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To toss the head back, dissent.
The inclination of the head implies bashfulness or languor.
The head is averted in dislike or horror.
It leans forward in attention.

The Eyes.
The eyes are raised in prayer.
They weep in sorrow.
They burn in anger.
They are downcast or averted in anger.
They are cast on vacancy in thought.

They are thrown in different directions in doubt and anxiety.

The Arms.
The arm is projected forward in authority.
Both arms are spread extended in admiration.
They are both held forward in imploring help.
They both fall suddenly in disappointment.

The Hands.
The hand on the head indicates pain or distress.
On the eyes, shame.
On the lips, injunction of silence.

On the breast, it appeals to conscience, or intimates strong emotion of some kind.

The hand waves or flourishes in joy or contempt.
Both hands are held supine, applied or clasped in prayer.
Both descend prone in blessing.
They are clasped or wrung in affliction.

The Body. The body, held erect, indicates steadiness and courage. Thrown back, pride. Stooping forward, condescension or compassion.

Bending, reverence or respect.
Prostration, the utmost humility or abasement.

The Lower Limbs.
Their firm position signifies courage or obstinacy.
Bended knees, timidity or weakness.
Frequent change, disturbed thoughts.
They advance in desire or courage.
Retire in aversion or fear.
Start in terror.
Stamp in authority or anger.
Kneel in submission and prayer.

These examples might be multipled; but the object is simply to furnish a sufficient number for illustration, without attempting to make a complete list.

EXAMPLES OF COMPLEX SIGNIFICANT GESTURES, OR

ATTITUDES. A few examples of the more complex significant gestures will now be presented. The figures referred to will show the precise attitude intended; while the description will furnish the principles on which, by the application of a little skill, the list can be extended so as to embrace the visible expression of any and every passion or feeling, which agitates the human breast.

Terror excites the person who suffers under it, to avoid or to escape from the dreaded object. If it be supposed to be some dangerous reptile on the ground, and very near, the expression will be represented by the figure starting back, and looking downward. If the danger threaten from a distance, the terror arising will be expressed by the figure looking forward, and not starting back, but merely in the retired position. But if the dread of impending death from the hand of an enemy awakens this passion, the coward flies.—This passion needs no figure for its illustration.

Aversion is. expressed by two gestures; first the hand held vertical is retracted towards the face, the eyes and head are for a moment directed eagerly towards the object, and the feet advance. (See Fig. 75.) Then suddenly the eyes are withdrawn, the head is averted, the feet retire, and the arms are projected out extended against the object, the hands vertical. (See Fig. 76.) Fig. 75.

Fig. 77.

Fig. 76.

Horror, which is aversion or astonishment mingled with terror, is seldom capable of retreating, but remains petrified in one attitude, with the eyes riveted on its object, and the arm held forward to guard the person, the hands vertical, and the whole frame trembling. (See Fig. 77.) The feeling of Horror may exist when no object is present. This is beautifully illustrated in one of Mr. Engel's figures. Alluding to the « disposition of the mind to refer intellectual ideas to external objects,” he says :-—When King Lear recollects the barbarous treatment of his daughters, who in the midst of a stormy night had exposed his hoary

hairs to the inclemency of the weather, and when he immediately exclaims,

•0, that way madness lies; let me shun that;

No more of that,'there is not in reality any external object from which this unhappy prince should avert his eyes with horror, and yet he turns his head away to the side opposite that to which it was directed before; endeavoring, as it were, with his hand reversed, to banish that cruel and afflicting recollection.” (See Fig. 78.) Fig. 78.

Fig. 79.

Listening, in order to obtain the surest and most various information, first presents the quick and comprehensive glance of the eye towards the apparent direction of the sounds; if nothing is seen, the ear presents itself towards the point of expectation, and the eye is bent on vacancy: but all this passes in a moment. The hand and arm are held vertical extended. If the sound proceeds from different quarters at the same time, both arms are held up, and the head alternately changes from one side to the other, with a rapidity governed by the nature of the sound; if it is alarming, with trepidation ; if pleasing, with gentle emotion. Fig. 79 represents listening fear.

Admiration, if of surrounding natural objects of a pleasing kind, holds both hands vertical and across, and moves them outwards to the position, extended as in Figure 80. If admiration arises from some extraordinary or unexpected circumstances, the hands are thrown up supine elevated, together with the countenance and the eyes. Fig. 80.

Fig. 81.

Veneration crosses both hands on the breast, casts down the eyes slowly, and bows the head. (See Fig. 81.)

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Deprecation advances in an extended position of the feet, approaching to kneeling, clasps the hands forcibly

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