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ARRANGED SO AS TO GIVE AS FAR AS POSSIBLE
THE ACCURACY, PRECISION, AND CERTAINTY OF THE
ORIGINAL HEBREW AND GREEK SCRIPTURES
ON THE PAGE OF THE AUTHORIZED VERSION,
AND WITH THE DIVINE TITLES DISTINGUISHED AND EXPLAINED.
3 baptch both for the Šiblical Stubtat amb for the Órbinary (English oribor.
THE “Englishman's Bible" is designed for the use of all who read the English language. The basis of the work is the Authorized English Version, which in the text is left unaltered. The plenary inspiration of the original Scriptures is taken for granted. And the minute attention to every “jot and tittle * rendered necessary for the production of this work has left on the mind not the shadow of a doubt on the subject. In the original languages of the Scriptures there are precisions, perfections, and beauties which cannot be reproduced in any translation. But the object of the present work is to put the reader in possession of many of these, by means the most simple, yet most complete, in connection with the (1) ARTICLEs; (2) NUMBERs ; (3) EMPHATIC PRONotNs; (4) TENSEs ; (5) PARTICLEs or PREPositions; (6) UNIFORM AND CorrecT RENDERINGs ; (7) DiviNE TITLEs ; and other particulars. For signs and explanation see page XIV.
I. THE HEBREW ARTICLES.
The Hebrew articles it appears are two : (1) “eth " or “eth '' (ns or "ns), the objective or accusative article (T). (2) “ha’ (T), the definite or distinctive article (*). (1) “Eth” (T) points out something as an olject before the mind, or else the object on which an action terminates. - (2) “Hal” (*) defines or distinguishes, and is somewhat similar to the English word “ the ”. “Eth” and “ha” are frequently combined, as in Gen. i. 1–" God created "the heavens and "the earth.”. So, nN, D'or ns. The absence of the article either expresses indefiniteness, as Gen. i. 1–" In (the) beginning,” no’s...}, leaving the precise time unindicated; or else it is characteristic. That is, it gives a character to that with which it is associated. Compare Exod. xviii. 21, “Such as fear “God’” B'nos so (without the article)—expressing their character, God-fearers — with Gen. xlii. 18 “For so fear *God’” so, is Bosons (with both articles)—i.e. “God the object of fear. Where the objective article is omitted in translation, it is indicated by the sign (T), representing a hand pointing ; and the distinctive article, by a small cross (*). - - - Both combined are indicated thus (*). Where the article is absent in the original but occurs in translation, it is printed in italics—the. - - When the article is implied by the construction of the Hebrew, called “ the construct state,” it is connected by a low hyphen with the word to which it belongs, as Gen. vii. 13, “The sons—of Noah.” Dj": In genealogies, the objective article “eth '' (') is in Hebrew employed in precisely the same way as the accusative article “ton” (Tów) in Greek, namely
on the first mention of a proper name. Compare Gen. v. 6–12 with Matt. i. 2. v
Gen. v. 6—“And Seth lived an hundred and five years, and begat (eth) "Enos . . . 9. And Enos lived ninety years, and begat (eth) "Caiman . . . 12. And Cainan lived seventy years, and begat (eth) "Mahalaleel,” etc.
Matt. i. 2–" Abraham begat (Tów) "Isaac ; and Isaac begat (Tow) "Jacob ; and Jacob begat (Tów) "Judas and his "brethren,” etc.
The pronouns are for the most part combined with the verb, or, as in the third person singular, understood; but where they stand alone they are emphatic. As—
Gen. i. 5–“ he called.” No. Here the pronoun “he” is understood.
Gen. i. 26—“And *let—them—have-dominion.” Th"). Here “them” is post-fixed.
Ver. 17—“And set them in,” etc. Dos Fol. Here the pronoun thent stands alone, and is emphatic.
These emphatic pronouns are distinguished by Olt 32nglish letters.
