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HENRY PRINCE OF WALES; ELDEST SON OF KING JAMES THE FIRST
There arc few events recorded in the history of England, which the generality of readers, the young especially, pernse with so much interest as the early death of illustrious and promising characters. The pen of the impartial historian dwells with delight on those traits of disposition, which gave rise to the fairest hopes; and imparts to the reader emotions of sorrow and regret, at the premature close of a life, dear to thousands. It is not in a political point of view, however, that a great national loss is /A«« felt. Honour, love, and esteem for the individual character, must be the spring of such affections,— pensive indeed, yet mingled with pleasure, that so sweet a plant was removed to a kindlier soil, before the rude breath of the world had disturbed or corrupted it; and that one of lofty station left a pattern, which in its leading points, all, however lowly in their walk of life, may follow, and be happy. Deep and universal was the grief which pervaded the nation, on the decease of the young prince, whose likeness appears at the head of this paper. Born to high expectations, and surrounded by busy flatterers, Henry, Prince Of Wales, had established a name for piety, temperance, prudence, and many manly virtues, when he was snatched away in the very spring-tiine of existence'. Yet he had the happiness to die in the height of favour with men, as well as, we hope, with God, and without experiencing the miseries which awaited the royal family. Of his high qualities and exemplary behaviour, several authentic documents exist; and the scattered intelligence concerning him, appears well worthy of collection for our Magazine.
r Henry, eldest son of King James the First, and Queen Anne of Denmark, was born in Scotland, early in 1594. After remaining under the care of the Earl of Mar, he was placed, at five years of age, with an excellent tutor, by whose instructions he made a great and rapid progress in learning; the energies of the body keeping pace with those of the mind. At the age of nine he began to acquire a fondness for riding, dancing, shooting, and tossing the lance, exercises in which he afterwards greatly excelled; and before he reached the age of ten, lie was installed at Windsor, a knight of the garter On the 4 th of June, lfilO, he was created Prince of Wales, at Westminster, with solemn and magnificent ceremonies, the eyes of the people being fixed upon him as their future sovereign.
It was now that he became most popular among all classes. In the government of his affairs, he set a noble example of mingled liberality and economy, providing plentifully, but knowing and watching his expenses; and though with a retinue of little less than five hundred persons, many of them young gentlemen of high expectations, he left his revenue increased some thousands a year. An original manuscript, containing orders made by this young prince, respecting his household, as given at Richmond in 1610, was communicated some years ago to the Royal Society. The first order is; "That when I am at divine service in my private closet, my gentlemen in ordinary be warned to attend me, and be present at times of prayer; and to do the like when I go to my public chapel to service and sermons: wherein I will dispense with no man; holding him
unfit tii serve me, that with me will forbear to go to hear the word of God; which example of liberty shall never be tolerated in my court, nor made a reason to encourage others in like disobedience and contempt towards religion."
After a series of general regulations concerning his own and his household's living, he concludes, "As I began with the due divine service wnto Almighty God, without which nothing can prosper nor yield comfort, either in this world or in the world to come; so do I conclude, that amongst other my ordinances, it be strictly looked unto and observed that, four times in the year, namely, at Christmas, Easter, Midsummer, and Michaelmas, all my ordinary servants, without exception, do receive the Communion at my public chapel; and that before the receiving of the communion, one of my chaplains, or some other good preacher, do make a sermon, or read a lecture, tending to instruct men to the reverent and worthy receiving of that holy and blessed Sacrament. And of such as shall either wilfully refuse so to do, or cautiously absent themselves of purpose, I desire that myself be informed, to give such further order therein, as may stand for an eminent example and chastisement to such ungodly and unchristian-like disposition: for the which kind of people, my court shall be no shelter, nor my service any protection."
He had an esteem for the brave and unfortunate Sir Walter Raleigh, during whose sad imprisonment, the prince used to say, Sure no king but my futher would keep such a bird in a cage! In an interesting letter of advice to the prince, from Sir Walter, dated August, 1611, among other excellent passages we find these: "Consider the inexpressible advantage which will ever attend your Highness, while you make the power of rendering men happy, the measure of your actions. While this is your impulse, how easily will that power be extended! The glance of your eye will give gladness, and your very sentence have a force of bounty." And his royal father, who, it is asserted, sometimes felt himself outdone by the splendour of the prince's reputation, addressed to him the following powerful lines.
FROM KING JAMES TO PRINCE HENRY.
God gives not kings the style of Gods in vain,
So kings should fear and serve their God again.
If then ye would enjoy a happy reign,
Observe the statutes of our heavenly King:
Since his lieutenant here should ye remain.
