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stroy them which destroy (corrupt, marg.] the earth :” and it is clear from many other passages; as xiii. 2, 5, 10, in which the beast, to whom (ver. 2) the dragon gave his power, and his seat, and great authority, and to whom (ver. 5) was “ given a mouth speaking great things and blasphemies, and he opened his mouth in blasphemy against God, to blaspheme his name and his tabernacle and them that dwell in heaven," has his doom given (ver. 10):“ He that leadeth into captivity shall go into captivity ; he that killeth with the sword must be killed with the sword: here is the patience and faith of the saints.” Accordingly, on the opening of the sixth seal an earthquake ensues, which, as I have said in my paper on the Structure (see Morning Watch No. III.), seems to include the whole day of wrath, from the first shaking of Babylon at the French Revolution, down to “ the great and terrible day of the Lord” (Joel ii. 28, 32; Mal. iv.5,6). And the symbols in which it is set forth are taken from prophecies in which the destruction of Babylon and the last enemies of the church is described ; as Isai. xiii. 10: “For the stars of heaven and the constellations thereof shall not give their light: the sun shall be darkened in his going forth, and the moon shall not cause her light to shine: and I will punish the world for their evil, and the wicked for their iniquity; and I will cause the arrogancy of the proud to cease, and will lay low the haughtiness of the terrible.” It is also identified with the time immediately preceding the coming of the Son of Man (Matt. xxiv. 29): “ The sun shalĩ be darkened, and the moon shall not give her light, and the stars shall fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens shall be shaken."

The judgments ensuing on the opening of the sixth seal are spoken of in the largest terms : “ The kings of the earth, the great men, the rich men, the chief captains, the mighty men, and every bondman, and every freeman, hid themselves in the dens and in the rocks of the mountains” (vi. 15). From this universal consternation and ruin an exception is made, chap. vii.; wherein we are shewn a body of men sealed, and exempted from the tremendous effects of this earthquake and of wrath. The " four winds,” which designate the wrath of God, are restrained that they should not blow;

and an angel "having the seal of the living God cried with a loud voice to the four angels to whom it was given to hurt the earth and the sea, saying, Hurt not the earth, neither the sea, nor the trees, till we have sealed the servants of our God in their foreheads." This bears a close analogy with Ezek. ix., where a man clothed in linen sets

a mark upon the foreheads of the men that sigh and that cry for all the abominations that be done in the midst of Jerusalem ;” and these alone escape the destroying weapons of the six men who follow, to “slay utterly old and young.”



men who are spared are a portion of the same people who are destroyed; inhabitants of the same city; not differenced in circumstances or privileges : their only distinction is, that they sigh and cry for the abominations done in the land. This is important in helping us to understand who are meant by the sealed tribes (chap. vii). It is evident we must seek them among those

upon whom the judgments are about to fall; and they must be a people upon whom the judgments would have fallen, but for this sealing. They must be, moreover, an entire people : for herein they differ reinarkably from those in Ezekiel ; that his are an election taken individually from among the people, but these are an entire people, taken by tribes; and in each tribe the same round number, to express totality. From the tribes of Israel being the symbol here used, some have supposed this sealed people to be the literal Jews : but this cannot be; for these tribes are most indisputably protected by sealing from judgments to which they would otherwise be exposed: now these judgments are brought on by the Papal persecutions, in which every kingdom of Christendom has at some time or other taken part, but in which the Jews have never joined, being themselves objects of persecution. We must therefore seek for these tribes among

