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perished excepting 600 adult males, who escaped from battle; and all their lands had been desolated, and every city of Benjamin smitten with the sword or burnt with fire, The Benjamites of Jerusalem were more certain of destruction than any others, being placed between two enemies, the Israelites and the Jebusites. As none would intermarry with the survivors, the rape of the women of Jabesh-Gilead and that of the women of Shiloh (which resembles that of the Sabines) did alone preserve the tribe from extinction. To what extent they did ever again become possessors of their exclusive and vacant possessions is uncertain. But it is morally certain that the remnant of this once formidable tribe, now reduced to the “ little Benjamin" of the Psalmist, never got back from the warlike Jebusites their stipulated half-possession of Jerusalem. When David made himself master both of the inferior Jerusalem and the fastness of Zion, he was described merely as waging war against a fierce and inveterately hostile people, the Jebusites, without the slightest allusion either to the Benjamites then being, or ever having been, in occupation of them, or having a subsisting claim to the possession of them. From these remarks it follows, to a palpable demonstration, that the massacre and devastations which almost extinguished the existence of Benjamin's tribe, had not yet occurred when the sacred historian asserted that the Jebusites and Benjamites were dwelling together under their original capitulation. In other words, that the 1st chapter of Judges was written before any of the events described in the 19th chapter of the same book had come to pass.

When we find that the portions of the same book were thus composed successively, we have reason to conclude that the sacred records were written up pretty close. At the same time, the words “ unto this day” shew, that in both the above instances some period, though a short one, was suffered to elapse between the event and the record of it. That method served to ascertain the permanency and stability of the events mentioned. A capitulation made one day or week, and annulled the next, would hardly be worth recording. An event required to be ripened into some stability, and to shew itself as a valid and bond fide transaction, and not a mere ephemeral purpose, before it earned for itself a place in chronicles intended to be brief. H.

NOAH'S VINEYARD. In a paper on the Rainbow (Br. Mag., vol. iii. p. 432), I advocated the opinion that there was no rain before the flood, and that its sudden appearance at that catastrophe produced a change of climate that was prejudicial to the human constitution; and I ventured the remark that “ vegetation also suffering from the change would afford a less kindly aliment for his support; hence flesh for food, and perhaps wine, were now first given as actually necessary to withstand the effects of a vitiated atmosphere.” It is the object of this communication to establish that remark concerning the recent use of wine.

In Gen. ix. 20, we meet with the following narrative: “ Noah began to be a husbandman, and he planted a vineyard ; and he drank of the wine, and was drunken ; and he was uncovered within his tent, &c."-But the Hebrew words seem to indicate that Noah was the first husbandman who planted a vineyard, as appears from a comparison of them with a similar idiom in other,

r. passages.

« Nimrod began to be a mighty one in the earth,” or, he was the first usurper in the world, Gen. x. 8. The meaning is, that Nimrod was the first who rose up against the constituted patriarchal form of government, and established a tyranny in his own person. Rosenmüller's words are-Hic cæpit tyrannus esse in terrâ, i.e.

, hic primus per vim tyrannide potitus est, humanoque generi libertatem eripuit. Eandem sententiam Josephus his verbis exprimit:-τολμηρος και κατα χειρα γενναιος ••περιιστα κατ’ ολιγον εις τυραννιδα τα πραγματα. A similar idiom occurs in Gen. iv, 26. “ And to Seth, to him also there was born a son, and he called his name Enos; then began men to call themselves by the name of the Lord,” marginal reading. The appellation was most probably that which afterwards occurs without explanation“ The sons of God.” The passage may be thus paraphrased : Believers were first called sons of God in the days of Enos. In like manner, when the Gentiles were admitted into the church of Christ, it is remarked, “ the disciples were called Christians first in Antioch.” Acts xi. 26. See also I Sam. xiv. 35, and the marginal reading : “ The same was the first altar that he built unto the Lord.” The passage in question is thus translated and commented on by Rosenmüller : Noachus, agricola cùm esset, vineam plantavit... Et cæpit Noachus et plantavit vineam, i.e., plantavit vineam ; ex noto Hebraismo, quo duo præterita aut futura adhiberentur, quorum posterius est infinitivi loco. From these examples and remarks, I am brought to the conclusion that the correct translation is as follows: “ Now Noah was the first husbandman who planted a vineyard."

