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countenance is an index of the mind, having expression corresponding with each emotion of the soul. Other animals have no expression but that which arises by mere accident, the concomitant of the motions necessary to the accomplishment of the object of the passions.”* The expression of pride, of shame, of despair, of anger, of contempt, of terror, or of any vehemence of passion, finds no place in oratory. There is no passion however, or degree of excitement, but may be exhibited on the stage. These passions find a partial expression in words and in the tones of the voice; but unaccompanied with the appropriate expression of the countenance, the symbols of feeling would make but a faint impression.
THE HAND.—The positions of the hand have been presented to the learner as depending on four circumstances. As regards the first—the disposition of the fingers, besides the natural state, and the others which were described as having an occasional place in oratory, others still may be enumerated for purposes of significant expression.
The hand is said to be Hollow, when the palm is held nearly supine, and the fingers turned inwards without touching. (See Fig. 51.)
In the Holding position, the finger and thumb are pressed together, either the fore or middle finger, or both ; while the other fingers are contracted more or less, according to the degree of energy required by the sentiment. (See Figs. 52, 53, 54, 55.)
* Anatomy of Expression.
The Thumb expresses the position of the hand, in which the thumb is extended downward or upward, while the fingers are clasped down. (See Figs. 56, 57.)
The Grasping position represents the fingers and thumb as seizing the garments, or tearing the hair. (See Fig. 58.)
As regards the manner in which the palm is presented, no new elements need to be introduced. Dramatic action employs all the positions of the hand described on p. 243, except the natural position, much more frequently than they are used in oratory. This position is equally adapted to both.
The positions of the hands which arise from—the combined disposition of both hands, find little place in oratory; hence they are reserved for consideration here. Among these it may be sufficient to enumerate the following.–The hands are said to be
Applied, when the palms are pressed together, and the fingers and thumbs of each are laid against those of the other. (See Fig. 59.)
Clasped, when all the fingers are inserted between each other, the hands pressed closely together, and one thumb lapped over the other. (See Figs. 60, 96.)
Crossed, when one hand is laid on the breast, and the other is laid over it crosswise. (See Figs. 61, 85, 94.)
Folded, when the fingers of the right hand, at the second joint, are laid between the thumb and forefinger of the left, the right thumb crossing the left. (See Fig. 62.)
Inclosed, when the back of one hand, moderately bended, is received within the palm of the other; the thumbs lying at length over each other. (See Fig. 63.)
Touching, when the points of the thumb and fingers of each hand are brought lightly into contact. (See Fig. 64.)
Wringing, when both hands are first clasped together and elevated, then depressed and separated at the wrists without disengaging the fingers. (See Figs. 65, 93.)
Enumerating, when the index of the right hand is laid successively upon the index and the different fingers of the left. (See Fig. 66.)
The fourth class of positions of the hand arising from the part of the body on which it is laid, enumerated on p. 244, are much more frequently employed on the stage than in ordinary delivery.
THE ARM.-Beside the systematic gestures of the arms described as belonging to oratory, there are others peculiar to dialogue, or to dramatic action.
The arms are said to be folded or encumbered, when they are crossed and enclose each other, the fingers of the left hand holding the right arm, and the right hand passing under the left arm. (See Fig. 67.)
They are a-kimbo, when one or both hands rest on the hips, and the elbows are stuck out on either or both sides. (See Figs. 68, 89.)
They are reposed, when the elbows are nearly resting on the hips, and one hand holds the wrist of the other. This is a female position. (See Fig. 69.)
THE ARM AND HAND COMBINED. - To designate the manner of the motion of the arm and hand, a variety of technical terms have been employed, which scarcely require to be explained merely for the purpose of assisting in the acquisition of the plain dignity of the orator; though some of them may properly be exhibited in oratory. The following, noted by Austin, will suffice, though others might be given.—Gesture, then, may be considered as
Noting, when the hand, in whatever position, is first drawn back and raised, and then advanced and with a gentle stroke depressed. (See Fig. 70.)
Projecting, when the arm is first retracted, and then thrust forward in the direction in which the hand points. (See Fig. 71.)
Retracting, when the arm is withdrawn preparatory to projecting, as in the dotted hand and arm of Fig. 71, or in the right arm of Fig. 75;-or in order to avoid an object either hateful or horrible, as in Fig. 77.
Waving, when the fingers are first pointed downward,