the nations of Christendom. The structure of the book also ties us down to the French Revolution as the time when these judgments began, and we know that at that time the Jews had no peculiar exemption. And as the whole twelve tribes are here enumerated, while ten of the tribes of Israel have been lost and unknown for more than twenty centuries, it is absurd to interpret these sealed ones of the Jews, who belong but to two of the twelve tribes. This is a symbolical book, and solely concerns the Christian church ; nor are Jews, as such, ever introduced or mentioned herein. The term Jew in this book has a symbolical meaning; as is evident from ii. 9, “I know the blasphemy of them which say they are Jews, and are not, but are of the synagogue of Satan;" and iii. 9, “ Behold, I will make them of the synagogue of Satan, which say they are Jews and are not, but do lie; behold, I will make them to come and worship before thy feet, and to know that I have loved thee.” In these passages it is quite clear that the literal Jews cannot be meant: for it is not saying so that makes a literal Jew, but circumcision; and, that sign being completed, he cannot cease to be a Jew : nor (even supposing that profession made a man a Jew) would it be “ blasphemy” to say so falsely. But the meaning of Jew here, must be true believer, which these men falsely professed: according to Rom. ii. 28 : “ He is not a Jew which is one outwardly ; but he is a Jew which is one inwardly the spirit, and not in the letter; whose praise is not of men, but of God.”. The propriety of this symbol is further evident from the consideration that these judgments fall on mystic Babylon : the people exempted from the judgments must therefore stand in the same relation towards the Papacy in which the Jews stood towards old Babylon. The Papacy, like Babylon of old, long held the church in bondage ; Britain as well as the other nations. From this captivity we have been delivered, as were the Jews of old from Babylon ; and the church in these lands did, like those marked in Ezekiel, sigh and cry for the abominations done in the land ; and, being Jews not in name only, but in spirit and in heart, was not only saved herself, as a church, in being drawn out of Babylon, but afforded refuge to all those who were willing to come out of her: and for the sake of the church within the land, the nation was exempted from that earthquake which shook down every other throne in Christendom. This sealing manifestly covers the whole time of the sixth seal; and the opening of the seventh seal is the time when the Lord comes in person to tread the winepress (xix. 11). Herewith


the notices of these sealed ones in other places : as xiv. 1-5, where they “ follow the Lamb whithersoever he goeth” (a conclusive proof also that they cannot be Jews); and, xv. 2, where they “ have gotten the victory over the beast; and, xvii. 14, “they that are with him are called, and chosen, and faithful.” But the Apostle (vii. 9) “after this beheld, and, lo, a great multitude, which no man could number, of all nations and kindreds and peoples and tongues, stood before the throne, and before the Lamb, clothed with white robes, and palms in their hands." These are differenced from the sealed tribes : Ist, In their station, “before the throne;" and, ver. 15, “ before the throne of God, and serve him day and night in his temple :" whereas the sealed tribes “ follow the Lamb whithersoever he goeth” (xiv. 5). 2dly, In their song, which is not the new song” (xiv.3): “no man could learn that song but the hundred and forty and four thousand which were redeemed from the earth.” 3dly, They “came out of great tribulation" (ver. 14); from which the sealing had protected the twelve tribes. 4thly, They bear palm branches in their hands (vii. 9.) These points of difference shew the priority and the privilege of the sealed ones. They are deemed from among men, being the first-fruits unto God and to the Lamb” (xiv. 4, xvii. 14), before the thrones are set (xx. 4). They are the first to recognise his judgments (xv. 4) : “ Who shall not fear thee, O Lord, and glorify thy name ? for thy judgments are made manifest.” They also shall, I believe, share in the very first beginning of Christ's reign; receiving power over the nations, as he has received of the Father (ii. 26). And to these, who are perhaps the only ones who “hold fast" (ver. 25) the true doctrine, he “ will give the morning-star” (ver. 28): "To them that look for him shall he appear” (Heb. ix. 28): “We, which


are alive and remain unto the coming of the Lord, shall be caught up in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air : and so shall we ever be with the Lord(1 Thess. iv. 13): and, like the morning-star in the heavens, receive the full effulgence of the beams of the Sun, before he rises upon the earth ; and be to those on earth the sign and harbinger of the coming day, when “the Sun of Righteousness shall arise with healing on his wings” (Mal. iv. 2).

