator. Irony, scorn and strong surprise cannot be expressed without their aid.

To aid the learner in acquiring the command of the vocal movement here called the Wave, the following illustrations are given, the substance of which is found in the Grammar of Elocution. Pity the sorrows of a poor

old man.” If long quantity and a plaintive tone be given to the words “poor” and “old,” in the foregoing example, they will exhibit the direct wave of the semitone : and if the word “man” receive a plaintive expression and extended quantity, and the voice be made to rise on the second part of the

wave, will show the inverted wave of the semitone.

“ Hail! holy light.”

If the word “hail” is uttered with long quantity, with a perceptible downward ending, and without any emphatic stress, it will show the direct equal wave of the second. “High on a throne of royal state.”

If this line be pronounced in a similar manner, it will exhibit the inverted equal wave of a second on the syllables “high,” “throne,” and “roy."

“I said he was my friend.”

Let this sentence be slowly uttered, with long quantity upon “my,” accompanied with such an emphasis as to contrast it with your—friend, and the word “my” will show the direct equal wave of a third.

“Ah! is he your friend, then ?”

Let this last sentence be uttered as a reply to the preceding, and with an air of surprise, though with long quantity and a natural emphasis upon “your," and it will display the inverted equal wave of a third.

“Yes, I said he was my friend.”

If this sentence be reiterated with a strong positive emphasis upon “my,” and with extended quantity, it will exhibit the direct equal wave of a fifth.

“ Is he solely your friend?”

By increasing the emphasis of surprise, making the interrogation more piercing, and extending the quantity of the word “your”? in this sentence, the inverted equal wave of the fifth will be heard.

If, in the sentence, “I said he was my friend,” the word “my” be uttered with a strongly taunting and at the same time positive expression, that word will show the direct unequal wave.

If, in the sentence, “Is he your friend?" the word “your” be uttered with a strong expression of scorn and interrogation, it will exhibit the inverted unequal wave.

When these waves have once become familiar to the ear, the voice may be trained to their execution, by combining them with the long vowel elements, or with any


the combinations which admit of protracted quantity. The uses of these functions of the voice will be pointed out in the sections which treat of Emphasis and Expression, in Chapter II."



By Force of Voice, we mean simply strength or power of voice. The lion has more force of voice than the dog. The sound of the bugle or the organ has more force than the flute. Great force of voice is not always needed; but

* NOTE TO THE TEACHER.—The learner should, at this point, be subjected to something like the following system of exercise. Let some one of the elements, say å, be selected, or some word susceptible of long quantity, and the learner be required, without the aid of the teacher's voice, to pronounce it

1st. With the Radical (Median or Vanishing] stress. 2nd. On a high (or low) pitch. 3rd. With the Falling (or Rising] Slide of the Second, [Third, Fifth, or Eighth.]

4th. On the Equal Direct [or Inverted] Wave of the Second, [Third, or Fifth.] And let this exercise be continued on these simple functions of the voice, at pleasure.

Then let him be required to combine such of these functions as are susceptible of combination: аs, for example, to pronounce the designated element

1st. With Radical Stress, and on the Low Pitch.

2nd. With the Radical Stress, and with the Falling Slide of a Third.

3rd. With the Median Stress, and in the Equal Inverted Wave of a Third.

4th. With the Vanishing Stress, and the Rising Slide of a Fifth.

5th. With Long Quantity, and on the Direct Wave of the Semitone, &c.

This exercise may likewise be advantageously continued, till the learner has acquired a facility-not in imitating, but in executing for himself, under the teacher's direction, all these vocal functions, both singly and in combination.

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