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nessis* is the priv heresie of symonyans ;" and the fourth, "schal be the deuel of mydday that is antecrist.”+ He then endeavours to prove that his ow times coincided with the third of these periods of tribulation, by a mode of reasoning which I shall not stop to explain, because I may hereafter, perhaps, find an opportunity of noticing it; omitting therefore, for the present, all discussion of the author's premises, I shall quote his conclusion only, giving, in juxta-position, and without any omissions, Mr.Vaughan's abstract of the same passage.
« The sinnes bi cause of whiche such persecucioū schal be in goddis chirche our tyme, ben these, for goddis churche is foūdid in kynrade of pălatis ; I this same rekened wachim in the bookis bifore; also for goodis of holy chirche that prelatis with holdeth to hem, as pencioūs, firste frutis, fermes, vendris, the whiche may wel be clepid (called] collibiste, $ these synnes and oth'e such ben marchaūdise walkynge in derkenessis; the man'e of tribulacioun schal be such as wachim seith in the book of the charge of pro
Mr. Vaughan. fetis: men of holy chirche shall be seyd men of holy church,” &c. [This passage in aman'e of careyne (carrion): they schal Mr. V. has transposed; vid. infra.] be cast out as dögge [dung) in myddis placis : her with accordith carnosencis, in a book that he clepith [calleth) pol. Jicricon, (polychronicon] || the seventhe “In the language of Gregory and other book the tenthe chaptr’. and he aleyeth venerated persons, he (Wycliffe] degregor, seiynge thus, pestilencis, smyte scribes,' the pestilent smiting together of
• In the Vulgate, a negotio perambulante in tenebris. + In Vulg., dæmonio meridiano.
# If I understand this passage aright, I would say, that “foundid” is for confounded, i. e., destroyed, injured; and that “kynrade of prelatis” means their connection with the great, to which they owe their preferments, and which Wycliffe, in many of his writings, refers to as a fruitful source of simony and corruption. For example, in his treatise Of prelatis (cap. 5), he mentions "three manners in which simony is done;" the second of which is, “whanne a man cometh to a benefitz by priere (prayer] of lordis or ladies or other men, more than for connynge of goddis lawe and holi lif;" and the third, “whanne a man cometh thereto bi werldli
seruice of lordis and ladies, of prelatis, or other mygtty men, more than for good lif and connynge;" and in the same chapter he says, " and also if thei (lords and ladies] geuen a benefis for (because) men ben of there kijn, or for fleshly loue, or werldli frendshipe......... more than for the worshipe of god and profit of mannys soule, it is stynkynge symonye bifore god, as lawes & seyntis techen.” I suppose our author, therefore, in the passage before us to assert, that the sins of the church to which he attributes the anticipated calamities are twofold,-1, The appointment of unqualified persons of spiritual offices; and 2, that prelates “with holdeth to hem,"i. e., keep to themselves the goods of holy church, which they divert from their legitimate objects, by various exactions and simoniacal taxes imposed upon the secular clergy. It is to be borne in mind that of the prelates of that time, the heads of religious houses formed by far the most numerous part, to say nothing of cadinals and papal legates. $ Collybista, or Collybistes, kolußlorns, mensarius, nummularius.
“ Collyba dicuntur quæ nos appellamus Tragemata, vel vilia munuscula."-S. Hieron. Com. in Matt. xxi. (Vid. du Cange, Glos. in voce.)
| Who Carnosencis was I do not know: a learned friend has suggested Ivo, Episcopus Carnotensis ( Chartres) anno 1092; Cave mentions a Chronicon, libris vi. ad Ivonem Carnotensem, written by one Hugo, a monk of Flora, which was very generally attributed to Ivo himself, This is perhaps the Polychronicon quoted by Wyckliffe.
