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interval. It will also enable him to fix beforehand the extent of the slide which he wishes to practice. Suppose it to be a Third, he will rise two notes above the key—thus fa-sol-la, or do-re-mi, discretely; and then, instead of going up by skips, will rise on the sound fa or do concretely up to the place of la, or mi; and thus fix for himself the limit of the desired slide. Then it may be repeated on one of the vowel elements, or on any syllable or word at pleasure. The same, if it be a fifth or an octave. And when he has learned to determine these points, he is prepared for practice on this branch of the subject; and practice obviously is all that is necessary to enable the learner to extend the slides from any one point to another within the compass of his voice.

For practice on these slides, both upward and downward, we would recommend to the learner,

1. To use the long vowel elements of Table I.

2. To use the words employed in the same Table to illustrate these elementary sounds; thus, ale, all, arm, &c. This table of words may be extended at pleasure.

3. It is recommended to the learner, to apply these slides to words, as they occur in current discourse. In the following exercises, the acute accent-'is used to denote the rising slide, and the grave accent-'the falling. And whenever this latter inflection occurs, it is to be specially borne in mind, that the downward movement does not commence on the same line of pitch with the current melody, but always on a line above it.

1. Will you gó-or stày? Will you ride or walk? Will you go to-dáy—or to-mòrrow?

2. King Agrippa, believest thou the prophets ? I know that thou believest,

3. Armed, say you ? Àrined, my lord. From top to toé? My lord, from head to foot.

4. By hónor, and dishonor; by évil report and good report; as de. céivers, and yet truè; as únknown, and yet well known; as dying, and behold we live; as chástened, and not killed; as sorrowful, yet always rejoicing; as póor, yet making many rìch; as having nóthing, and yet possessing all things.

5. Whither shall I tùrn ? to what place shall I betàke myself? Shall I go to the capitol ? Alas! it is overflowed with my brother's blood! Or shall I retire to my hoùse? Yet thère I behold my mother plunged in misery, weeping and despàiring!

6 And though I have the gift of pròphecy, and understand all m'ysteries, and all knowledge; and though I have all faith, so that I could remove moùntains, and have not chárity, I am nothing.

7. The man who is in the daily use of ardent spírit, if he does not become a drùnkard, is in danger of losing his health and character.

8. True charity is not a meteor which occasionally gláres; but a luminary, which, in its òrderly and règular course, dispenses a benignant influence.

9. Cáesar, who would not wait the conclusion of the consul's speech, generously replied, that he came into Italy not to injure the liberties of Rome and its citizens, but to restòre them.

10. If any man sín, we have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous: and he is the propitiàtion for our sin; and not for ours only, but also for the sins of the whole world.

11. These things I say now, not to insult one who is fúllen, but to render more secure those who stànd; not to irritate the hearts of the wounded, but to preserve those who are not yet wounded, in sound health; not to submerge him who is tossed on the bíllows, but to instruct those who are sailing before a propitious breeze, that they may not be plunged beneath the waves.

12. But this is no time for a tribunal of justice, but for showing mèrcy; not for accusation, but for philànthropy; not for trial, but for pàrdon; not for sentence and execution, but compassion and kindness.

13. If the population of this country were to remain stationary, a great effort would be necessary to supply each family with a Bible. The teacher, or learner, can multiply these examples at pleasure ; and the subject should not be passed over, till the ear of the learner can distinguish instantly between the rising and the falling slide, as it occurs in speech; nor till he can execute them at pleasure.

The learner need scarcely be reminded, though we treat the different functions of the voice separately and devote to them different sections in our Manual, yet that in speech they are often united. Thus, the slides can never be given without involving quantity, and some one of the different kinds of stress. But though so closely allied, still they are entirely distinct elements.

Before leaving this subject, we proceed to notice some of the practical uses of the slides, and the rules which direct their employment.

I. THE DIATONIC SLIDES. These are slides through a single tone only, and are not used for purposes of Expression. These slides distinguish speech from song, and in discourse belong to the utterance of every syllable, which does not take in a wider concrete interval for the purpose of Emphasis or Interrogation. In the simple melody of speech, the rising slide greatly predominates over the falling; as the latter occurs only at the close of sentences, or members of sentences, nor always there. Rules then are only requisite to determine the slide before pauses. These have been multiplied by writers on Elocution; but, reserving the rules for Emphasis and Interrogation for another place, it is believed that the rules for the Diatonic Slides may be briefly summed up thus :

Rule I.—The proper Cadence, at the close of a complete sentence, requires that the last syllable, and in some constructions several of the concluding syllables—rarely however exceeding five,-should take the Falling Slide.This principle will find ample illustration in the section on Cadence.

Rule II.-Members of sentences which express a complete and independent sense, require the Falling Slide on the last accented syllable, and on all that follow it.

EXAMPLES 1. Charity suffereth long, and is kind; charity envieth not; charity vàunteth not itself; is not puffed up; doth not behave itself unseèmly; seeketh not her own; is not easily provòked; thinketh no èvil.

2. The wind and rain are over; calm is the noon of dày; the elouds are divided in hèaven; over the green hill flies the inconstant sùn; red through the stony vale comes down the stream of the hill.

3. The soul can exert herself in many different ways of action : she can understànd, will, imàgine—sèe and hèar-love and discourse-and apply herself to many other like exercises of different kinds and natures.

4. I observed that those who had but just begun to climb the hill, thought themselves not far from the tòp; but as they proceeded, new hills were continually rising to their view; and the summit of the highest they could before discern, seemed but the foot of anòther: till the mountain, at length, appeared to lose itself in the cloùds.

RULE III.—Members of sentences which do not express a complete and independent sense require the Rising Slide. - The pauses

which follow such members or clauses--are called Pauses of Suspension.

EXAMPLES. 1. If some of the branches be broken off, and thou, being a wild olive-trée, wert grafted in among them, and with them partakest of the root and fatness of the olive-trée; boast not against the brànches.

Note.--This rule may be applied, even when the hypothetical member occupies the last place in the sentence; as in the following :—We are bound to set apart one day in seven for religious dùties, if the fourth commandment is obligatory on ús.

2. His father dy'ing, and no heir being left except himself, he succeded to the estàte.

3. To be pure in heárt, to be pious and benévolent, constitutes human happiness.

4. My lord, I think I saw him yèsternight.

5. If we exercise upright prínciples, (and we cannot have them, unless we exercise them.) they must be perpetually on the increase.

Note.—Here, the parenthetic clause, though expressing a perfect sense, cannot take the Falling Slide, because the sense of the matter which immediately precedes it suspended, and thus the mind is not prepared for the rest indicated by such a slide.

6. So when the faithful pencil has designed

Some bright idea of the master's mind;
Where a new world leaps out at his command,
And ready nature waits upon his hand;
When the ripe colors soften and unite,
And sweetly melt into just shade and light;
When mellowing years their full perfection give,
And the bold figure just begins to live,-
The treacherous colors the fair art betray,
And all the bright creation fades awày !*

In practice, a single exception to Rule II is sometimes heard, and is allowable, though rarely demanded :-When, in a sentence expressing a complete sense, the emphasis of the Rising Slide is given to some word or syllable preceding the last, the syllables which follow it may all take the dia

* It is not a little surprising, that Mr. Walker, and after him Mr. Knowles, have referred the Rising Slides in the reading of this passage, to the influence of tender or pathetic sentiment.

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