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of the prophetical abbot's orthodoxy. But I cannot help remarking that the historian who speaks of Wycliffe's adoption of the sentiments of Joachim, ought, at least, to have acquainted his readers with the fact that Joachim is to this day warmly defended from the charge of heresy by a powerful party in the church of Rome ; of this fact, however, Mr. Vaughan writes as if he was perfectly unconscious, and the only account he gives us of Joachim is to repeat the very apocryphal story of his interview with Richard Cour de Lion, and to identify him with the author of a rhapsody which, as we shall see, is, on sufficiently plausible grounds, supposed to come from a very different quarter. * Again, it may well be asked, what becomes of the theory about the gradual development of the reformer's opinions, if we must believe that in his first publication he boldly and professedly followed as his guide a writer who, if Mr. Vaughan's account of him be correct, had denounced the pope as antichrist, and the church of Rome as “the fleshly synagogue of Satan”? This was pretty well to begin with ; but the fact is, that nothing of the sort appears in “ The Last Age of the Church.” Joachim is there quoted along with Bede, Eusebius, Ammonius, [for so I translate “Haymoūd''] Gregory, and other writers, as an authority which would have weight with those for whom the tract was written, and there is ot the slightest hint which would imply that his orthodoxy had then been in any degree called in question.
The specimen which Mr. Vaughan gives us of the prophecies of Joachim will now require some notice, not only because, as I have already hinted, there are good reasons for denying it to be his, but also because, as a specimen of fraudulent quotation, it is in itself a curiosity. For this fraud, however, Mr. Vaughan is not responsible, further than that he has adopted the extract
The same remark is applicable to Mr. Milner's account of Joachim (Hist. of the Church of Christ, vol. iii. p. 425. Lond. 1819.)—“ Nevertheless, (he says) even in Italy itself, some suspicions that he (the pope] was antichrist appeared. Joachim, Abbot of Calabria, [Qu.? Did Mr. Milner suppose Calabria to be the name of a monastery?] was a man renowned for learning and piety, and perhaps very deservedly;" and then he goes on to quote the story from Hoveden, which, (it may be remarked by the way,) even if true, was nothing to the purpose, for Joachim is not represented by Hoveden as having imagined the pope to be antichrist, but as asserting that antichrist was even then born, "jam natus in civitate Romana, et in sede apostolica sublimabitur;" our author evidently intended it as a proof of his anti. christianity, that Antichrist should exalt himself even in the apostolic see, according to the prediction of the apostle, “extollitur et adversatur super omne quod dicitur Deus;" (Hoved. fol. 388;) but this does not in the least imply that this antichrist should be pope, still less that the pope should be antichrist. Suppose that Joachim had told King Richard that antichrist was then in England, and would soon exalt himself in the kingdom of England above the regal authority, would it have been fair to say some suspicions that the King of England was antichrist had then begun to shew themselves?” The truth is, that in those days there was no form in which the wickedness of antichrist could be more strongly expressed than by saying, “in sede Apostolicâ exaltabitur.” But the story of Joachim's interview with Richard is in itself highly improbable; it is refuted by Papebroch, in his Disquisitio De Florensi Ordine, &c. sect. vi. Acta Sanctorum, ad diem 29 Maii.
Fleury, however, does not altogether disbelieve this story, notwithstanding its inconsistency with Joachim's extant writings—“Il est vrai (he says) qu'on ne trouve rien de semblable dans l'explication de l'Apocalypse donnée par l'abbé Joachim, ni dans ses autres écrits; mais il peut les avoir composez depuis, et s'être corrigé voyant que les évènemens ne répondoient pas à ses prédictions ;” (Hist. Eccl., tom. xv. p.595;) but whatever be its foundation, the opinion about antichrist which this story attributes to the prophetical abbot cannot fairly be considered as in any degree reflecting on the pope or the see of Rome ; for the most that it seems to have meant was, that antichrist should seize on the papal chair, which, of course, if the pope be the head of everything Christian, was an object which antichrist might very naturally be expected to aim it.
without examination from Bale, an authority well known to be suspicious* in matters of this kind, and who should never be followed without being looked after.