I proceed to shew, from a different source, the reason why no one planted a vineyard before Noah.

The vine is a plant which at present comes to perfection only within particular limits of the temperate zone; in tropical climates it grows too rank and wild for any economical purposes.* But from certain geological phenomena, it is inferred that, before the flood, a tropical climate pervaded the whole of our earth ;' and as there was a new creation both of plants and animals after the deluge (vid. Noachic creation), it is only reasonable to suppose that the vine was among the new species that were adapted to the altered circumstances of climate, and to the new wants of man. From the great length of life before the flood, I am inclined to think that the antediluvians had not discovered the means of inebriation; and though it is said “ they were

Vitis vinifera, the common vine. Native of most of the temperate parts of the world. In very cold regions it refuses to grow; and within 25° or even 30° of the equinoctial line, it seldom flourishes so as to produce good fruit. In the northern hemisphere, the proper wine country is from 25° to 51° of latitude. Miller's Gardener's Dictionary, edited by Prof. Martyn.

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eating and drinking until the day that Noah entered the ark," I believe that neither flesh nor wine formed any part of the antediluvian banquet. Wicked enough they certainly were ; but the sin of that violent and corrupt generation I have discussed at large in another place.*

The change of climate after the flood, and the suddenness of that change, are readily inferred both from geological discoveries and from the scriptural narrative.

The appearance of the rainbow for the first time to Noah, and the subsequent curtailment of human life, speak of some great change of circumstances in the lot of man ; that the change had not begun to take place before the flood, we may infer from the long life of Methuselah, who died in the very year of the flood.—On the other hand, Prof. Buckland states, that “ the occurrence of bones in caves, under such circumstances as those at Kirkdale in Yorkshire, is decisive in

establishing the fact, that the elephant, rhinoceros, hippopotamus, and | hyæna, animals which are at present exclusively confined to hot cli

mates, were the antediluvian inhabitants, not only of England, but of the polar regions of the north.”. Reliq. Diluvianæ. In another part of the same work he states that “ the animals whose remains are found interred in the wreck of that inundation, were natives of high north latitudes, and not drifted to their present place from equatorial regions, by the waters that caused their destruction.

One thing, however, is nearly certain, namely, that if any change of climate has taken place, it took place suddenly; for how otherwise could the elephant's carcase, found entire in ice at the mouth of the Lena, have been preserved from putrefaction till it was frozen up with the waters of the then existing occan? Nor is it less probable that this supposed change was contemporaneous with, and produced by, the same cause which brought on the inundation.” Keysoe Vicarage, Beds.

W. B. WINNING.

BAPTISMAL SERVICE.

Sir,-In reply to the letter of “ Rusticus” on the Baptismal Service, in your number for this month, requesting to be furnished with suggestions as to the best manner of proceeding in cases where children are brought to the font after the second lesson. . . some to be baptized, and some for public reception into the church after having already received baptism in private... I beg to offer a statement, not perhaps of the best manner of proceeding, but of my own practice in this case : and this practice has been the result of the most careful consideration that I have been able to give to the difficulty, since it

Essays on the Antediluvian Age;" to which little work I beg leave to refer your correspondent, “ A Plain Reader,” (No. 43, p. 48) for my opinion concerning the trees of life, as he says he cannot pass it over. In brief, I conceive with Kennicott not only that there were several, but that all the trees within the garden were trees of life.

was first pointed out to me, soon after I was admitted to Holy Orders, several years ago. I was obliged to exercise my own judgment in the case; because, I am sorry to say, none of my neighbours felt with me the necessity of adherence to the rubrics, which enjoin that baptism shall not ordinarily be administered, but upon Sundays and Holidays, after the second lesson.

