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backbiteth not with his tongue, nor doeth evil to his neighbour, nor taketh up a reproach against his neighbour.” Who turning away the eyes of his heart from the wicked Devil who tempts liim, and from his temptation, hath brought him to nought, and hath taken the young thoughts which he bath bred and dashed them to pieces on Christ. Who, fearing the Lord, are not puffed up by their good works; but, who considering that those good things which are in them could not be wrought by themselves, but by the Lord, magnify the Lord who worketh in them, saying with the Prophet, “ Not unto us, O Lord, not unto us, but unto thy name give glory." Like as the Apostle Paul reckoned nothing of his preaching, saying, “ By the grace of God I am what I am ;” and again he says, “He that glorieth let him glory in the Lord.”
Hence also it is, that our Lord saith in the gospel, “ Whosoever heareth these sayings of mine, and doeth them, I will liken him unto a wise man, which built his house upon a rock: and the floods came, and the winds blew, and beat upon that house; and it fell not: for it was founded upon a rock." While the Lord does all this, be expects every day that we should respond to his holy admonitions, by our actions. Therefore it is, that the days of this life are extended as a respite for the emendation of what is evil; as the Apostle says, “Knowest thou not that the long suffering of God leadeth thee to repentance?" For the merciful God hath said, " I desire not the death of a sinner, but that he should be converted and live.”
When therefore, my brethren, we inquire of the Lord “who shall abide in thy tabernacle?" we thus hear the rule of habitation; and if we fulfil the duty of an inhabitant, we shall be heirs of the kingdom of heaven. Therefore our hearts and bodies are to be prepared to go forth to the warfare of holy obedience to the commandments; and, because it is impossible to our nature, let us ask the Lord of his grace that he would assist us with his help. And if, flying from the pains of hell, we desire to obtain eternal life, while yet there is opportunity and we are in this body, and space is afforded to fulfil all these things by this life of light, we must now run and labour for that which shall profit us for ever.
We must, therefore, institute a school of service to the Lord; in which institution we trust that we shall appoint nothing harsh or burdensome. If, however, anything a little severe should, on reasonable grounds of equity, be enjoined for the correction of vices, and the preservation of charity, do not in sudden alarm fly from the way of safety, which can only be begun by a narrow entrance. In the progress, however, of our conversation and faith, the heart being enlarged with the ineffable sweetness of love, we run the way of God's commandments, so that never departing from his governance, remaining under his teaching in the monastery until death, we through patience are partakers of Christ's sufferings, that we may be counted worthy to be partakers of his kingdom."
The first chapter of the Rule is on the various kinds of monks -the second, on the qualifications and duties of an abbot-the third, on the duty of the abbot to take counsel with the brethren —and the fourth is headed, “Quæ sint instrumenta bonorum operum.” This title has given some trouble to commentators; and the reader may translate it as he pleases. It is not my business to criticise it, especially as the chapter is intelligible enough. It contains seventy-two brief injunctions, from whence we may form some general opinion as to what those who bound themselves by this rule did, and did not, undertake. Most of the other seventy-two chapters of the rule consist of regulations respecting the organization and management of their society, which would, of course, occupy the most room ; but it seems to me that
" Filia Babylonis .... beatus qui tenebit
# The allusion is to Psalm cxxxvii. 9. et allidet parvulos tuos ad petram.”
VOL. VIJI.- Dec, 1835.