THEORIES of the Hebrew tenses are endless, and the exceptions to them innumerable, but the LAws of the Hebrew tenses are simple, and their application uniform. The TENSEs are, the Short (''), and the LoNg (); with a kind of INTERMEDIATE tense, shown by the absence of verbal tense (italics), or by other means, as by the participle, infinitive mood, etc. As, “Here am I.” on. Literally, “Behold me.” The TIMEs of occuRRENCE are three, the PAST ("), the PRESENT ('), and the FUTURE (). - Normally, the short tense corresponds with the PAST, the INTERMEDIATE with the PRESENT, and the LoNG tense with the FUTURE. The unvarying CHARACTER of the SHORT TENSE is, consPLETENEss, DECISION, or CERTAINTY. The uniform CHARACTER of the LONG TENSE is, CoNTINUATION, or PERMANENCY. The normal place of the SHORT tense is in the PAST; hence generally called “the preterite.” As, “He "did.” Hop. The normal place of the LONG tense is in the FUTURE; hence usually called “the future tense.” “He will do.” Hop". But the short tense may be used either in the past, the present, or the future. The long tense also may be used either in the past, the present, or the future. The chARACTER of the tense, whether short or long, however used, always remains unchanged. The short tense is never converted into a long, nor the long into a short. 1. The SHORT tense used in the PAST, its normal place, expresses a completed action or event in the past; also past time. Similar to the Greek aorist. “He "did.” Hoy. “He was.” no. It expresses the action or event. 2. The short tense in the PRESENT expresses decision in the present. As, Ps. xciii. 1–. Jehovah "reigneth.” Top nin. Isa. xxi. 9–6. Babylon "is fallen, “is fallen.” $3; no, no. 3. The short tense in the FUTURE expresses certainty in the future. “He "willdo.” “He "will-be.” That is, He will certainly do or be. Example, Isa. li. 6— “The heavens "shall vanish-away,” etc. Anopy. . . . . 1. The LoNG tense employed in the PAST, marks continuation in the past. “He ‘did.” That is, He was—doing, or was in the habit of doing. Similar to the Greek imperfect. Job i. 5–" Thus "did Job continually.” bono his no no. 2. The LONG tense in the PRESENT, marks continuation in the present. “He 'does.” “He is.” That is, continues to do or to be. As Ps. xxiii.-“He maketh.” “He leadeth.” “He restoreth,” etc. 3. The long tense in the FUTURE, its normal place, marks continuation on to the . future, or continuation in the future. “He "will do.” THE LETTER VAU (), representing the conjunction “and,” is used to bring in the continuation of the long tense into marratives of the past, without altering the time of occurrence, which time is indicated by the context. As, “And he "did.” Hop"). “And he *was.” "ol. That is, And he hath—done, And he hath—been. This is similar to the Greek perfect tense, expressing continuation to the present time. More frequently, however, the vau is employed to stamp perpetuity on marratives of the past, forming what we may term “the Hebrew perfect”—a permanent record for time and for eternity. - - The letter “ vau ’’ also is employed to bring in the completeness, decision, or certainty of the short tense into promises or predictions of the future, without altering the time. As “And he will-do.” Hop). “And he will be.” nom. That is, And he will certainly do, or be. When a temporary action or event is intended the vau is added to the noun. Gen. i. 2 – “And the earth "was.” no ros"). When continuation or permanency is intended the vau is added to the verb. Gen. i. 3—"And “there was light.” histol. - - The short tense in the past marks an action or event completed in the past, and draws attention especially to the ACT, or EVENT, temporary and complete. The LONG tense with vau used in the past in recording the action or event, calls especial attention to the FACT, recorded for all future time. * * This use of the LONG tense with vau for bringing continuation into the past, and of the short tense with vau for stamping decision and certainty in the future, is peculiar to Scriptural Hebrew. It does not occur in Rabbinical or MasoreticHebrew writings. But it is the ordinary form in the Old Testament of Narration, and of Prediction. Narration (*), Promise or Prediction (). WHEN the short tense occurs with vau in narratives of the past, its normal place, it NEVER alters the time of occurrence. It is then simply conjunctive. Hence the vau is NOT conversive of TIME. “And he did.” “And it was.” That is, He did, or It was, in past time.