The extract, as given by Mr. Vaughan,+ was originally printed at the end of Bale's Chronicle of the Examination of Sir John Oldcastle; and Bale professes to have taken it from the “Summa de heresibus et earum confutationibus” of Guido de Perpiniano ;I by placing in juxtaposition the extract printed by Mr. Vaughan and the original from Guido, ş it will be seen that this precious prophecy is a mere cento of passages, which when strung together make up a fine sounding attack upon the church of Rome, but which in the original is a wretched piece of blasphemy, subversive of Christianity itself. The errors of Abbot Joachim are treated of by Guido, in conjunction with those of Peter John, in the following order :-"primo agam (says Guido) de erroribus eorum communibus; secundo addam quosdam alios ; et tertio ponam seorsum errores Joannis Petri;" accordingly this part of the Summa is divided into three chapters, from the first and second of which the extract before us has been gathered. It is to be observed also, that neither Bale nor Mr. Vaughan give the smallest intimation of any omissions or alterations in the quotation : Mr. Vaughan and Bale.
Guido di Perpiniano.—Er Cap. I. “ In the latter days shall appear a law “Sexto dicunt quod in tertio statu erit of liberty. The gospel of the kingdom of lex libertatis ; quia evangelium Christi Christ shall be taught.
non fuit libertatis, et quod Spiritus sanctus plenius dabitur in tertio statu, quia
in secundo statu non fuit plene datus.
" and the church Et quod ecclesia in tertio statu purgashall be purged as wheat is from chaff bitur quasi frumentum a paleis et zizaand tares.
niis; quia tunc fiet separatio malorum a bonis et tunc prædicabitur evangelium regni.— Fol. xcviii. lin. 25—29.
“ Septimo dicunt quod ordo tertii status præfertur in dominio et dignitate ordini clericorum ; sicut Joseph præfuit pincernæ, et hujus figuræ veritas incepit
tempore Constantini et Silvestri papa. " more cheerily (in Bale clerelye] Doctores vero tertii status erunt pleshall men then be learned.
nius docti; et docebunt plurimi, et tunc “ The kingdom of deficiet penitus regnum carnis et comthe flesh shall be done away.
plebitur illud Apostoli. Nunc ex parte cognoscimus, ex parte prophetamus, cum
autem venerit quod perfectum est, eva
"and these things cuabitur quod ex parte est. Et dicunt shall be fulfilled toward the end of the hæc omnia completum iri ante finem world.
mundi. Fol. xcviii. lin. 54-59.
“ Octavo dicunt, quod ante adventum Christi ad Judicium erunt omnes homines in fide Christi et Christiani. Et quod per apostolos non fuit prædicatum erangelium nisi secundum literain et non se
* If any one is startled at my calling Bp. Bale suspicious authority, let him read the character given of him by the learned Henry Wharton_“I know Bale to be so great a liar that I am not willing to take anything of that kind upon his credit; however, his testimony may serve well enough against such another foul-mouthed writer as this C. P. seems to have been."- Observations on Strype's Cranmer. Oxford edit. of Strype, 1812. Vol. ii. p. 1052.
Voli. p. 256, note. # For an account of Guido, see H. Wharton's Appendix ad Cavei Hist. Litter. p. 30. Oxon. 1743.
*The edition of the Summa here quoted is that of Paris, 1528, fol.
cundum spiritualem intellectum; quod "The Holy Ghost shall more perfectly Spiritus sanctus perfectius exercebit do exercise his dominion in converting peo
minium in conversione gentium per præple by the preachers of the latter time dicatores tertii status illius ordinis, quam than by the apostles.
per apostolos et prædicatores secundi
status. — Fol. xcix. lin. 31-35. “ The church of Rome is the “Nono dicunt, Romanam ecclesiam carfleshly synagogue of Satan. The church nalem meretricem, synagogam Sathanæ, of Rome shall be destroyed in the third et Babylonem, in tertio statu destruenstate, as the synagogue of the Jews was dam; sicut synagoga Judæorum in sedestroyed in the second state.
cundo statu desiit esse, et sic succedet spiritual church shall, from thenceforth, ecclesia spiritualis usque ad finem mundi succeed to the end of the world.
erit vita contemplativa Joannis et vita activa Petri. Fol. ci. lin. 42–45.
