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some very zealous protestants that everything which they consider as popish is not exactly so, unless some of the great fathers of our Reformation were papists after the accomplishment of the work.-ED.
Church Dress.- Bishop Wren was accused by the Commons (Art. XII.) of commanding all ministers to preach in their hood and surplice, in order to alienate the people's heart from hearing of sermons, and of causing prayers to be omitted on two Lord's-days, at Knutsball, for want of a surplice.
The bishop said that he had inquired whether the minister preached standing, and in his gown with his surplice and hood (if a graduate), and his head uncovered. Also, that he had directed that the minister should at all times be in his surplice and hood when in execution of any part of his priestly function.
His reasons were-1, that as the minister was necessarily in surplice till the end of the Nicene Creed, the putting it off to preach, and then putting it on to conclude the morning service would waste time, and cause vain surmises among the people.
2. For uniformity. Bishops preach in their rochets. Fellows and members of cathedrals preach in surplice. And, in Elizabeth's time, so did all, as appears from Hooker (p. 247), “except as we preach or pray so arrayed."
3. For conformity to the law. For the rubric directs the same or. naments as were in use in the second of Edward VI. to be used at the communion, and all other times of his ministration. But it appears by the liturgy of that year (F. 120, B.), that the priest was to use a surplice at those times. Surely, the ministry of the word (as preaching is called in Queen Elizabeth's injunctions, 29,) is a part of the ministration of the priest. Bishop Cox (Injunct. ii. 8.) ranks the office of the minister thus—common prayer, preaching, and other service of God; which are the words of the Act of Uniformity of 1 Eliz. By the rubric before the offertory, the sermon is made a part of Divine service, as much as the epistle, gospel, &c.
The bishop then states that it was not new in the diocese. For many remembered the preacher of Ipswich wearing his surplice, and he found the custom at the cathedral at Norwich, Wilby, Walsingham, and sundry other places.
Communion Table.—Bishop Wren says, that although for uniformity and other good reasons he wished the table to stand at the east end of the chancel; yet that, for good reasons, as the distance of the east end from the people, he permitted the table to stand without the rails, as at Bury, Lavenham, Yarmouth, &c.—Parentalia, pp. 75, 76.
Rails.—He thought rails right to prevent profanation from boys rioting, leaning, stepping, leaping, putting their hats on it, sitting, and standing on it. In one country place, a dog came in and carried off the bread from the table while the minister was preaching; and as there was no more white bread in the place there could be no communion that day.
Rails, he adds, were not new things; for in many cathedrals, in
several parishes in Norwich and in London, at Hadleigh, Boxford, and Wilby, there have been rails time out of mind.— lbid. pp. 76, 77.
He states that by testimony of many old ministers it was always the custom to read the communion service at the table; and Cartwright (Pag. 105, 4, 1,) complains of it, saying, “after morning prayer, the minister to say other prayers climbeth up to the farther end of the chancel as far as the wall will let him." He speaks of “that part of the morning prayer which is called the communion service."--Ibid.
He states that, generally, when he came to the diocese of Norwich, it was not read at all in the churches; but after the second lesson, they sung a psalm, and so the sermon began, and that was all they did (a few places excepted), leaving out the whole communion service, or the most part of it, when there was no communion.- Ibid. p. 80.
Bowing.–He allows that he bows (1) on entering a church, (2) on approaching the Lord's table, or (3) leaving it, and (4) when the name of the Lord Jesus is mentioned.
He begun to do so forty years before, under Bishop Andrewes, who constantly and religiously did the same, who had conversed with most of the holy fathers of the church at the beginning of the Reformation under Queen Elizabeth, and doubtless learnt this from them.
Bowing at the name of the Lord Jesus was not only practised by the clergy, but enjoined to all the people, from the beginning of the Reformation.—See the Injunctions, 1 Eliz. c. 52; and 1 James, can. 18.
Bowing before the Lord's table is of early use in the church of England by the clergy. The Lords of the Garter, in Henry the Fifth's time, agree to do so—“ ad modum ecclesiasticorum virorum.” Jewel defends it (art. iii., div. 29,); and the injunctions of Edward and Elizabeth, which forbid other gestures, do not forbid this.
It was the custom of the early church always to use an adoration on entering the Lord's house; and Venite adoremus is placed at the beginning of the service on that account. lbid.
80–82. Coming up to the Rail.--He says, “ This exhortation (to draw near) is not to be understood as made to the people beneath in the church for them to come nearer, i.e., to come up into the chancel. But it was made when, by occasion of having offered, the communicants were all present in the chancel and ready to communicate, and are yet required to draw nearer.” The rubric after the offertory in King Edward's service book directs those who do not intend to communicate to go out of the choir into the church.
