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of human death ; and not ascending into the highest heavens until after that he had descended into the lower parts of the earth, as the patriarchs and prophets, partakers of the same promises that are his, had also done; you are to believe in the subterraneous region of the infernals, and to drive away from you those who (proudly enough) esteem the spirits of believers too good for

Servants above their Lord, and disciples above their Master, they disdain to accept the comfort of anticipating the resurrection in Abraham's bosom.” Then, lower down in the same chapter, he speaks still more plainly, saying *, “ Heaven is open to no one ; (the saints) are safe, for I would not say that they are shut up, in the earth ; and the kingdoms of heaven shall be first discovered in the transaction of this world's renovation.” Also, in the end of the same chapter, from his little book on Paradise (by the loss of which we suffer no small disadvantage), he says t, “He had established that all human spirits are sequestrated in the infernals, until the day of the Lord.” In many parts of this treatise De Animâ, he testifies to the same thing in other words, and especially in his “ Defence,” chap. xlvii. I: And if we name paradise,” he says, “we mean by that word, not heaven, but a place appointed in the good pleasure of the Most High to receive the spirits of the saints." And in the fourth book against Marcius (chap. xxxiv. $), “ I call that region, then, the bosom of Abraham which, though not celestial, is nevertheless superior to the infernals, and a place of refreshing provided for the spirits of the just, until the consummation of things shall accomplish the resurrection of all in the plenitude of reward.” Parallel passages to these may be found in his De Resurrectione Carnis, cap. xxiii. But enough of Tertullian; we can henceforth have no doubt of his sentiments on this point.

Origen agrees with the fathers already quoted, attributing to the spirits of the saints, both of the Old and New Testaments, only an inferior degree of felicity. In the seventh Homily upon Leviticus he expresses his sentiments as follows l “For they have not yet received their joy, nor indeed have the Apostles; but even these expect that I also should be a partaker of the same felicity with them :" and for this he adduces the authority of St. Paul, the master of the

* Nulli palet cælum, terrâ ad huc salvâ, ne dixerim clausâ; cum transactione enim mundi reserabuntur regna cælorum.

+ Se constituisse omnem animam apud inferos sequestrari, in diem Domini.

| Et si paradisum nominemus, locum divinæ amænitatis, recipiendis sanctorum spiritibus non cælum intelligimus.

§ Eam itaque regionem sinum dico Abrahæ, etsi non cælestem, sublimiorem tan:en inferis, interim refrigerium præbituram animabus justorum, donec consummatio rerum resurrectionem omnium plenitudine mercedis expungat.

|| Nondum enim receperunt lætitiam suam, ne Apostoli quidem ; sed et ipsi expectant, ut et ego lætitiæ eorum particeps fiam.

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Gentiles * (Heb. xi. 40). “You see," saith he, "that Abraham is still expecting the things that are perfect; and Isaac and Jacob, and all the prophets, are expecting us, that with us they may receive perfect blessedness.”

Åt the end of the third century, Victorinus Martyr, and Lactantius, adopted the same opinion. The latter, in the seventh book of his Institutiones, sect. 21ť, Nor yet can any one think that the human spirit is judged immediately after death : for all are detained until the time shall come, in which the Supreme Judge shall make trial of their works, and give eternal life to all those in whom righteousness is discovered.” The same author (when treating of Rev. vi. 9), in speaking of “the souls under the altar--in which place he would have it observed, that they are not to be understood as within the altar, viz. in heaven, but without it; where he believes that the spirits wait until the last time shall come, in which rewards and punishments are distributed :“ But because the everlasting remuneration of the saints, and the future damnation of the wicked, is in the last time, therefore it is said to the former, ' WAIT;' and for the consolation of their bodies they receive white robes, viz. the gift of the Holy Ghost.”

Moreover, many of the most ancient fathers, if not altogether all, have said that human spirits descend into HADES § ; whereby they testify their opinion that they are not immediately transported to the highest heaven and supreme glory. For although hades be of wide signification, including both just and unjust, yet no one ever pretended that any spirits therein confined might there enjoy the beatific vision ;-so that the ancient fathers, in disposing of all departed spirits in HADES, do in effect exclude them, for the time being, from that vision and from glory. We have seen how Justin, Irenæus, and Tertullian, demonstrate from the descent of Christ that of all his servants ; " for the disciple is not above his Lord ||.”. And by the converse of this argument, Macarius, bishop of Jerusalem, in the Nicene Council expounding philosophically the

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* Vides igitur quia expectat ad huc Abraham ut quæ perfecta sunt consequatur. Expectat et Isaac, et Jacob, et omnes prophetæ expectant nos, ut nobiscum perfectam beatitudinem capiant.

† Nec tamen quisquam putet animas post mortem protinus judicari : omnes eniin in unâ communique custodiâ detinentur, donec tempus adveniat quo maximus Judex meritorum faciat examen ; tum quorum fuerit probata justitia, ii præmium immortalitatis accipiunt.

