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pressed, if the antithetic part is plainly obvious, it may take the Rising Slide. Examples:

True politeness is not a mere compliance with arbitrary custom ; [it is the expression of a refined benevolence.] God is not the author of sin, [but of moral excellence.]

To these rules may be added two others for the Falling Slide ; and they are given here, because, like the foregoing, they seem to depend sufficiently on the structure of the sentence, to receive some illustration from that principle.

RULE IV. A succession of emphatic particulars takes the Emphasis of the Falling Slide.


1. Absalom's beauty, Jonathan's love, David's valor, Solomon's wisdom, the patience of Job, the prudence of Augustus, the eloquence of Cicero, the innocence of wisdom, and the intelligence of ALL, though faintly amiable in the creature, are found in immense perfection in the Creator.

2. The soul can exert herself in many different ways of action. She can understand, will, imagine,-see and hear, love and discourse,—and apply herself to many other like exercises of different kinds and natures.

3. His hopes, his happiness, his very life, hung upon the next word from those lips.

4. Valor, humanity, courtesy, justice, and honor, were the characteristics of chivalry.

Note.-On each successive word of the emphatic series, the slide should be made through a wider interval, and with increased force. *

* Several eminent writers on elocution have laid down the rule, that the last member of a commencing series, or, more generally, the penultimate clause of a sentence, should take the Rising Inflection. Thus, "honor,' in the last example, according to this rule, should receive the Rising Slide, instead of presenting to the ear the climax which exists in the sense; and some very insufficient reasons are assigned why it should be so. I would suggest, however, that a slight pause, after the last emphatic word, prepares the

RULE V.—Emphatic repetition requires the Falling Slide.

EXAMPLES 1. And the angel of the Lord called unto him out of heaven; and said, Abraham, ABRAHAM. And he said, Here am I.

2. O Jerusalem, JERUSALEM, thou that killest the prophets, and stonest them which are sent unto you, how often would I have gathered thy children together, even as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings, and ye would not!




PREPARATORY to the next two sections, we here introduce what Dr. Rush has well designated the “Drifts of the Voice.” In the first chapter of this Manual are enumerated and described all the elements which are supposed to be essential to a perfect elocution. The learner must feel an interest in knowing whether they are limited in their application and use to the emphasis, as described in the last

way for a more harmonious cadence than can be produced in the way proposed; and this is believed be the manner of many of our best speakers. Who ever hears, in the spirited utterance of any of our inost accomplished speakers, such specimens as occur in the notation of Porter's Analysis? Witness the following, for example.

6. What, Tubero, did that naked sword of yours mean, in the battle of Pharsalia ? At whose brèast was its point aimed? What was the meaning of your àrms, your spìrit, your eyes, your hánds, your ardor of soul ?"

“Thou shalt love the Lord thy God, with all thy heàrt, and with all thy soul, and with all thy ströngth, and with all thy mind, and thy neighbor as thyself.”.

The mere presentation of these examples furnishes a sufficient refutation of the principle, as susceptible of general application. The exceptions which should be made to it in practice are sufficient to render it entirely nugatory.

section; or whether they can be applied to entire periods, paragraphs, or discourses; and thus give a character to their expression. The answer to this interrogatory is, that some of them are confined to single words, while others may be extended to phrases, and still others to paragraphs, or entire discourses. It is this repetition of the same element, producing a style which runs through and characterizes the utterance of entire passages of discourse, that is called a drift of speech.

We shall here do little more than enumerate the elements which belong to these three classes, leaving it to the application which is to be made in following sections to explain the import of these several drifts, and the circumstances which should determine their employment; as also to furnish the practice necessary to their execution.

The Temporal Drift.— This designation of itself will suggest to the learner no particular rate of utterance. In fact, this is a general term; embracing the Drift of Quantity or Slow Time, and the Drift of Quick Time, together with the Natural Drift of unimpassioned speech. The Time of the voice in any of its modifications may be applied to portions of discourse of any extent.

The Drifts of Radical Stress, of Median Stress, and of Vanishing Stress, can be extended throughout a discourse, in as much as the sentiments which they severally represent are restricted neither to words nor phrases.

The Drift of Pitch. The different degrees of pitch, as well as the different kinds of Stress, may be employed on passages of some length, without any considerable variation.

The Drift of the Semitone, and the Diatonic Drift, only indicate the prevalence of the elements necessary to constitute their respective melodies.

The Drift of the Downward Slides.-The downward movements of the voice, though not limited to any particular interval, are sufficient to give a peculiar character to the expression. The interval of the downward octave however is never employed but for emphasis.

The Drifts of the Wave of the Semitone, and of the Wave of the Second, are distinguished by the prevalence of their respective elements, and are always connected with Quantity.

The Drift of Force.—Like the temporal drift and the drift of pitch, this may be characterized by difference in degree. Loudness and Softness constitute styles of utterance, as well marked as almost any other elements of speech.

The Drift of Quality.-Of the kinds of voice enumerated, perhaps none are adapted to produce drifts but the Natural voice and the Orotund.

Those elements of speech which are suited only to phrases, or very short portions of discourse, but which are employed for purposes more extended than mere emphasis, give rise to what Dr. Rush has called Partial Drifts of Speech. They are as follows:

The Partial Drift of the Rising Slides.This is employed in Interrogation.

The Partial Drift of Quality, as heard in the Tremor, the Aspiration, the Guttural, and the Falsette.

The Partial Drift of the Phrases of Melody.Of these none perhaps are appropriated to purposes of expression, but the Monotone, and the Alternate Phrase.

The following are never heard as Drifts of Speech, nor used but for the mere purpose of emphasis on single words, except as a fault of delivery:The Vocule, the Compound, Stress, the Downward Octave, and the Waves of the Third, Fifth, and Eighth. The use of these elements, then, has been sufficiently set forth in the last section.—It remains to show how the Drifts of Speech may be further employed for the purpose of Expression.

As a further suggestion preparatory to the application of the principles here developed, it may be remarked, that these drifts, or styles of speech, are often found united in the same melody, though they have been treated thus separately, and as distinct elements. There are few of them that are incongruous the one with the other, and no one of them but admits of a combination with some other. As examples of such combination, it will be found that DiGNITY requires the union of the Drifts of Quantity, of the Median Stress, of the Wave of the Second, and of the Orotund, together with the Partial Drift of the Monotone; and that ANGER combines the Drifts of Quick Time, the Radical Stress, the Downward Slides, and of Force, with the Partial Drifts of the Guttural voice and the Aspiration.

The ease with which the learner will make these combinations will depend on his familiarity with these elements in their uncombined state. In the examples, however, which will be given for practice in the next section, it will not be best to attempt the employment of all the symbols at the first reading. For illustration, in a .passage containing angry sentiment, let the learner first read it with Force and in Quick time, then repeat it in connection with the Radical Stress and the Downward Slides. And when this can be done with ease, as he becomes imbued with the sentiment of the passage, let him add the Guttural harshness and the Aspiration on such words and clauses

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