It appears from the other parts of this answer, that it had been the custom for the clergy to go all over the church to administer; and the bishop wished the people to come to the rail, as thus much time would be saved; more than an hour, he says, when one man has to administer to two or three hundred. Recusants, too, would be more easily discovered.”—Ibid. p. 83.
Catechizing.--He directed the clergy to turn the afternoon sermons into catechizing wherever they could at all manage it. lbid. p. 85.
Vol. VIII.-July, 1835.
Ringing of Bells.—It appears that the bells were rung differently when there was to be a sermon and when there was not. Ibid. p. 87.
If the sick deserved the prayers of the congregation, they should be prayed for in the reading-desk and nowhere else, reading the two collects set down in the Visitation of the Sick, which was the custom (long laudably used) in Westminster Abbey.
H. J. R.
FROM THE PARISIAN BREVIARY.
THE EPIPHANY OF OUR LORD.
The service which is here given commences, as usual, with the five Antiphones at the first Vespers—i.e., the Vespers preceding the day of the festival. The other Antiphones in this service are omitted for the following reasons :—It must be remembered that these single texts, called Antiphones, occupy that place which the Doxology does with us, occurring at the end of each Psalm, and also of the Benedictus, &c. On each of the great festivals, called “Solemne Majus,” like the present, there are appointed Psalms instead of the usual Psalms for the day of the week and season; and, when this is the case, the Antiphone is always a verse from the preceding Psalm. The effect of this is very striking, but does not very well admit of illustration; and it would be of little use to give the Antiphones without the accompanying Psalms, upon which the propriety of their application greatly depends. And, indeed, the omissions which it is requisite to make in such confined limits render any account of one of these offices necessarily very inadequate. But it should be added, that half the Antiphone is said before the Psalm or canticle, and then the entire at the end; and this, I believe, in two parts, which explains the meaning of the word. When there is no singing, the Antiphones are omitted.
It may be as well, on the present occasion, to call the reader's attention to a circumstance which may always be observed in these services-viz., the beautiful manner in which the subjects of the successive hymns rise one out of the other; and generally, as in the present case, they allude successively to successive periods of time, which the festival embraces, as, for instance, the first to the appearance of the star; the second to the offering of the gifts; the third to the calling of the Gentiles.
IN I. VESPERS.
Psalms from the day of the week. Ant. Behold, I will extend peace to Jerusalem like a river, and the glory of the Gentiles like a flowing stream.- Isaiah Ixvi.
Ant. How shall I put thee among the children, and give thee a goodly heritage of the hosts of nations?Jer. iii.
Ant. Arise, and stand on high, and look about, and behold thy children gathered from the west unto the east by the word of the Holy One, rejoicing in the remembrance of God.Baruch v.
Ant. Enlarge the place of thy tent: for thou shalt break forth on the right hand and on the left; and thy seed shall inherit the Gentiles.- Isaiah liv.
Ant. Thou shalt see and flow together, and thine heart shall be enlarged ; because the forces of the Gentiles shall come unto thee.Isaiah lx.
Capitulum. Rom. xv. There shall be a Root of Jesse, and He that shall rise to reign over the Gentiles, in Him shall the Gentiles trust.
f. Thy salvation thou hast prepared before the face of all people,* a light to lighten the Gentiles, and the glory of thy people Israel.
r. The Gentiles shall see thy righteousness, and all kings thy glory; a light to lighten ke-Luke i. ; Isaiah lxi.
“Quæ stella sole pulcrior.” What is that which shines afar,
The toil and perils, what are they? Fairer than the sun at morn?
Faithful love knows no delay. 'Tis a glorious star,
Kindred, and home, and country hold not Which a rising King doth harbinger,
them, And marks a cradle low where God on earth 'Tis God that calls, and they obey. is born.
Star of Bethlehem,
Star of Grace, that lead'st the way, Faithful spake ye, seers of old,
Let not the mists of our dark soul From Jacob doth a star arise,
Obstruct thy heavenly light, and guiding The East is stirred to behold.
soft control, A little star keeps watch without, 'Tis let down from the skies;
Father, Light of lights, to Thee, But a nobler star within
To Holy Spirit, and to Son, Doth its march begin,
In whom Thou to the world hast shone, Which, on their distant rout,
Everlasting glory be!
Ant. at the Magnificat. Many nations shall come from far to the name of the Lord God, with gifts in their hands, even gifts to the King of Heaven. -- Job xiii.
Ant. at the nunc Dimittis. I the Lord will give thee for a covenant of the people, for a light of the Gentiles. — Isaiah xlii. ( The first Nocturn is here omitted, containing the three Lessons, which are from the
55th chapter of Isaiah, with their accompanying Responsories. The appointed Psalms are omitted in this and all the Nocturns.)
IN THE II. NOCTURN.
SERMON OF POPE LEO.