I Sed quia in novissimo tempore sanctorum remuneratio perpetua, et impiorum ventura damnatio, dictum est iis EXPECTATE. Et pro corporis sui solatio, acceperunt stolas albas, i. e. donum Spiritûs Sancti.

§ 'Elg•"Adov.
|| Matthew x. 24.

incarnation of the Messiah, declares that he descended into hades * because we descend thither after death ; and he was in all things made like unto us” (Heb. ii. 17). Also he maintains, that the Lord so effected our resurrection from death (viz. from hades); and afterwards adds, concerning those and the other particulars of the same chapter t, This is the apostolic and irreproachable faith of the church.To the same effect, Eustathius, patriach of Antioch (Dial I. apud Theodoret on Psalm xvi. 10) calls hades I, the habitation of human souls ;and proves that the soul of Christ was verily human, because both in this life and also in the other, namely, while stripped of the body, it underwent the lot of men Ş.

In the fragment by Caius, or some other very ancient Christian, περι της του παντος αιτιας (in Not. Ηaschei. ad Phot.), it is said, that the spirits of the just and unjust are not kept together in hades; for it commences as follows || : “ This account of dæmons and of hades, in which the souls of the righteous and unrighteous are confined, it is necessary to introduce,” &c. and afterwards it repeats the same words, with the distinction of the compartment, as follows: “The righteous are now confined in bades, but not in same place with the unrighteous; for unto that habitation there is one exit, in the gate of which,” &c. It

goes on to dispose of the guardian angels, who separate the spirits that arrive there, and send or conduct them severally to their appropriate seats, to their proper regions, to their due locality; and lastly asserts, that they remain there until the resurrection, in these words **:“ This is the doctrine concerning hades, in which the souls of all are confined until that season which God shall appoint, and in which he will accomplish the resurrection of the dead."

To the above authorities of the first three centuries, we may add those of two Cæsarean bishops of an uncertain date, but, as I think, a later : these are, Andreas, and Aretas, who derived his commentaries on the Apocalypse from Andreas. They write

Κατεφερομεθα μετα τον θανατον εις τον Αδην, ανεδεξατο και τούτο, και κατηλθεν εκουσιως εις αυτον. Gelas. Cyz. de Con. Nic. 1. 1, C. 23.

+ Αυτη η της εκκλησιας Αποσολικη και αμωμητος πισις. + Αδην χοριον των ανθρωπινων ψυχων.

5 Αλλα μεν η του Ιησου εκατερών πειραν εχε, γεγονε γαρ και εν τω χωρια των ανθρωπινων ψυχών, και της σαρκος εκτος γενομενη, ζή και υφετηκε, λογακη αρα και ταις ψυχαίς των ανθρωπων ομοιουσιος.

| Και ουτος μεν ο περι δαιμονων λογος, περι δε Αδου, εν ώ συνεχονται ψυχαι δικαιων τε και αδικων, αναγκαιον ειπειν.

Τ οι δικαιοι εν τω Αδη νύν μεν συνεχονται, αλλ' και το αυτό τοπών και οι αδικοι, μια γαρ εις τουτο το χωριον καθοδος, και

τη πυλη. ουτος ο περι αδου λογος εν όψυχαι παντων κατεχονται, αχρι καιρού ον ο θεος ωρισεν' ανασασιν τοτε παντων ποιησομενος.

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as follows * :-* Death is the separation of the soul and body : hades is a region either of itself unobservable, or which, lying hidden, escapes our notice; and which receives the spirits that have departed from us.” And again, the same bishops, in treating of " the souls beneath the altar” of Rev. vi. confirm the preceding, and clearly oppose themselves to the papal opinion of a beatific vision t. “ Hence the saints are found to pray for the end of the world, because they are commanded to wait and suffer delay until the death of their brethren, and are not perfected (according to the divine Apostle) before them. But ' white robes' (the splendour of virtues which had been manifested in their illustrious persons) are received by them. Being invested with which (although they have not yet received the promises), they do nevertheless deservedly rejoice in the hope of those excellent things, which also they contemplate already with the mind's eye, being from all material grossness freed, and reposing in the bosom of Abraham. Por it is the opinion of many saints, that every lover of virtue at his departure from the present life obtains a place worthy of his deeds, in which he may indulge a sure conception of that glory which is prepared for him.”

Furthermore, in corroboration of the truth we have stated, observe with what moderation and modesty the blessed martyrs Polycarp, Clemens Romanus, and Ignatius, speak of the place and condition of departed saints. They pretend not that they are received into the highest heaven, and the beatific vision; but, according to Polycarp I, “ into a place appropriate unto them;" or, according to Clemens Romanus on Saint Paul (in his Epistle ad Phil.)an holy place;" which in the same epistle he denominates " the seat of the pious,saying ||, that “ so many as have been made perfect in love, according to the grace of

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* θανατος μεν χωρισμος ψυχης και, σωματος αδης δε τοπος ημιν αειδης, ηγουν αφανης και αγνωσος, ο τας ψυχας ημων εντευθεν εκδημουσας δεχομενος.