This countless multitude (vi. 9) have “palms in their hands," denoting that the Feast of Tabernacles, at which palm-branches were borne, is the time at which these are gathered. The sealed ones are gathered when Christ comes from without the veil (Heb. ix. 28); denoting the Day of Atonement, when the high priest came out the last time from the holy of holies. The Day of Atonement was on the 10th Tisri ; but the Feast of Tabernacles, or ingatherings at the year's end, was on the 15th Tisri : therefore this palm-bearing multitude are gathered after the sealed ones. They also come out of the great tribulation-EK TNS ONLYEWS ins Meyalns (vii. 14)—and are, I believe," the elect” who are left in the great tribulation after the sealed ones are delivered, and for whose sake "the days are shortened ” (Matt. xxiv. 22); the foolish virgins (Matt. xxv.); and the remnant of the woman's seed with whom the dragon went to make war (Rev. xii. 17). Two such classes are also indicated xx. 4: the first class consisting of the armies of heaven (xix. 14), who sit on thrones ; the second, of such as were beheaded for the witness of Jesus ;" and they both collectively " live and reign with Christ a thou

A very important end is served by thus blending together these two classes of redeemed ones, these two feasts of the Atonement and of Tabernacles, and these two earthquakes of the French Revolution and of the End : for by so doing sufficient notice is given of the fact of our Lord's coming, and signs abundantly sufficient to warn those who will be warned; while the exact time of this event is left uncertain, and the careless and the worldly overlook or disregard the signs, and are unexpectedly surprised by the judgments. Thus are those passages completely reconciled, in which it is said, on the one hand, “of that day and hour knoweth no man”. (Matt. xxiv. 36); “the day of the Lord so cometh as a thief in the night (1 Thess. v. 2): while, on the other hand, it is said, “ Ye are not in darkness, that that day should overtake you as a thief" (1 Thess. v. 4); "when ye see these things begin to come to pass, then look up, and lift up your heads, for your redemption draweth nigh” (Luke xxi. 28). For the same reason the events of the seventh seal are not related here. Those mighty acts Christ shall execute in person, and that portion of the church affected by the seals shall be translated at the end of the sixth ; and therefore be witnesses of, not partakers in, the events of the

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seventh. Besides, the seventh seal, the seventh trumpet, and the seventh vial, all are fulfilled at the same time: therefore six of the trumpets, and six of the vials must be first given, that the one stream of events, in which they all then converge, may be given as one history. The time of the seventh seal is also the transference of Christ's throne from heaven to earth ; or, rather, he then leaves his Father's throne, where he has been sitting on the right hand of the Majesty on high, and plants his own throne on Mount Zion : "The place of my throne, and the place of the soles of my feet, where I will dwell in the midst of the children of Israel for ever(Ezek. xlii. 7). On all which accounts it is said (viii. 1),“ And when he had opened the seventh seal, there was silence in heaven about the space of half an hour.”

The seal series being brought to an end, the proem to the trumpet series is given viii. 2–5. This, like all the other proems, shews the effects to be produced on the church by those events now about to be revealed. All the imagery in this proem is taken from the Day of Atonement: the “golden censer" was only used on that day : the “much incense” refers to the increased allowance appropriated to that day; the “smoke of the incense ascending before God out

of the angel's hand” refers to the high priest entering the holy of holies on that day, when he so carried the censer of incense that a cloud of smoke intervened between him and the mercy-seat; and the "fire cast into the earth” alludes to the high priest's casting the coals which remained in the censer beneath the altar, when he came out the last time from within the veil. The day of atonement was the time of deep affliction and humiliation of soul to the Jews; and that portion of the earth affected by the trumpets is represented in such a state of suffering. After the seventh trumpet (xi. 19), “ the temple of God is opened, and the ark of his covenant seen (indicating the opening of the veil on the day of atonement; upon which the final earthquake immediately succeeds :) and I therefore conclude that the earthquake, viii. 5, is the final one, because it also ensues on the coming out of the angel from within the veil. The fire of the altar cast into the earth (viii. 5), like the sealed tribes (ch. vii.), has reference to Ezekiel ; where (x. 2) the man clothed with linen is commanded to fill his hand with coals of fire, and to scatter them over the city. This is the same man who before (Ezek. ix. 4) had set a mark on the foreheads of the men who sigh and cry for the abominations: and the slaughter of those who were not marked takes place (ix. 11) before he scatters coals over the city (x.2). Immediately after this, the glory of the Lord departs from the midst of Jeru. salem (x. 19), and the destruction of Jerusalem ensues. This reference to Ezekiel greatly confirms that order of events which we have derived from the Apocalypse alone; coupling the

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