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tonic rise; as the syllables which follow the rising emphasis in the following examples :

1. You are not left alone to climb the arduous ascent.

2. It was an enemy, not a friend, who did this. The occasions for the recurrence of this form of emphatic distinction will be fully illustrated in the section on Emphasis.

There is another apparent exception to this Rule, which however is not real. It is, when the matter, which would express a perfect sense if it should stand alone, is closely connected with other matter; and in reading may, or may not, take the Rising Slide, though it often does. Thus,

1. There was a man in the land of Usz, whose name was Job.

2. The dew of night falls, and the earth is refreshed. The words, in such cases, may be considered but as constituting part of a proposition, and thus as not coming under the rule. But separate these introductory clauses, so that they shall of themselves constitute entire propositions expressing a complete sense, and they will then take the Falling Slide. Thus,

There was a man of distinguished excellence in the land of U'z; his name was Job.

The dew of night fàlls; and by its fall the earth is fertilised and refreshed.

It is believed the learner will find these rules and remarks sufficient for his purpose; and that he could not, till he becomes acquainted with the principles of Emphasis, prosecute the subject further to advantage.

II. EMPHATIC SLIDES. All the slides enumerated in this section as employed in speech, except that of the Second, may be used for purposes of Emphasis. This subject will be found illustrated at some length, in Section III, Chapter II.—The employment of the wider intervals of the Third or Fifth, instead of the Second, in the current melody, is inconsistent with dignified utterance, and is a very marked defect in delivery.

III. INTERROGATIVE INTONATION. Before leaving this section, we wish to see how its principles can be applied to the expression of Interrogation. The question is usually indicated by the form of the sentence; but in order to exhibit the power of intonation alone, it is necessary to take a sentence which has not the interrogative form. Let the following passage be read as an imperative order;

Give Brutus a statue with his ancestors; and it will be perceived that each syllable takes the downward inflection. If now, without any change in phraseology, the same line be repeated with the rising slide of the third or fifth on each syllable, it will at once appear to the ear to take the character of sneering interrogation. From this it may be confidently inferred, that the rising slide is the prime element in interrogation. This may be further illustrated by the following passage from the Coriolanus of Shakspeare.

Serv. Where dwellest thou ?

Under the canopy.
Serv. Under the canopy ?
Cor. Ay.
Serv. Where's that?
Cor. In the city of kites and crows.

Serv. In the city of kites and crows? But the rising inflection does not prevail throughout the whole of all interrogative sentences. To illustrate this, as

also to ascertain the law which regulates this matter, we will present the following questions selected at random.

1. What night is this?
2. Must I leave thee, Paradise ?
3. What! threat you me with telling of the king?
4. Sir, are you my father?
5. How can you say to me I am a king?
6. Who's there?
7. Who ever knew the heavens menace so?

In the natural reading of these examples, it will be perceived that the second, third and fourth take the rising inflection throughout, and close also with the rising slide; while the others close with the falling. The characteristic element in those which take the rising inflection throughout, is the direct inquiry they contain ; by which we mean, that they are such questions as demand for an answer-yes,

The others, not admitting the answers, yes and no, may be called indirect questions. This first form of vocal movement we shall denominate the Thorough Interrogative Intonation, as opposed to the other, - which may be called the Partial. The rule then which we deduce from these principles may be expressed thus ;The Direct Question takes the Thorough Interrogative Intonation, while the Indirect Question takes the Partial.

These two forms of question may be presented to the eye thus :

Thorough Interrogative Intonation.
What! threat you

with tell- ing of the king?

or no.


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This last form of the interrogation admits the use of the concrete slide of a third or fifth on one or a few of the syllables, while the rest, and particularly those near the close, take the melody of common discourse, and constitute a regular cadence.

We add the following practical remarks :

1. In interrogation, the extent of the upward slide on those syllables that receive it, varies from the third to the octave, with the degree of earnestness with which the question is put.

2. Some expressions which have the grammatical form of the direct question, as in earnest appeals, exclamatory sentences, and argument, are intended to express only positiveness of conviction; and thus they take the partial intonation only.

Judge me, ye Gods! wrong I mine enemies ?
And if not so, how should I wrong my brother?
You all did see, that on the Lupercal,
1 thrice presented him a kingly crown,

Which he did thrice refuse. Was this ambition? He now appears before a jury of his country for redress. Will you deny him this redress?

Do you think that your conditions will be accepted? Can you even imagine they will be listened to ?

Such interrogations open with a rising slide of a fifth or octave, but immediately change to the deep downward concrete, or the direct wave-soon to be explained. This downward movement furnishes the appropriate expression of positive conviction, as the rising does of doubt and uncertainty.

3. Even the Direct Question, if very long, and especially if at the same time it concludes a paragraph or a discourse, may take the Partial Intonation.

4. In questions which admit the Thorough Intonation, though the syllables generally are pronounced with the rising concrete of a given interval which prevails throughout the whole, yet those which are emphatic may pass through a wider interval than the others. This will be illustrated under the head of Emphasis.

5. The mere form in which the question is stated does not always determine whether it is Direct or Indirect. Thus, the question,"Did you see him or his brother ?"haś two meanings, according as or is understood disjunctively or conjunctively. If the latter, the question is direct and takes the rising slide; if the former it is indirect and takes the falling.-In this case, however, the first member always takes the intonation of the Direct Question.

Though we have dwelt thus long on the Diatonic and Interrogative Slides, we are not prepared to affirm, that the sense is always or even generally dependent on these inflections of the voice. Sometimes they do determine the sense; but the English, the Scotch, the Irish and the Americans all use them differently and yet understand each other. In some portions of our own country, even the direct question universally receives only the partial interrogative intonation,—terminating with the falling slide, or perhaps the inverted wave of a second-soon to be described. Dif

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