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3. Emphasis sometimes extends to several words, or an entire clause; as, “I came not to baptize, but to preach the gospel.__“Heaven and earth will witness, if Rome must fall, that we are innocent.”

4. One of the objects of emphasis is to point out the antithetic relation of words; and to exhibit this most strongly, the emphasis of the Rising and Falling Slides and of the Direct and Inverted Wave are often opposed to each other, on the words thus related.—When the emphasis falls on a single word, in consequence of its importance in the sentence, it is called absolute emphasis ; in case of antithesis, it is called relative emphasis. Several of these relations frequently occur in the same passage. Thus,—“The young are slaves to novelty, the old to custom._" The hope of the righteous shall be gladness; but the expectation of the wicked shall perish.

5. The emphasis of the Upward and Downward Slides, as also of the Waves, is often heightened by extending the movement to the unaccented syllables of the word on which it occurs. Examples :

What is it that a Roman would not suffer
That a Venetian prince must bear?

For no narrow frith he had to cross.
Though he will not rise and give him, because he is his friend,

yet because of his importunity he would rise and give him as much as he needeth.

6. In the employment of emphasis, two cautions may be given to the learner ; viz.,- First, that he should never allow himself to use the Wave—particularly the Unequal Wave—where only the simple Slides are called for; and Second, that he should avoid all excessive formality, in marking the emphatic words. This seems to imply, on the part of the speaker, a distrust of the ability of his audience to perceive the force of his language unless accompanied with peculiar efforts to exhibit it.

Having explained at length the means by which emphatic distinction is imparted to words, and the general principles on which the emphasis depends, it may be expedient to give the learner the advantage of some more specific rules in relation to

RELATIVE EMPHASIS. To mark the relative distinction of words, the emphasis of the Rising and Falling intervals is generally used. No new element of emphasis then remains to be here introduced. Under this head it is proposed simply to develope a subordinate principle in emphasis, which makes the kind of emphatic distinction employed, sometimes to depend on the structure of the sentence, or at least to be coincident with it. This should be considered only as a secondary principle, having reference, like the Diatonic Slides, rather to the sound than to the sense; and liable, therefore, at any time, to be interrupted by the recurrence of the absolute emphasis. Having only euphony for its basis, as might be expected, there is not a perfect uniformity in the directions of elocutionists respecting it, or in the usage of good speakers. The following, it is believed, are all the rules that the learner can profit by, or that can be laid down without the danger of giving to speech an affected stiffness which ought not to belong to it.

RULE I. When the successive members of a sentence consist of two clauses which correspond to each other, the first clause in each takes the Rising, and the latter the Falling Slide.


1. Here regard to virtue opposes insensibility to shame; purity to pollution ; integrity to injustice ; virtue to villany; resolution to rage ; regularity to riot. The struggle lies between wealth and want ; the dignity and degeneracy of reason; the force and the phrenzy of the soul; between well-grounded hope and widely extended despair.

2. By honor and dishonor ; by evil report, and good report; as deceivers, and yet true; as unknown, and yet well known; as dying, and behold we live; as chastened, and not killed ; as sorrowful, yet always rejoicing; as poor, yet making many rich; as having nothing, and yet possessing all things.

3. We are troubled on every side, yet not distressed; perplexed but not in despair ; persecuted but not forsaken ; cast down, but not destroyed.

4. In the suitableness or unsuitableness, the proportion or disproportion of the affection to the object which excites it, consists the propriety or impropriety of the action.

Note.-By observing these examples, it will be perceived, that this rule holds good without regard to the nature of the relation between the clauses.-By the last, it appears, that when words which are derived from the same root stand in opposition to each other, on one of them at least the emphasis falls on the distinguishing syllable, without regard to the place of the ordinary accent.

RULE II.—When any sentence has corresponding members, expressing any other single relation than the antithesis of negation and affirmation, the first member generally takes the Rising and the latter the Falling Slide.


1. Homer was the greater genius; Virgil, the better artist: in the one, we more admire the man; in the other, the work. Homer hurries us with a commanding impetuosity ; Virgil leads us with an attractive majesty. Homer scatters with a generous profusion; Virgil bestows with a careful magnificence. Homer, like the Nile, pours out his riches with a sudden overflow ; Virgil, like a river in its banks, with a constant stream.


2. I am found, said virtue, in the vale, and illuminate the mountains. I cheer the cottager at his toil, and inspire the sage at his meditation : I mingle in the crowd of cities, and bless the hermit in his cell.

3. Dryden knew more of man in his general nature, and Pope in his local manners. The notions of Dryden were formed by comprehensive speculation, those of Pope by minute attention. There is more dignity in the knowledge of Dryden, and more certainty in that of Pope.

4. Never before were so many opposing interests, passions, and principles, committed to such a decision. On one side an attachment to the ancient order of things, on the other a passionate desire of change; a wish in some to perpetuate, in others to destroy every thing; every abuse sacred in the eyes of the former, every foundation attempted to be demolished by the latter ; a jealousy of power shrinking from the slightest innovation, pretensions to freedom pushed to madness and anarchy; superstition in all its dotage, impiety in all its fury ;-whatever, in short, could be found most discordant in the principles, or violent in the passions of men, were the fearful ingredients which the hands of Divine justice selected to mingle in this furnace of wrath.

5. Therefore, the world knoweth us not, because knew him not. 6. Custom is the plague of wise men, and the idol of fools.

7. Cæsar was celebrated for his great generosity, Cato for his unsullied integrily.

Note.—When the members are long, and especially if they express a complete sense, as in the last example,—both members are often terminated with the falling inflection; nor do I consider that objectionable. In that case, however, the antithesis may be presented on the leading words of the members; as, in this example, on • Cæsar' and Cato. The following examples may also illustratė the same point:- The power of delicacy is chiefly seen in discerning the true merit of a work; the power of correctness, in rejecting false pretensions to merit.”_"The Spartan [Lycurgus] aimed to form a community of high-minded warriors; the Athenian [Solon] sought rather a community of cultivated scholars.”

RULE III.- When a sentence consists of two corresponding members, the one negative, the other affirmative, the negative member takes the Rising Slide ;-Except when overruled by the absolute Emphatic Stress.

When the negative member comes first, it is obvious that this rule is entirely coincident with Rule II, as in the following examples :—“I did not say a better soldier, but an elder.—“ These things I say now, not to insult one who is fallen, but to render more secure those who stand.

-“ He came not with the aspect of vengeance, but

of mercy.'

The following examples, in which the negative member occurs last, will show that the principle is of universal application.

1. The duty of a soldier is to obey, not to direct his general. 2. It was an enemy, not a friend, who did this. 3. I came to bury Cæsar, not to praise him. 4. You were paid to fight against Alexander, not to rail at him.

Examples of exception to Rule III, founded on the absolute emphasis :

1. If we have no regard for our CHARACTER, we ought to have some regard for our interest.

2. If you will not make the experiment for your own satisfaction, you ought to make it for the satisfaction of your friends.

3. The man who is in the daily use of ardent spirit, if he does not become a DRUNKARD, is in danger of losing his health and character.

4. If we have no regard for religion in Youth, we ought to have some respect for it in age.

Note 1.-When the negative is implied though not expressed, the negative member still takes the Rising Slide: thus,—"A countenance more in sorrow than in anger.” Here the inflections are as though it were read,—"A countenance in sorrow, not in The following examples will further illustrate this principle:

:-" He is more knave than fool.—“ Napoleon merits praise, rather than dispraise.”—“Cæsar deserves blame, instead of fame.

Note 2.- When only the negative part of such sentence is ex


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