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And breath'st defiance here and scorn
Where I reign King ? and to enrage thee more

Thy King and lord !
2. So much the rather thou, celestial Light,

Shine inward, and the mind through all her powers

Irradiate. 3. I formed them free

They them-selves ordained their fall.

In the following example, the first two syllables in italics may receive the direct equal wave of the second; “I” should take the wave of the third, and “we” of the fifth.

Brutus. 'Tis very like: he hath the falling sickness.
Cassius. No, Cæ-sar hath it not; but you and I,

And honest Casca, we have the falling sickness. Note.-In general it is believed, the Double wave has the same expression indicated by the single wave, and only heightens it by increasing the quantity of the syllable which receives the emphasis. Nor does the Inverted wave always give a different expression from the Direct; but sometimes seems to be used for the sake of variety. When however the last constituent of the wave, whether single or double, rises through the interval of a fifth or octave, it gives the expression of interrogation; as when it takes the falling through these intervals, it gives the expression of strong surprise.

2. EMPHASIS OF THE UNEQUAL Wave. The natural expression of inequality in the constituents of the wave, is scorn and contempt. In dignified discourse this sentiment is expressed by combining with the equal wave the vanishing stress, or the aspiration. With. out the employment of these elements, the language of sarcasm and irony loses all its point.

Dr. Rush gives the following as examples of the Unequal Single Wave.— The word “boy,” in the first, is pronounced with the rise of a fifth, and the subsequent fall of an octave.

False hound!
have writ

your annals true, 'tis there
That, like an eagle in a dove-cote, I


Volces in Corioli;
Alone I did it.—Boy!

I'll use you

In the following, “yea” may be read with the rise of a tone or a third, connected with the fall of a third or fifth.

For, from this day forth, for my mirth, yea, for my laughter, When you are waspish. The second “ wrong" in the following line, may be read with the rise of a semitone and a fall of a third or fifth.

You wrong me every way, you wrong me, Brutus. Emphasis of the Unequal Double Wave. — To be properly uttered, the waves all require quantity; but the double wave especially requires that the syllable on which it is given should be susceptible of indefinite time. It is heard in peevish expression, in the colloquial cant of common life, and often heightens the effect of dramatic sentiment.

This element may be exhibited on the word “they,” as repeated in the following example:

They tell us to be moderate, while they, they revel in profusion.

It may be suggested to the learner, as one of the modes of exhibiting the sentiment and feeling of the above passage, to pronounce “us” with a rapid movement of the voice through the direct double wave of the second ; the first “they," with the direct single wave of the third ; and to give to this word when repeated the double wave having its first constituent the rising third, the second the falling fifth, and the third the rise of a second.-Other modes of inflection might be suggested.

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V. EMPHASIS OF FORCE. This form of emphasis is specially suited to short syllables, and differs but little in its sound or its expression from the radical emphasis when combined with short quantity. This however is characterized by the same fullness of force throughout its whole extent, without the gradual vanish of the radical emphasis. The following will suffice as examples :1. Tell your invaders this, and tell them, too, we seek no change;

and least of all such a change as they would bring us. 2.

Therefore as far From granting be, as I from beg-ging peace. The Emphasis of the Vocule, is but the Emphasis of Force applied to a word consisting mainly of atonics, and terminated by a mute. When such a word is followed by a pause,

this seems one of the most forcible modes of emphasis. The employment of this element, however, requires great care, as it is so much more frequently used improperly than otherwise. Nothing short of the most vehement feeling authorizes its use.

1. Whether upheld by strength, or chance, or fate.

What though the field be lost?
All is not lost; the unconquerable will,
And study of revenge, immortal hate,
And courage never to submit or yield,
That glory never shall his wrath or might
Extort from me.

VI. EMPHASIS OF QUALITY. Of the different kinds of voice mentioned in the last chapter, but three seem to be employed for purposes of

emphatic distinction, viz., the Tremor, the Aspiration, and the Guttural voice.


The tremulous movement of the voice described in the last chapter is sometimes heard throughout short sentences; but is often confined to single words, in which case it becomes one of the elements of emphatic distinction. When combined with any other element than the semitone, it is the symbol of joy and exultation ; and when combined with this, it expresses tenderness and grief.


1. Thou art the ruins of the noblest man,

That ever lived in the tide of times.
2. Now give the hautboys breath, he comes, he comes.
3. Forsake me not thus, Adam !

Bereave me not,
Whereon I live, thy gentle looks, thy aid,
Thy counsel in this uttermost distress,
My only strength and stay. Forlorn of thee,
Whither shall I betake me, where subsist?


EXAMPLES 1. Brutus. What means this shouting ? I do fear, the people

Choose Cæsar for their king.

Ay, do you fear it? Then must I think you would not have it so. 2. Brutus. The name of Cassius honors this corruption,

And chastisement doth therefore hide his head. Cassius. Chastisement ! 3. Brutus. Peace, peace; you durst not so have tempted him.

Cassius. I durst not!


EXAMPLES. 1. I know thee not, nor ever saw till now

Sight more de-test-able than him and thee. 2.

Whence these chains ?
Whence the vile death, which I may meet this moment?
Whence this dishonor, but from thee, thou false one ?

The learner will find examples for his further practice in this important branch of elocution, in every piece of spirited composition he reads. He should first mark the words which are emphatic in the selection under examination, should satisfy himself, as to the most effective kind of emphatic distinction to be employed on each ; and then should endeavor to execute the emphasis in the best manner of which he is capable. If the piece is to be recited, he should be careful to lay the stress on those words only which he had before so marked. The following additional remarks may render the learner further assistance in such practice.

1. Though the elements of emphasis have been treated separately, they are often combined on the same word or syllable ; and some of them never occur alone: thus the Wave is always associated with Quantity, and usually with the Median Stress; and the Guttural voice is generally associated with the Aspiration.

2. The emphatic words are often, in themselves considered, very unimportant. Thus :

If you did know to whom I gave the ring,

you did know for whom I gave the ring,
And would conceive for what I gave the ring,
And how unwillingly I left the ring,
When nought would be accepted but the ring,
You would abate the strength of your displeasure.

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