tingis to gidere of folkis, and hurtlinge to people, and hurling together of realms gidere of rewmes, and other harmes schal and other harms which should come to come to the erthe for that worschipis of the earth, because the honours of holy holy chirche beth geue to unworthi men, church are given to unworthy men;' and in the eigtethe book, defaute of p'stis (stating also that this mischief shall be among goddis folk bringith in tirnaūtis.”. so heavy, that well will it be for that man (then follows a long passage not quoted by who shall not then be alive.') The Mr. V., after which, our author adduces writers whom he had consulted, as treatcertain verses of Sybille, and says, “thei ing of the times to come, are said to that treten thes verse of Sibille, alle that I agree in affirming that death, vengeance have seen accorden in this that seculer of sword, and mischiefs unknown before, power of the hooly ghoost [i. e., the se by which men in those days shall be cular power of ecclesiastics) elispirid (ex. punished, shall befal them because of the pired],* and that deth, veniaunce of sins of priests. Hence men shall fall upon swerd, myschiefs unknowē bifore, bi them and cast them out of their fat bewhiche men thes daies schal be ponys- nefices; and shall say, He came into his chid, schulen falle for syne of prestis: benefice by his kindred, and this by a men schal falle on hem & caste hem out covenant made before ; he for his worldly of her fatte benefices, and thei schule service came into God's church, and this seye, he cam into his benefice by his for money. Then every such priest shall kynrede, thes bi coveūat maad bifore, he cry, Alas! alas! that no good spirit dwelt for his seruyse, & thes for moneye cam with me at my coming into the church of into goddis chirche; thāne schal eche God.' (Thus he again asserts, ‘men of suche prest crye, alas, alas, that no good holy church shall be despised as carrion, spiryt dwellid with me at my comynge
as dogs shall they be cast out in open into goddis chirche; the wordis of Josue places!'] The devout, however, are not 2.c, the thridde. I seid that crist entrede left without their refuge in prospect of into hooly thingis, that is, holy chirche, these calamities. Jesus Christ, it is reby holy lyuynge and holy techinge, p'ynge marked, · entered into holy things, that the fadir for us. The mayst' of scholys † is, into holy church, by holy living and rehersith the thridde book of kyngis, holy teaching; the v. caftir the talis of rewis of salamon, (Here follows a legend not quoted by Mr. V.which occupies nearly a page of the
and with his blood he MS., and concludes thus, and with his' delivered man's nature; as Zachariah blood he delyue'd mannes kynde.') Za- writeth in his ninth chapter, ' Thou vecharie writith the nýth chapitre, Thou rily, with the blood of witness, or of thy forsothe with blood of witnesse, or thi testament, hast led out from the pit them testament, hast led out hem that were that were bound.' So when we were sinboude in the pyt, so whāne we weren ful, and the children of wrath, God's Son synful & children of wraththe goddis came out of heaven, and praying his sone cam out of heuene & preyynge his Father for his enemies, he died for us. fadir for his enemyes, & he deyed for us Then much rather shall we be saved now thanne, myche rathere now, we, ben maad we are made righteous through his blood. rightful bi his blood, schule be saued, St. Paul writeth to the Romans, that Poul writith to the romayns, v. co. He Jesus should pray for us, and that he schal preye for us; ihūs wente into heu went into heaven to appear in the preene to apere to the semlant of god for sence of God for us. The same also Vs, Poul to the hebrees. The which he writeth to the Hebrews, the which semlāt he graūte vs to see, that lyueth presence may he grant us to behold, & regneth with eende. Amen."
who liveth and reigneth without end ! Amen."
* See the Glossary at the end of Lewis's Life of Wiclif, voce Elispirid ; by which it appears (notwithstanding the defective information supplied by his Dublin correspondent) that he had read this fract, or a copy of it.
+ This reference I do not understand. Perhaps the words “the thridde” should be connected with what follows, in the sense of thirdly, or in the third place; but there are no corresponding divisions in the preceding part of the tract.
Who the Master of Schools is, or what work is here alluded to, I do not know. Vaughan, vol. i. pp. 258-9.
In this extract, which Mr. Vaughan prints without any break or mark of omission, I have put two clauses within brackets, because, in the original, they occur in a different connection, and although their meaning has not been changed, yet some notice of this transposition ought, I conceive, to have been given. This mode of quoting his author is very common with Mr. Vaughan, and must tend to weaken our confidence in his statements. It may be remarked also, that in the second of the transposed passages, he has mistaken the word dogge' [dung), and instead of “they shall be cast out as dung," he renders it, “ they shall be cast out as dogs ;” “seyd,” in the same passage, he has translated despised, and “myddis placis," open places. I am far from being satisfied that these words are correctly rendered, although the version seems to give a connected meaning. The allusion is probably to Jer. ix. 22, or to Ps. xvi. [in the Vulg. xvii.] 43.