* Δια τουτων της το κοσμου συντελειαν αιτουμενοι φαινονται οι αγιοι διο μακροθυμειν αχρι της των αδελφων τελειωσεως κελευονται, ινα μη χωρις αυτων τελειωθωσι, κατα τον θειον Αποσολον. Αι δε λευκαι σολαι την επανθασαν αυτοις, των αρετων εμφαινεσι λαμπρότητα ην ημφιεσμενοι, και μηπω τας επαγγελιας εκομισαντο, τη γον ελπιδι τουτων α

περ νοερως ενοπτριζονται, πασης απηλλαγμενοι παχυτητος, εικότως ευφραινονται τους κολποις Αβρααμ αναπαυομενοι. Πολλοις γαρ των αγιων ειρηται, χωρους αξιες ειληχεναι των της αρετης εργατων εκατον, δι ών και περι της μελλεσης αυτων δοξης τεκμαιροντα.

+ Εις τοπον αυτοις οφελομενον.

και Ουτως απηλλαγη το κοσμο, και εις τον αγιον τοπον επορευθη. Non ad celum aut gloriam, sed ad τοπον οφειλομενον της δοξης, dicit Clemens, Ep. c. 5. Čitat Clericus ad Matt. xvii. 18.

Ita etiam ELS τοπον τον ιδιον, Jude. Acts 1. 25. Ο Αι γενεαι πασαι, απο Αδαμ εως της δε ημερας παρηλθον, αλλ' οι εν

VOL. 1.-N O. 19.

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Christ, of all generations from Adam unto this day, are in possession of the seat of the pious, and shall be manifested in the discovery of Christ's kingdom: for it is written (Is. xxvi.) • Enter into your chambers for a little while, until my wrath and indignation be overpast, and I shall remember the day of good, and shall raise you up from your beds.”” · All these testimonies agree with what has been stated above; and what Clemens calls xwpay evoeßuv the seat of the pious, is named by Justin xwpov kpeittovaa better place,” and by others, xwpovs ašies, vel torous aštus "a worthy place, or habitation; " by Polycarp, Tomov avtoic operaquevoy " an appropriate habitation ;" by Ignatius, torov idiov a fit habitation ;" by Clement, τοπον αγιον

un holy habitation;" and by Chrysostom, lepa προθυρα ο

a sacred hall.So that they are not only consistent with one another, but also with the moderation preserved in the Scriptures : for example, when our Lord is speaking (Luke xvi. 25*) of the state of the pious dead, who abide in Abraham's bosom, he calls their blessedness, “CONSOLATION,” not glory : and the same is described elsewhere in the Scriptures as rest and refreshment, and compared to a peaceful sleep.

Such, then, is the language of Holy Writ and of the Apostolic age. Let it now be compared with the language of the popes,

and of the Romish church. In the Council of Florence (Verba Concil. Florent. p. 86 +), “THE SPIRITS OF BELIEVERS ARE INSTANTLY RECEIVED INTO HEAVEN,” say they, AND αγαπη τελειωθεντες κατα την τε Χριση χαριν, έχεσιν χωραν ευσεβων οι φανερωθησονται εν τη επισκοπή της βασιλειας τα Χρισ8" γεγραπται γαρ, , εισελθε εις τα τεμεια μικρον οσον, εως και παρελθη η οργη και θυμος με, και μνησθησομαι ημερας αγαθης, και ανασησω υμας εκ των σηκων υμων.

* In Luke xvi.19—31, (remembering always that it is merely a parable) we have the following picture of hades - namely, a place in which the conscious personalities of those who have died and been buried are to be found (ver. 22), the righteous as well as the wicked : these, however, being in torment, and separated from the former by a great gulf, impassable by either party (ver. 26). But they can see each other ; that is, they can recognise each other's persons, and discern each other's locality,“ afar of(ver. 23): and they can hear each other's converse; that is, they can communicate in the transactions of each other's thoughts: they can even hold mutual conversation with each other (ver. 24—31): and while the latter experience fiery anguish (ver. 24), the former are comforted(ver.25).- -BUT, MOREOVER, IN WHAT SENSE do the separated spirits of the reprobate endure FLAMES ?” (ver. 24). They are separate from the fesh; they are not material, they cannot be scorched and singed ; as some teach ; (addressing themselves to the soul, and not to the spirits of their congregations). Nay; but in the vivid anticipation of their impending torment, they realize it, even to the extent of using the self-same language which the outcasts shall use hereafter. And, truly, unless they did so no mortal could understand them; whereas in the delivery of the parable the auditors are mortals !—So then, the parable only confirms the view which the catholic church of all nations and of all ages hath entertained, and embodied in all her creeds; until these latter days ; uutil this hour and power of darkness; which they madly call the march of intellect." Father, forgive them; for they know not what they do.1 + Max recipi in cælum, et intueri clarè ipsum Dominum, Trimum, et Unum sicuti est.” VERBA Concil. FLORENT. p. 86.

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