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elevated. The elevation of the arm and hand, then, is the preparatory part of such a gesture. Though, in one sense, this is entirely a subordinate part of gesture, yet on it depend essentially the force as well as the grace of its termination. It must be executed, neither too early, so as to leave the arm too long suspended; nor too late, so as to make the gesture short and hurried. It should appear easy and natural, be made in curved rather than in straight lines, and should seem to be prompted, as indeed it ought to be, by the rising thought. The terminating part of most gestures furnishes an example of what is called the stroke of the gesture.

5. Of the Emphatic Stroke and Time of Gesture.- When speaking of the voice in the first part of this work, Emphasis was defined,—The expressive but occasional distinction of syllables, and consequently of the words of which they form a part. It is perfectly obvious, that every mode of giving emphasis by the voice should be susceptible of being accompanied by gesture. Such is the case; but not every form of emphasis can receive enforcement by the same gesture. For example, in those forms of emphasis of which quantity is the chief element, the hand moves in the horizontal curves, or rises towards the zenith; whereas in all the forms in which short quantity prevails, the movement is downward, and in the vertical circles. Even in those forms of emphasis which require long quantity, the accompanying movement varies with the point at which the stress is laid. In the Median emphasis, the gesture may have no abrupt termination; while in the Vanishing emphasis, the gesture terminates abruptly, though with a full extension of the arm outward or upward; and not, as in the Radical emphasis, with a descent to one of the points designated.

It is to gestures which have an abrupt termination, and particularly to such as accompany the radical stress, that the remarks under this head are devoted. The instrument with which gesture is made is compound-consisting of the upper arm, the fore arm, and the hand; and each of these has an independent motion. When the arm is brought down in gesture, it does not, therefore, fall as though it had only an articulation at the shoulder; but the upper arm first falls into its position, then the fore arm, and then the hand and fingers. This finishes the gesture, and marks its complete termination; and this action of the hand is called the stroke of the gesture. This is susceptible of every degree of force, according to the velocity with which the hand has moved, and the extent through which it has passed; and should correspond, both as to time and energy, , with the vocal emphasis, so that the emphatic distinction given to any syllable by gesture may fall upon the eye at the same point of time with the greatest stress of the voice, and, as regards energy of expression, harmonize with it.

This requires care, as to the preparatory gesture, that it be not commenced too soon, nor deferred too late; yet such is the sympathy between the feeling, the vocal expression, and the action, that when once the command of all the elements of expression has been acquired, and freedom of feeling and action has been secured by well-directed practice, there will rarely be any jarring between them : the feeling will find a ready and adequate expression, both in the voice and in the accordant gesture.

6. Of Gesture as Significant and not Significant.--The pointing of the index finger, the placing of the finger on the eye, the laying of the hand on the head or on the breast, would be examples of significant gestures. Gestures may be significant by nature, or may become so by convention.

The other class of gestures though less imposing are more important. Of these, Austin says,—«. They differ from the others, because they may be used in any part of an oration, and belong to every character of style and speaking, and are as it were the elements and roots of gesture, which by their combinations produce its whole power of language and expression. These constitute the component parts of every style of delivery, whether tame or vehement, argumentative or diffuse, ardent or indifferent, cold or pathetic.” To this class belong the gestures of which we are chiefly speaking in this section,—all indeed which are recognised in Fig. 25, and still further represented by Figs. 26—40.—More will be said of the significant gestures in the Appendix.

7. Transition of Gesture. When the hand has once been brought into action in gesture, instead of dropping to the side, and then being brought up again for a similar purpose, it should generally remain in its position till relieved by the other hand, or till it passes into a state of preparation for a succeeding gesture. The term transition may be applied to the passing thus from any one gesture to another—whether from one principal gesture to another of the same hand, or from the gesture of one hand to that of the other. The rules for such transitions have been given. The term is however used in a sense more analogous with the same term as applied to the voice, when it is made to refer to such changes as arise from transitions in the sentiment,—whether they are sudden and abrupt; or more gradual, like those which take place in the regular progress of a discourse. At this point, it need only be remarked, that these last-named transitions of gesture should never be made, except when dictated by such transitions of thought and sentiment as call for corresponding changes in the vocal expression. Transitions, then, in the management of the voice, and in gesture, are regulated by the same principles. *


OF THE QUALITIES OF GESTURE. FROM what has been said, it is obvious, that we may with propriety speak of different styles of gesture, suited to different objects and occasions. The better to understand the characteristic difference of these styles, we proceed to enumerate the Qualities on which such difference depends. Those qualities in which the excellence of gesture consists are, Magnificence, Boldness, Energy, Variety, Simplicity, Grace, Propriety, and Precision. These will be briefly noticed, with an allusion to the imperfections to which they are opposed.

1. Magnificence of Gestureis secured by perfect free. dom of movement. The arm moves from the shoulder, and the hand is carried through an ample space. The head moves freely, the body is erect, and the step is free and firm.--Opposed to this are contracted gestures, constrained motions, short steps, and doubtful and timid movements.

* At this point, the attentive learner is prepared successfully to prosecute privately, to any extent, the preparation for his public declamations. First, he should apply the principles of expression to the reading of the selected piece,-at the same time employing with care the suitable emphases and forms of cadence. Secondly, he should study the gestures best suited to all its different parts. Thirdly, when well committed, he should rehearse it by himselfin his study, in the woods, or, like Demosthenes, by the sea-shore; nor need he stop till his execution equals his ideas of excellence, though he may repeat it a thousand times over. Such practice on a single piece well chosen, will benefit the learner more than the mere repetition upon the stage of volumes of the most eloquent matter ever issued from the press.

| Little more is attempted in this section, than to condense the views of Austin, as set forth in Chap. xx. of the Chironomia.

2. Boldness of Gestureis exhibited in striking but unexpected positions, movements, and transitions. It is the offspring of a daring self-confidence, which ventures to hazard any action which it is conceived may either illustrate or enforce. The courage thus to execute is only valuable, when under the guidance of good taste.—The opposite of this is tameness, which hazards nothing, is distrustful of its powers, and produces no great effect.

3. Energy of Gesture-consists in the firmness and decision of the whole action; and these depend very materially on the precision with which the stroke of the gesture is made to support the voice in marking the emphasis. Let bad habits be overcome, and a ready command of all the elements of gesture be acquired,--then will energy of gesture be the necessary result of a clear head and a warm heart.-Its opposites are feebleness and indecision.

4. Variety of Gesture-consists in the adapting of gesture to the condition and ever-varying sentiment of the speaker; so as to avoid a too frequent recurrence of the same gesture, or the same set of gestures.--It is opposed both to sameness of gesture, and to mechanical variety.

5. Simplicity of Gestureis perfectly free and unaffected, and appears to be the natural result of the situation and sentiments of the speaker,--presenting evidence neither of studied variety nor of reserve.--Its opposite is affectation.

6. Grace of Gestureis the result of all other perfections; arising from a dignified self-possession of mind, and the power of personal exertion practiced into facility after the best models, and according to the truest taste. This usually therefore depends more on art than on nature ; and has more to do with pleasing the fancy than with producing

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