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as will best bear their application. Indeed the effective employment of the higher elements of speech, whether single or in combination, will depend essentially on the susceptibility of the reader or speaker to feel the sentiments he utters. This exercise will do much to prevent any misapplication of the functions of the voice, and thus to protect him who might otherwise be guilty of such misapplication from the charge of affectation.

SECTION V.

OF EXPRESSION.

INTONATION has much to do with the expression of sentiment and passion. Some of the sensibilities, it is true, can be expressed only by words; while others, on the contrary, can receive a full expression only by the tones of the voice. These are often sufficient, even without

any

aid from articulate words. Thus the tones expressive of want and distress in the donjestic animals are instinctively understood, and have a wonderful power over the human heart. The sigh and the groan produce in the hearer an emotion of pain, which the substitution of words however full of grief or anguish tends to relieve. These tones, so expressive in themselves, cannot fail to be impressive when united with words.

The “Expression of the Passions” has been a favorite subject with all writers on Elocution. Little has been done however in the real development of the subject,-formerly for the want of terms to express the various functions of the voice. This defect having been supplied by Dr. Rush, we see no reason why the learner may not now suc.cessfully be taught the application of the principles set forth in the first chapter, to the expression of sentiment and feeling. We do not here propose a full exposition of this subject, because we do not deem it necessary. He who acquires the full command of the elements already described, who is free from bad habits, and possesses the power of feeling deeply what he utters, will, we admit, need little instruction in the application of these elements to his purpose. So, on the contrary, he who is destitute of the susceptibility of emotion, in view of the sentiments which he reads, or of the thoughts which fill his mind in extemporaneous utterance, will make but a poor piece of work in the attempt to counterfeit this emotion, even after studying all that can be said as to the modes of expressing it.

Frequently, however, the susceptibility of feeling is not wanting ; but yet has been suppressed, either by habits of dull and monotonous delivery, or by a natural diffidence which has refused a full expression of the language of emotion. In such cases, it is believed the exercises of this section will prove sufficient to put the learner upon the right course of practice, while it is as confidently believed, that nothing short of this would meet his wants. The ready use of the natural language of emotion secures two objects; first, to bring into active operation the susceptibility of emotion which may exist in the speaker; and second, to enable him to awaken in others what he himself feels. The first of these objects—the reaction of eloquent expression upon the mind of the speaker-is often overlooked.

Before entering formally upon this part of our work, the learner should be reminded, that while the voice alone does much in the expression of feeling, much is also left for language to do. The same element of vocal expression is often used for sentiments widely different from each other; he, then, who expects to find a vocal element peculiarly adapted to every different sentiment, expects too much. It will not be our object here fully to develop this subject; nor in the development we shall give to it, shall we have any reference to a scientific classification of the passions. Our view will be strictly practical. Most of the points will be illustrated by examples, which it is believed will prove sufficient for all the preliminary practice of the learner. When these can be perfectly executed, then further examples may be sought for and everywhere found.

NARRATIVE, DESCRIPTION. Common discourse or colloquial dialogue, which has for its object the expression of thought without any admixture of feeling, calls into use — The Natural Voice, and the Diatonic Melody; and admits the Wave of the Second on syllables susceptible of long quantity. These are the simplest elements used in speech, and their combination scarcely deserves a place under the head of Expression. Even emphasis or interrogation breaks in on this simple melody of speech.

Dignity, SOLEMNITY, Gravity, &c. Dignified, solemn, and grave subjects are most naturally and fully expressed by the Orotund voice, the Partial Drift of the Monotone, Slow Time, and Long Quantity combined with the Single Equal Wave of the Second, both Direct and Inverted, and with the Median Stress.

The same symbols are also employed to express Respect, Reverence, Veneration, and Adoration, as also Solemn Rebuke, serious Admonition and Reproach; and they aid in giving utterance to all other sentiments which embrace the idea of Deliberation.

EXAMPLES. *
1. High on a throne of royal state, which far

Outshone the wealth of Ormus and of Ind,
Or where the gorgeous east with richest hand
Showers on her kings barbaric pearl and gold,
Satan exalted sat, by merit raised
To that bad eminence: and, from despair
Thus high uplifted beyond hope, aspires
Beyond thus high, insatiate to pursue
Vain war with Heaven; and, by success untaught,

His proud imaginations thus displayed.
2. Hail, holy Light! offspring of Heaven first-born!

Or of the Eternal co-eternal beam
May I express thee unblamed ? since God is light,
And never but in unapproached light
Dwelt from eternity, dwelt then in thee,
Bright effluence of bright essence increate.
Or hear'st thou rather, pure ethereal Stream,
Whose fountain who shall tell ? Before the sun,
Before the heavens thou wert; and, at the voice
Of God, as with a mantle, didst invest
The rising world of waters dark and deep,

Won from the void and formless infinite. 3. And the heaven departed as a scroll, when it is rolled together; and every mountain and island were moved out of their places. And the kings of the earth, and the great men, and the rich men, and the chief captains, and the mighty men, and every bondman,

* In the execution of the examples of this section, the teacher must use a discretionary power, as to how far he will throw the student upon his own resources. Before, however, leaving the exercises, under each head, he should present to his pupil the true modulations, and thus lead him to the most perfect execution by the aid of his example, as well as his instructions.

and every free man, hid themselves in the dens and in the rocks of the mountains; and said to the mountains and rocks, Fall on us, and hide us from the face of him that sitteth on the throne, and from the wrath of the Lamb: For the great day of his wrath is come; and who shall be able to stand ?

4. Thou glorious mirror, where the Almighty's form

Glasses itself in tempests; in all time
Calm or convulsed—in breeze, or gale, or storm,
Icing the pole, or in the torrid clime
Dark-heaving ;-boundless, endless, and sublime-
The image of eternity—the throne
Of the Invisible; even from out thy slime
The monsters of the deep are made; each zone
Obeys thee; thou goest forth, dread, fathomless, alone.

5. Fathers, we once again are met in council:

Cæsar's approach has summoned us together,
And Rome attends her fate from our resolves.
How shall we treat this bold aspiring man?
Success still follows him, and backs his crimes:
Pharsalia gave him Rome.. Egypt has since
Received his yoke, and the whole Nile is Cæsar's.
Why should I mention Juba's overthrow,
Or Scipio's death? Numidia’s burning sands
Still smoke with blood. 'Tis time we should decree
What course to take; our foe advances on us,
And envies us even Lybia’s sultry deserts.
Fathers, pronounce your thoughts; are they still fixed
To hold it out and fight it to the last?
Or are your hearts subdued at length, and wrought,
By time and ill success, to a submission ?
Sempronius, speak.

6. I appeal to the immaculate God—I swear by the throne of Heaven, before which I must shortly appear-by the blood of the murdered patriots who have gone before me—that my conduct has been, through all this peril, and through all my purposes, governed only by the convictions which I have uttered, and by no other mo

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