Cap. II. "The departing of the Greeks from “Primo dicunt, quod recessus Græcothe church of Rome was godly, for it rum a Romana ecclesia fuit bonus et orwas ordained by God, and wrought by dinatus et factus per gratiam Spiritus the Holy Ghost.”
sancti, juxta illud apostoli divisiones gratiarum sunt unus et idem spiritus. Et quod erunt duo generalia judicia mundi, et duo inde antichristi."-Fol. cii. lin. 56_60.
This needs no comment, except perhaps to explain what is meant by “ the second and third states," and the “order of the third state ;" the pseudoJoachim, it appears, divided the church into three states or periods: the first was from Adam to Christ, in which, he says, men lived after the flesh; the second, from Christ to S. Benedict, in which men lived in an intermediate state between the spirit and the flesh; and the third state, from S. Benedict to the end of the world, in which men shall live according to the Holy Spirit. In each of these states are three orders. In the first, the married, conjugati ; in the second, the clergy; and in the third, monks.*
This, then, is the seer (according to Mr. Vaughan) under whose guidance "Wycliffe arrives at the conclusion that the close of the fourteenth century will be that of the world ;” and I can only say that, were it so, the condemnation of Wycliffe as a heretic would be more defensible than it has hitherto been supposed; for what greater accusation have his enemies ever brought against him than the identifying his doctrines with those of a writer, whose ravings, though caught at by Bale as capable of being tortured into an attack upon the church of Rome, are in reality subversive of the authority of the Scriptures, and injurious to Christianity itself.t
* Ponit enim Abbas Joachim tres status. Primum in quo homines secundum statum carnis vixerunt; qui incepit ab Adam usque ad Christum. Secundum dicit in quo vixerunt medio modo inter carnem et spiritum usque ad beatum Benedictum. Tertium dicit statum in quo vivitur et vivetur secundum Spiritum sanctum a beato Benedicto usque ad finem mundi. Et in his tribus statibus dicit tres ordines. Primum ordinem conjugatorum, qui incepit ab Adam, et fructificare cæpit ab Abraham. Secundum clericorum, qui incepit ab Ozia, qui de tribu Juda incensum obtulit. Tertium statum ponit monachorum. Monachorum vero ordo incepit a beato Benedicto, qui fuit vir præclarus vita et sanctitate ac miraculis, qui ordo incepit fructificare temporibus Joachim.- Guido Summa, fol. xciv. lin. 62, et seq.
+ Mr. Le Bas in what he says of Joachim (Life of Wiclif, p. 99), although aware of the doubtful authenticity of these prophecies, yet follows the track of Mr. Vaughan, and does not appear to have suspected any dishonesty in Bale's quotation of them ; he notices the cautious language in which Fleury records the prophetic gifts of Joachim, (“il passoit pour avoir le don de prophétie,”) and accounts for it thus:"in truth, it is scarcely to be imagined that any faithful catholic [still less, he might
It remains to shew that the Joachim quoted by Wycliffe, the founder of the order of Flora, could not have been the author of the absurdities with which he is charged by Guido. But I have already occupied so much space that I cannot enter at large into this question. Let it suffice, then, to observe, that in the genuine writings of Joachim, none of the doctrines attributed to him by Guido are to be found : it is true he speaks of three states, but in a very different sense from that in which Guido has explained them; this has been clearly proved by large extracts from the remaining writings of Joachim in the Acta Sanctorum, and I know not how the evidence can be laid before the reader in a shorter space. I must content myself, therefore, with a reference to Papebroch’s dissertation ;* and I shall merely observe that the fame of Joachim seems to have tempted many pretenders to prophecy to publish their enthusiastic fancies under his name, and thus occasion has been taken by his enemies, and the religious rivals of his order, to blast his reputation by making him responsible for such infamous productions as the Everlasting Gospel, or the Gospel of the Holy Spirit, and the Introduction to the Everlasting Gospel, which is a pernicious and blasphemous attempt to exalt the rigid rule of St. Francis above the Gospel of Christ. A more full account of this book and its author will be found in Mosheim.t