this one chapter should at least qualify the statements of those who profess to have found nothing but a body of heartless forms.*
“ 1. In the first place, to love the Lord God with the whole heart, whole soul, whole strength. 2. Then his neighbour as himself. 3. Then not to kill. 4. Then not to commit adultery. 5. Not to steal. 6. Not to covet. 7. Not to bear false witness. 8. To honour all men. 9. And what any one would not have done to him, let him not do to another. 10. To deny himself, that he may follow Christ. 11. To chasten the body. 12. To renounce luxuries. 13. To love fasting. 14. To relieve the poor. 15. To clothe the naked. 16. To visit the sick. 17. To bury the dead. 18. To help in tribulation. 19. To console the afflicted. 20. To disengage himself from worldly affairs. 21. To set the love of Christ before all other things. 22. Not to give way to anger. 23. Not to bear any grudge. 24. Not to harbour deceit in the heart. 25. Not to make false peace. 26. Not to forsake charity. 27. Not to swear, lest haply he perjure himself. 28. To utter truth from his heart and his mouth. 29. Not to return evil for evil. 30. Not to do injuries ; and to bear them patiently. 31. To love his enemies. 32. Not to curse again those who curse him ; but rather to bless them. 33. To endure persecutions for righteousness' sake. 34. Not to be proud. 35. Not given to wine. 36. Not gluttonous. 37. Not addicted to sleep. 38. Not sluggish. 39. Not given to murmur. 40. Not a slanderer. 41. To commit his hope to God. 42. When he sees any thing good in himself, to attribute it to God, and not to himself. 43. But let him always know, that which is evil in his own doing, and impute it to himself. 44. To fear the day of judgment. 45. To dread Hell. 46. To desire eternal life, with all spiritual longing. 47. To have the expectation of death every day before his eyes. 48. To watch over his actions at all times. 49. To know certainly that, in all places, the eye of God is upon him. 50. Those evil thoughts which come into his heart immediately to dash to pieces on Christ. 51. And to make them known to his spiritual senior. 52. To keep his lips from evil and wicked discourse. 53. Not to be fond of much talking. 54. Not to speak vain words, or such as provoke laughter. 55. Not to love much or violent laughter. 56. To give willing attention to the sacred readings. 57. To pray frequently. 58. Every day to confess his past sins to God, in prayer, with tears and groaning; from thenceforward to reform as to those sins. 59. Not to fulfil the desires of the flesh; to hate self-will. 60. In all things to obey the commands of the abbot, even though he himself (which God forbid) should do otherwise; remembering our Lord's command 'What they say, do; but what they do, do ye not.' 61. Not to desire to be called a saint before he is one, but first to be one that he may be truly called one. 62. Every day to fulfil the commands of God in action. 63. To love chastity. 64. To hate nobody. 65. To have no jealousy ; to indulge no envy.
66. Not to love contention. 67. To avoid self-conceit. 68. To reverence seniors. 69. To love juniors. 70. To pray for enemies, in the love of Christ. 71. After a disagreement, to be reconciled before the going down of the sun.
72. And never to despair of the mercy of God.” I apprehend that these injunctions are better than some readers would have expected to find; and should it appear that, on the whole, they are defective either as to doctrine, or instruction, let it be remembered that St. Benedict did not intend that his Rule should supersede the Holy Scriptures. He did not mean to give his disciples the traditions of men instead of the word of God. He told them plainly that the most perfect Rule of life
“ About this time the monastic rules of Benedict were established, which afterwards were received through the western churches. They are full of forms, and breathe little of the spirit of godliness. The very best thing that I can find recorded of the superstitious founder, is the real with which he opposed idolatry."- Milner's History of the Church of Christ, Cent. VI., ch. iv.
is contained in the Old and New Testament;* and that he expected them to be assiduous in reading the Scriptures, and the works of some of the Fathers, is clear. This species of study, and this only, he enjoined upon them; and as to their practice in this respect I hope to speak hereafter. In the meantime, I just observe that thus to read (or to be read to, if he could not read) was all that was required of a monk.
It may, however, be said, that supposing the monks to have kept to their original state, and to have lived in all things according to their Rules, they might not, perhaps, have been so much to blame for the want of learning, but that, by the times with which we are concerned, most of them were priests, and that the clergy -well, I fully admit that as clergy they were bound to be more learned than other men ; but at present, as Jerome says, “ quod loquor, non de episcopis, non de presbyteris, non de clericis loquor; sed de monacho.”+ I desire, first, to place the question on its right footing, and trust that I shall not be found reluctant to acknowledge that the clergy ought to be the most learned class in the community. In fact, they always were so, and this I hope to shew.
CHAPEL AT LEAVENHEATH, SUFFOLK.
(ADDRESS CIRCULATED WITH THE ENGRAVING.) The parishes of Stoke-by-Nayland, Nayland, Assington, Wiston, and Polstead, in the county of Suffolk, diocese of Norwich, border on each other in a district known by the name of Leavenheath, where, owing to a late enclosure, a population, already amounting to 300, has sprung up, and is rapidly increasing.
The inhabitants of this district being distant from their respective parish churches and schools, some two, some three, some four miles, are necessarily in a great measure deprived of the means hitherto provided for their instruction.
A convenient site having been offered for sale, the ground has been purchased, and, under the sanction of the Bishop of the diocese, a building has been erected thereon, suitable to the double purpose of a chapel and school-house. I
In the education of the children admitted into the schools, the system of the national school and of the schools of industry will be united.
The population of this district consisting almost entirely of agricultural labourers, no pecuniary assistance can be obtained from them.
" Quæ enim pagina, aut quis sermo divinæ auctoritatis veteris ac novi Testamenti, non est rectissima norma vitæ humanæ." Cap. Ixxüi; which is entitled “ De eo quod non omnis observatio justitiæ in hac sit Regula constituta.”
† Ad Paulin.
# For this arrangement it need hardly be said, that the absolute necessity of the casc is the defence.FD.