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city, and the goodliest haven in Italy, until it was destroyed by the Genevois; the which now make no profession but of merchandise.

There is a dangerous faction amongst them, between the ancient houses and the new, which were admitted into the ancient families.

St. George is their treasure-house and receiver, as at Venice St. Mark.

Venice retaining still the ancient form of government, is always for itself in like estate and all one; at this time between the Turk and the King of Spain, in continual watch, seeming to make more account of France, so much in hope of any great affiance at this present to be had in him, but for the reputation of that nation, and the amity always they have had with the same, and behoving them so to do. They use it with good foresight and speedy preventing, sparing for no charge to meet as they may with every accident. Of late they have had some jar with the pope, as well about the inquisition as title of land. With Ferrara and the Venetians is ancient enmity, specially because he receiveth all their banished and fugitives. They make most account of the Duke of Savoy amongst the Princes of Italy. They maintain divers ambassadors abroad, with the Turk, the emperor, France, Spain, and at Rome; with them is an ambassador of France and Savoy always resident, and an agent of Spain, because they gave the preseance to France.

In this it seemeth all the potentates of Italy do agree to let all private grudges give place to foreign

invasion, more for doubt of alteration in religion, than for any other civil cause.

There is none amongst them at this day in any likelihood to grow to any greatness. For Venice is bridled by the Turk and Spain. The Duke of Tuscany seeketh rather title than territory, otherwise than by purchasing.

Savoy is yet young; the rest of no great force of themselves. France hath greatly lost the reputation they had in Italy, by neglecting the occasions offered, and suffering the King of Spain to settle himself.

The Emperor Adolphe, of the house of Austriche, son to Maximilian, about thirty years of age; no strong constitution of body, and greatly weakened by immoderate pleasure; no great quickness of spirit. In fashion and apparel all Spanish, where he had his education in his youth. He was most governed by his mother while she remained with him; and yet altogether by his steward Dyetristan, and his great chamberlain Romphe, both pensionaries of Spain, and there with him maintained.

Of the empire he hath by the last imperial diet one million of dollars towards the maintenance of the garrisons of Hungary; and, besides, his guards are paid of the empire.

To the Turk he payeth yearly tribute for Hungary forty thousand dollars, besides the charge of the presents and his ambassadors, amounting to more than the tribute; in all one hundred thousand dollars.

The ordinary garrisons in Hungary are to the but evil paid at this time.

number of

The revenues and subsidies of Hungary do not pass one hundred thousand florins. The last emperor affirmed solemnly that the charge of Hungary amounted to one million and a half.

The revenues of Bohemia, ordinary and extraordinary, amount to fifty thousand dollars.

In the absence of the emperor, the Baron of Rosemberg is Governor of Bohemia, who possesseth almost a fourth part of that country, and is a papist; neither he nor his brother have children: he beareth in hand to make him his heir.

the emperor

Of Silesia and Moravia, the emperor yearly may have two hundred thousand florins.

Out of Austriche of subsidy and tribute one hundred thousand florins, for his domains are all sold away and engaged.

Thus all his revenues make half a million of florins.

To his brothers Maximilian and Ernest he alloweth yearly, by agreement made between them, forty-five thousand florins apiece, as well for Austriche, as that might hereafter fall unto them by the decease of the Archduke Ferdinand in Tyrol, the which shall come to the emperor.

The emperor altogether dependeth on Spain, as well in respect of his house, as the education he received there, and the rule his mother hath over him with the chief of his council. He is utter énemy to

religion, having well declared the same in banishing the ministers out of Vienna, and divers other towns, where he goeth about to plant Jesuits.

Of his subjects greatly misliked, as his house is hateful to all Germany.

The Archduke Charles holdeth Styria and Carinthia; his chief abode is at Gratz; his wife is sister to the Duke of Bavyre, by whom he hath children.

The Archduke Ferdinand hath Tyrol, and remaineth the most part at Ilsburg. For his eldest son he hath bought in Germany a pretty state, not far from Ulms; the second is a cardinal. Now he is a widower, and said that he shall marry a daughter of the Duke of Mantua.

These are uncles to the emperor; besides Maximilian and Ernest, he hath two brothers, the Archduke Matthias, that hath a pension of the estates of the Low Country, and a Cardinal Archbishop of Toledo.

In Germany there are divers princes diversly affected. The Elector Palatine Ludovic, a Lutheran ; his chief abode is at Heidelberg,

His brother, John Casimir, Calvinist, at Keiserslautern, or Nieustadt.

Richard their uncle at Symyers.

During the life of the last elector, Ludovic dwelt at Amberg in the Higher Palatinate.

Philip Ludovic dwelt at Norbourg on the Danow, and is commonly called duke of.

John dwelleth at Rypont, or Sweybourgh, or in


Bergesaber; the other three brethren have no certain dwelling-place. George John, son of Rupert, Count Palatine, dwelleth at Lysselsteyn.

Augustus, Duke and Elector of Saxony, remaineth the most part at Dresden on the Elbe; sometimes at Torge on Elbe, a goodly castle fortífied by John Frederick. This elector is Lutheran, and a great enemy to our profession; of sixty years of age, half frantic, severe, governed much by his wife, greater exactor than the German princes are wont to be, and retaineth in his service divers Italians; his eldest son married of late the daughter of the Duke of Brandebourg.

The sons of John Frederick, captive, and yet in prison, remain at Coburge in East Franconia, near the forest of Turinge.

The sons of John William, abide at Vinaria in Turingia.

Joachim Frederick, son of John George, Elector of Brandebourg, at Hala in Saxony on the river of Sala, as administrator of the Archbishopric of Magdebourg.

George Frederick, son of George, dwelleth at Orsbuche in East Franconia, or at Blassenbourge, the which was the mansion of his uncle Albert the warrior,

The Elector of Brandebourg, John George, remaineth at Berlin on the river of Sprea: his uncle John dwelleth at Castryne, beyond Odera, very strong both by the situation, and fortified.

William, Duke of Bavyre, a papist, at Munich

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