My practice, then, has been this :-On ascertaining which of the children are unbaptized, I proceed at once to baptize them, according to the form prescribed for private baptism. This places all the children in the same position: and I then go on with the service appointed for the public reception and obsignation of those who have been baptized in private, which is applicable alike to all. I think, in meeting the difficulty in this manner, I depart from the strict order of the church as little, and in as unobjectionable a manner, as possible: if, indeed, in a case thus unprovided for, I can fairly be considered as departing from strict order at all.

Neither, I trust, will it be considered objectionable, that I make one or two slight deviations from the prescribed office for private baptism,-1. By omitting the Lord's prayer, before baptism.-2. By omitting the thanksgiving which, in the office, stands immediately after the act of baptism; because both these prayers must be used afterwards, in that part of the service which is appointed for the public completion of the rite; and further, it will be observed, that the Lord's prayer is not appointed to precede the act of baptism, in the office for its public ministration. Again, I do not use, previously to the act of baptism, the short prayer (Almighty and Everlasting God, heavenly Father,) which, in the public office, is joined to the “ Brief exhortation upon the words of the Gospel :" because this prayer also (with only the necessary alteration of the words, that he may be born again, &c.,” into that being born again, &c., he may continue, &c.”) is appointed to follow in the second part of the service. Further, I may observe that, though the rubric does not expressly enjoin it in private baptism, I am accustomed to preface the ministration of the sacred rite, in the case under our consideration, (as indeed I commonly do, when obliged to administer baptism in a private house,) with the short address to the congregation, which begins the office for public baptism, Forasmuch as all men are conceived and born in sin,&c.

In this manner, it will be found, from first to last, the whole substance of the office for public baptism is preserved : the form and arrangement of the service is precisely that which the church herself prescribes in those cases of necessity when this sacrament is to be administered in private ; and the expedient is resorted to only when absolute necessity requires that, with respect to some at least of the infants brought to the font, the stipulations be made subsequently to the act of baptism. The time occupied by this arrangement will very little exceed that which would be required for the regular public office, if all the infants were unbaptized.

Perhaps I may be permitted to add that, if the rule be acted on, that baptism be never administered without sponsors, except in cases

of necessity, it will not often happen in country parishes that the difficulty under consideration will arise. For eight years I had the charge of a parish with a population of 1200 souls ; and, always scrupulously adhering to this rule, the occasions on which the difficulty occurred were very few indeed.

Ilth August, 1835. I am, Sir, your obedient servant, J. R.

ON WEEKLY COMMUNION. DEAR SIR,—Permit me to inquire what is the standard doctrine of our Church as to the frequency of the celebration of the holy eucharist? The practice, it is well known, is very various,-in some places monthly, in others fortnightly, and in some few weekly; so that, were we to judge from this, it might be supposed that the Church had left it, in a great measure, to the discretion of her ministers. It is to be feared, however, that our practice, in many points, does not come up to, but falls far short of our principles, and it becomes the duty of every sincere and attached member of our apostolic Church, in these days, to endeavour to ascertain what it is she expects, and, as far as circumstances will permit, to carry out her intention.

I have been led to make the inquiry chiefly from having lately perused a small work on the Lord's Supper,* by the Rev. William Dodsworth, of London, in which the weekly observance is strongly urged, both on the ground of primitive example, and because it is the “recognised principle of the Church of England that it should be so." It would appear, also, that the experiment has been tried in the author's own congregation, and, as he thinks, with most favourable results. With regard to primitive usage, I feel well persuaded that that is in favour of the practice, but as to the principle of our Church, and the practicability of bringing about a corresponding practice, I have some doubts. I am, dear sir, with best wishes,

Yours truly, A COUNTRY READER. August 15th, 1835.

PSALMODY.

Sir,—The present state of parochial psalmody is, generally speaking, so indifferent as to afford ground for a good deal of remark and censure; and in the hopes that some of the numerous readers of your Magazine may read and benefit by them, I here put together a few hints on the

* These discourses, I may venture to add, will be found well worthy of perusal, whatever views may be entertained on the above points, as they give an enlightened and scriptural view of the benefits to be derived from the devout observance of the ordinance.

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