LECTIO IV. Rejoice in the Lord, my most dearly beloved, and again I say rejoice, that so soon after the celebration of Christ's nativity the festival of his manifestation hath shined upon us. Him whom the Virgin on the former day gave birth to, on this day the world hath acknowledged. For the Word was made flesh; and so gradually and quietly did he regulate this his first taking upon him of our nature, that, as soon as born, he was manifested to believers, and hidden from his persecutors. Even already had the heavens declared the glory of God, and the sound of his truth had gone forth unto the ends of the world : for the band of angels had appeared to the shepherds to announce the Saviour's birth; and the guiding star had led the Wise men to worship him. So that from the rising of the sun unto the going down of the samne, the birth of the true King had gleamed, for the kingdoms of the east might become acquainted with these things means of the wise men, and the Roman empire could not be ignorant of them.
1. When Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea, in the days of Herod the king : * behold, there came wise men from the east to Jerusalem.
t. O Jerusalem, look about thee toward the east, and behold the joy that cometh unto thee from God : . behold, there came wise men, &e.- Matt. ii.; Baruch iv.
For even the cruelty of Herod, when he wished to stifle the rising of a King who was the object of his suspicion, afforded an unwilling aid to the furtherance of this dispensation. For while, with his mind intent on the execution of his atrocious project, he was pursuing this Child, who was unknown to him, by the indiscriminate slaughter of the infants, the circumstance of our Lord's birth, having been announced from heaven, became more signally published and made known; and published, too, with the more readiness and assiduity both from the extraordinary character of this communication from above, and also from the wickedness of this most barbarous persecution. And, upon this, to Egypt also was the Saviour conveyed, so that a nation which had been given up to ancient idolatries might now, by means of a hidden Grace, be brought into the neighbourhood of salvation; so that a people, who had not cast aside superstition from their minds, might, nevertheless, into their hospitable protection receive the Truth.
r. There came wise men, saying, where is He who is born King of the Jews ? * for we have seen his star in the east, and are come to worship him.
v. There shall come a Star out of Jacob, and á Sceptre shall rise out of Israel : out of Jacob shall come He that shall have dominion. * We have seen his star, &c.—Matt. ii. ; Numb. xxiv.
Let us therefore acknowledge, my most dearly beloved, in this adoration of the wise me the first-fruits of our Christian faith and calling ; and, with joyful minds, let us celebrate this beginning of our blessed hope. From this moment, we begin to enter upon our eternal inheritance; from this moment, the mysteries of scripture, which speak of Christ, are laid open; and the Truth, which the blindness of the Jews received not, hath conveyed its light to all nations. Let, therefore, this most sacred day, in which the Author of our salvation hath appeared, be duly honoured by us. And let us adore Him, now all powerful in heaven, whom the wise men worshipped in the cradle. And as they out of their treasures offered unto God mysterious kinds of gifts, so let us, out of the treasury of our hearts, bring forth things worthy of God.
r. Lo, the star which they saw in the east went before them till it came and stood over where the young child was. * When they saw the star, they rejoiced with exceeding great joy.
r. The Gentiles shall come to thy light, and kings to the brightness of thy rising. * When they saw the star, &c.—Matt. ij. ; Isaiah Ix.
Lertio from the Sacred Gospel according to Matthew.
When Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea, in the days of Herod the king, bebold, there came wise men from the east to Jerusalem, saying, where is He that is born King of the Jews? Et reliqua.
Homily of Pope Gregory. In all the signs which were displayed both at the birth of our Lord and also at his death, we cannot but remark the hardness of heart which was evinced by the Jews, who acknowledged him not, notwithstanding the prophecies which were given them, and also the miracles. For all the elements bore testimony to the coming of their Maker. For, that I may speak after the manner of men, the heavens knew him as God, and forthwith sent forth the star.
The sea knew him, and made itself a way to be trodden by his feet. The earth knew him, and trembled at his dying. The sun knew him, and hid the rays of its light. The rocks and walls knew him, for they were rent in twain at the tiine of his death. Hell knew him, and gave up the dead that it had received. And yet, though the senseless elements perceived him to be their Lord, the hearts of the unbelieving Jews knew him not as God; and, more hard than the rocks themselves, were not rent by repentance. And to add to the accumulation of their guilt, they had, for a long time, fore-known his birth, whom they now despise when born ; and not only did they know that he was to be born, but also the place of his birth. So that their very knowledge itself should be to them a witness to their condemnation; and to us a support and assistance towards believing in him.
r. When they were come into the house, they saw the young Child with Mary his mother :
and fell down and worshipped him ; and, when they had opened their treasures, they presented unto him gifts,-gold, and frankincense, and myrrh.
v. They from Sheba shall come; they shall bring gold and incense; and they shall shew forth the praises of the Lord. And they fell down, dic.-Matt. ij.; Ísaiah lx.