I would further beg the reader's attention to the concluding sentences, where Mr. Vaughan makes his author quote, as if from the Epistle to the Romans, a passage which occurs only in the Epistle to the Hebrews, and not in both epistles, as Mr. Vaughan's version seems to assert. It is easy to point out the origin of the mistake. Wycliffe having quoted Rom. v. 7–9, makes his reference to the passage by the words, “ Poul writith to the Romagns, V. co.,” i. e., so Paul writeth ;” and, in like manner, after having quoted Heb. ix. 24, he adds, Poul to the Hebrees,” but Mr. Vaughan, as it seems, not understanding the reference “v. co.," and supposing the words to refer to what follows instead of to what went before, cuts the knot by boldly omitting the mysterious “v. co.," and inserting the words, “ the same also he writeth," to supply what, to him, appeared a defect in the original ; how far he has improved his author's meaning let the reader judge. It is also, perhaps, worth noticing, to shew how one error leads to another, that Mr. Le Bas, quoting this passage from Mr. Vaughan, and feeling puzzled, as well he might, with the reference to the Romans, appears to have supposed the words, “He shall pray for us,” to be the quotation from that Epistle, and therefore gives in his margin a reference to Rom. viii, 34,
It happens, in this instance, that the mistake is of no great consequence, nor is the passage, in its general meaning, much affected by any of the inaccuracies I have pointed out; it furnishes, however, a very fair and rather favourable specimen of Mr. Vaughan's mode of quoting Wycliffe, and of the kind of liberties which he seems to have considered himself justified in taking with the original.
On the whole, then, the argument of the tract is briefly this :-Four periods of tribulation to the church were predicted, of which Wycliffe considers two as past; the third, which was described in prophecy as negotium ambulans in tenebris, “chaffare walkyng in derkenessis,” he interprets of the “privi heresie of simonians,” the purchasing of bishoprics and benefices from the court of Rome, by dismes, pensions, annates, and other imposts, then demanded by the pope as the price of his patronage, and therefore he infers, that this third period of tribulation coincided with his own times; an opinion which derived some apparent confirmation from the fearful pestilences with which England, as well as the continent of Europe, had then recently been visited. The fourth tribulation, he says, "schal be bi the deuel of mydday (dæmonium meridianum), that is, antecrist,” whose“ comynge oonly to god is knowē and knowleche of hi to god oonly reserued.”
( To be continued.)
* I cannot help requesting the reader's attention to this passage, as expressing the ancient, and, I think, the true opinion about Antichrist. This is not the place for discussing the question whether Wycliffe held the pope to be Antichrist in the modern sense of that doctrine; but it may be remarked, that the tract before us contains no traces of any such opinion. The reader who wishes to understand the subject is referred to " An Attempt to elucidate the Prophecies concerning Antichrist," by the Rev. S. R. Maitland. Lond. 1830,
"But ye say, Wherein have we robbed thee? in tithes and offerings. Ye are cursed with a curse : for ye have robbed me, even this whole nation."
Malachi, iii. 8, 9. HEARD ye ? the unerring Judge is at the door!
The curse of God is on thee, hapless Age,
Binding thy brows with deadly sacrilege ;
Your schemes with God's own whirlwind must engage,
Hand join'd in hand with nature war must wage,
Against the full Monsoon. O teeming brood
Of hollow councils impotent to good!
And sacrilege thy freight. Strange pregnant scene,
Rises an awful form! May I be clean!
That mid the fiery Ottoman sublime
Sitst mocking at the thing that men call time;
Awful in beauty, till I seem'd like thee,
A being of the elements, all fearfully
Of passing worlds the mighty chronicler !
Shalt look upon this world. The gale may spring
Again his vernal matin—but oh, where
The leaves, around me falling,
Are preaching of decay,
“ Come, pilgrim, come away !"
Says I must too decline,
Its lot foreshadows mine!
The loves to which I cling,
The joys that round me wing-
Just gleam and shoot away,
And chide at my delay.
Vol. VIII.- Sept. 1835.
The friends gone there before me
Are calling me from high,
Tempt sweetly to the sky.
Mid scenes of death and sin?
And find true life begin !"
And fain would rise and come,
An exile to his home;
Thus, thus, let all I see
H. F. L.
God of all my righteousness,
Godly men to God are dear,
Serve thou Him, and He will hear !"
Commune much with self within ;
Many cry in fretful mood,
Lord, thy face lift up on me,
H. F. Le
BT, MICHAEL AND ALL ANGELS, - TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 29. “ He shall give his angels charge over thee.”—Ps. xci. 11.
When Meekness droops apart, and weeps
Her wrongs' unuttered woe,
Who bade her sorrow flow;