FROM THE PARISIAN BREVIARY. There is something in these services which continually reminds one of a Gothic abbey or cathedral. There are the same feelings of sanctity connected with both; with both associations of antiquity which are next to sacred in a well-regulated mind. Through both there prevails a magnificence of structure, a greatness of design, and richness in detail, which fills one with indefinable wonder before one is able to trace them. But it is not till use and attention have made us a little better acquainted with them that we are aware of that order and propriety, that nicety and beauty of construction which extend to the minuter parts, much of which may be beyond the eye of the casual observer, and much in the shade, but which tend to form the character of the whole. It is by pursuing this analogy that one may best offer some apology for the irregular manner in which these ser
have added, any faithful Roman catholic,] could dwell, with much complacency, on predictions which represented the church of Rome as the fleshly synagogue of Satan, and spoke of it as doomed to certain demolition.” And who moreover, as we have seen, tells us that the gospel of Christ is not a law of liberty ; that it shall be superseded by another gospel, which is, that monks shall be preferred in power and dignity to the clergy; that the gospel was not preached by the apostles, except accord. ing to the letter, and not according to the spirit; and that the preaching monks shall be more effectual instruments in the hands of the Holy Ghost, for the conversion of the Gentiles, than the apostles and their successors. But, says Mr. Le Bas, “whether these prophecies are rightly ascribed to Joachim seems rather doubtful.' In his name, however, they became, unquestionably, current." It does not appear to have occurred to him that Wycliffe's character was any way implicated by his having followed such guidance.
Acta Sanctor. ad 29 Maii., tom. vii. p. 142. + Hist. Eccles. Sec. XIII., Pars. II., cap. ii. 34.
vices have been introduced. For by short occasional sketches to afford any idea of an architectural structure, there appear but two ways—the one would be to introduce, by piece-meal, regular successive portions of the entire frame-work, which, after all, could convey but a very imperfect notion; the other would be merely to bring forward any particular ornamental parts without reference to the whole, as from time to time they might occur to one. And this has been the case in these translations.
THE COMMUNE OF MONKS, CENOBITES, AND ANCHORITES.
IN THE FIRST VESPERS.
Ant. What is a man profited, if he shall gain the whole world, and lose his own soul ? — Matt. xvi.
Ant. If thou wilt be perfect, go, sell that thou hast, and give to the poor, and thou shalt have treasure in heaven.—Matt. xix.
Ant. There is no man that hath left house or lands for my sake, but he shall receive an hundred-fold now in this time: and, in the world to come, eternal life.—Mark, x.
Ant. Escape for thy life; look not behind thee, neither stay thou, lest thou be consumed.
From out the world's contagious influence,
In sweet designs of holiest Providence.
City and home and friends themselves they leave;
To them who try to know what they believe.
Casts each besetting care and weight behind ;
Gives thoughts of rest and softness to the wind.
They every fading trifle cast aside,
Trusting in hopes which with their God abide.
And all their wealth is cheerful poverty,
Their consolation daily death to die.
May take the penalties to sinners due,
( Doxology omitted. ) 0. Under the shadow of thy wings shall be my refuge.
--r. Until this tyranny be overpast.-Ps. lvii.
IN THE FIRST NOCTURN.
The Lectios are all three from the 3rd chap. of the Epistle to the Philippians; their accompanying responsories are as follows :
r. Ist. Flee out of the midst of Babylon, and deliver every man his soul : for it is the time of the Lord's vengeance.
--0. Come out of her, my people, that ye be not partakers of
The Commune Abbatum is likewise connected with this; and there are throughout distinct parts given in case it should be an Abbot whose memory is celebrated : they are here all omitted for the sake of brevity. The Cænobite (Kouvos Bios) in distinction from the Anchorite or Solitary.