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and a fifth may be used for purposes of emphasis merely; while that of the octave probably always combines emphasis with the thorough interrogative intonation. The slide through the wider intervals should be struck on a line below the current melody.

EXAMPLES. Emphasis of the Rising Concrete Third.This is the emphasis of simple interrogation ; and is also employed to express the lower shades of emphatic distinction, as they occur in the diatonic melody. 1. Gavest thou the goodly wings to the pea-cocks ? or wings and

feathers unto the os-trich?? 2. I love not man the less, but nature more,

From these our interviews. 3. Yet Bru-tus says he was ambitious.

Emphasis of the Rising Discrete Third.—This has the same expression with the concrete rise of a third, and is rarely used but on immutable syllables.

1. Canst thou draw out leviathan with a hook ?
2. Which, if not vic-tory, is yet revenge.
3. Why then their loss deplore, that are not lost!
4. Why should that name be sounded more than yours ?

Emphasis of the Rising Concrete and Discrete Fifth. The examples which illustrate the two preceding forms may be used for illustration here, by adding to the energy with which they are pronounced. The intervals of the fifth are of more rare occurrence than the third. The following additional examples must suffice.

Concrete. 1. Wouldst thou be King ?

2. Tears like the rain-drops may fall without measure,

But rapture and beauty they cannot recall. 3. Time writes no wrinkle on thine azure brow. 4. I am at liberty, like every other man, to use my own language. 5. You are not left alone to climb the arduous ascent-God is

with you; who never suffers the spirit which rests on him

to fail, nor the man who seeks his favor to seek it in vain. 6. What though the field be lost? all is not lost.

Note 1.-When the emphatic rise, as in this last example, occurs on the last syllable or word of a declarative sentence, it must of course annul the cadence. So also, if it occurs near the close.

Note 2.-This emphatic rise, and the consequent suspension of the cadence, may occur in the Indirect Question; as, What is that? Who do you say that is ?—These cases however are too rare to unsettle the general rules of Interrogative Intonation laid down in the first chapter.

Discrete.
1. Let me have men about me that are fat,

Sleek-headed men, and such as sleep o' nights. 2.

Or when we lay
Chained on the burning lake! That sure was worse.

Emphasis of the Rising Concrete and Discrete Octave.This is the most earnest expression of interrogative intonation; and is never used in grave discourse. Its appropriate expression is that of sneer or raillery.—The rise is concrete when it occurs on long syllables; when on short or immutable syllables, it is formed by a change of radical pitch.

Concrete. 1.

Moneys is

your

suit.
What should I say to you? Should I not say ?
Hath a dog money? Is it possible

A cur can lend three thousand ducats? 2. A King's son? You Prince of Wales ? Discrete.

Zounds, show me what thoul't do: Woul't weep? woul't fight? woul't fast? woul't tear thyself?

2. EMPHASIS OF THE DOWNWARD INTERVALS.

As the rising movements of the voice express doubt and uncertainty, so the downward intervals are the appropriate symbol of surprise and positiveness. When the accented syllable is susceptible of being protracted, the movement is concrete; and in this case the radical point of the slide is struck on a line above that of the current melody, the vanish descending below it, when the force of the emphasis is considerable.—On immutable syllables, the fall can be made only by a discrete skip of the voice.

The fall for the purpose of emphasis, may be through a third, a fifth or an octave, according to the degree of positiveness or surprise contemplated by the emphasis.

EXAMPLES.

Emphasis of the Downward Concrete Third. 1. Does beauteous Tamar view, in this clear fount,

Herself, or heaven? 2. You are the queen, your husband's brother's wife. 3. The fault, dear Brutus, is not in our stars,

But in our-selves, that we are underlings. 4. The curfew tolls, the knell of parting day. Emphasis of the Downward Concrete Fifth.1. Seems, madam! nay, it is ; I know not seems. 2. Before the sun, before the heavens, thou wert. 3.

Upon the watery plain The wrecks are all thy deed. 4. The man who is in the daily habit of using ardent spirits, if

he does not become a drunkard, is in danger of losing his

health and character. Note.—The sense itself, as well as the force of the expression, often depends, as in the last example, on the giving of the downward emphatic slide.

Emphasis of the Downward Concrete Octave. - The learner scarcely need be informed, that this expresses the highest degree of this species of emphasis, or that it is of rare occurrence. Dr. Rush thinks that the following passage cannot be uttered with dramatic effect, but by giving this form of emphasis on the word "hell."

So frowned the mighty combatants, that Hell Grew darker at their frown. The following example will illustrate the discrete rise of a third on that,” and the discrete fall of the same interval on “ too."

Cassius. They shouted thrice; what was the last cry for ?
Casca. Why, for that too.

The downward discrete fifth or octave, for the purpose of emphasis, is believed to be very rare. They cannot be made from the current melody; nor is the voice ever sufficiently high to admit of such a fall, except when it has been carried up to give emphasis to a preceding word; and then the fall is generally to be considered only as a simple return to the current melody. If in any case, such return is made on an immutable and emphatic syllable, then such discrete fall may be construed as a form of emphasis, and would be the only one that could properly be used.

IV. EMPHASIS OF THE WAVE. In practice, as in theory, it is believed that the number and variety of the waves is very great. They may be equal or unequal, single or double, direct or inverted; and in any of these, the individual constituents may be varied from a semitone to an octave, though the intermediate intervals of a second, third, or fifth. A full illustration of this subject will not be attempted.

This form of emphasis can only be used on syllables of long quantity; and expresses, according to its forms, surprise and admiration, sneer and scorn.

1. EMPHASIS OF THE EQUAL WAVE.

EXAMPLES. Equal Wave of the Semitone. When the semitone is employed to give distinction to long syllables, it usually takes the form of the wave. This however gives it no new expression : it remains the symbol of plaintiveness.

I heard the bell tolled on thy burial day, And turning from my nursery window drew A long, long sigh, and wept a last adieu. Equal Wave of the Second.—This has no peculiar expression of its own. It is exhibited in all the examples, when properly read, which illustrate either the Temporal or the Median Emphasis; to these the learner would do well again to recur.

Equal Wave of the Third, and of the Fifth.-
1. Yond' Cassius has a lean and hun-gry look.
2.

Hadst thou alleged
To thy deserted host this cause of flight,

Thou surely hadst not come sole fugitive. 3. Beyond that, I seek not to penetrate the veil. God grant, that

in my day, at least, that curtain may not rise. God grant, that on my vision, never may be opened what lies behind.

The foregoing may be considered as good examples of the wave of the third. The following may be read with the same wave on the emphatic syllables, though their full power cannot be developed but by the use of the wave of the fifth.

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