Reward the just; he stedfast, true and plain;
Repress the proud, maintaining aye the right;
Walk always so, as ever in His sight,
In 1612, a marriage was proposed for him with a daughter of Henry the Fourth of France. But, though not at once rejecting, he never appeared desirous to encourage this union, on account of the princess's creed, she being a Roman Catholic: and it is stated that "in his sickness afterwards, he applied this chastisement for a deserved punishment upon him, fur having ever opened his ears to admit treaty of a popish match." In October, the same year, he was seized with an illness, the nature of which was not thoroughly understood; and he died, deeply lamented, on the 6th of November, 1612*.
* It is remarkable, that another rising Hope of England, the I'mii-ess Charlotte, was snatched away in the same month, aud Ou the same day of the mouth. She died November 0', 1817.
An opinion prevailed at the time, that he was carried off by poison; a presumption not to be wondered at, nor indeed, perhaps, groundless, when we consider his honest and avowed dislike to the wTetched court-minion Car, Lord Rochester, afterwards Earl of Somerset, as well as to the Howards, with an infamous branch of which family Car had united himself by marriage.
"henry," says Birch, in his Lives of Illustrious Persons, "was about five feet eight inches tall; of a strong and handsome frame, an amiable countenance, his hair auburn, and his eyes fine and piercing. He was sober, chaste, temperate, religious. He was never heard to swear, though the example of his father, and of the whole court, was but too apt to corrupt him in that respect. He took great delight in the conversation of men of honour; and those who wore not reckoned such, were treated with no attention at his court. He was naturally gentle and affable; though he had a noble stateliness without affectation, which commanded esteem and respect. He showed a warlike taste in his passionate fondness for martial exercises. A French ambassador coming to take leave of him, found him tossing a pike; and asked him whether he had any commands to France: 'Tell your master,' said the prince, 'how you left me engaged.' He was eighteen years old when he died: and no historian has cast the least stain upon his character."
Sir Charles Cornwallis, treasurer of Henry's household, thus concludes an account of him; "God seeing it good to bestow another Crown upon him, excelling all that on earth was to be had or hoped: after some five days' sickness, endured with patience, and as often recognition of his faith, his hopes, and his appeals to God's mercy, as his infirmity, which affected him altogether in his head, would possibly permit; he yielded up the ghost at St. James's, next Westminster, and was interred at Westminster, where his body now resteth." jvi.
As rivers, when they overflow, drown those grounds, and ruin those husbandmen, which, whilst they flowed calmly betwixt their banks, they fertilized and enriched; so our passions, when they grow exorbitant and unruly, destroy those virtues, to which they may be very serviceable whilst they keep within their bounds.—Boyle.
It is useful to observe, in our progress through life, the chain of duties, trials, and blessings, which imperceptibly conduct us from one period to another; and how successive comforts and blessings spring from previous duties. Thus the diligence, sobriety, and virtuous habits of youth, will, in middle age, ensure to us, through God's blessing, the respect of the world, and success in our pursuits, and the active and useful employments of that period, added to early and continued piety and benevolence, will produce an old age of comfort and consolation. Thus proceeding in the way we should go, we reap, from the same source, rour reward for the past, and our encouragement for the future —Mrs. King.
In this world we are children standing on the bank of a mighty river. Casting our eyes upward and downward, along the channel, we discern various windings of its current; and perceive that it is now visible, now obscure, and now entirely hidden from our view. But being far removed from the fountain whence it springs, and from the ocean into which it is emptied, we are unable to form any conceptions of the beauty, usefulness, or grandeur of its progress. Lost in perplexity and ignorance, we gaze, wonder, and despond. In this situation, a messenger from heaven comes to our relief, with authentic information of its nature, its course, and its end; conducts us backward to the fountain, ami leads us forward to the ocean. This river is the earthly system of providence: the Bibie is the celestial messenger: and Heaven is the ocean in which all preceding dispensations find their end.—Dwight.
THE DAISY IN INDIA.
Thrice welcome, little English Flower I
My mother-country's white and red, In rose or lily, till this hour,
Never to me such beauty spread: Transplanted from thine island-bed,
A treasure in a grain of earth, Strange as a spirit from the dead,
Thine embryo sprang to birth.
Thrice welcome, little English Flower!
Whose tribes beneath our natal skies Shut close their leaves while vapours lower;
But, when the Sun's gay beams arise, With unabash'd but modest eyes
Follow las motion to the west, Nor cease to gaze till daylight dies,
Then fold themselves to rest.
Thrice welcome, little English Flower!
To this resplendent hemisphere. Where Flora's giant-offspring tower
In gorgeous liveries nil the year: Thou, only Thou, are tittle here,
Like worth unfriended or unknown, Yet to my British heart more dear
Than all the torrid zone.
Thrice welcome, little English Flower!
Of early scenes beloved by me, While happy in my father's bower,
Thou shalt the blithe memorial be; The fairy sports of infancy,
Youth's golden age, and manhood's prime, Home, country, kindred, friends—with theo
Are mine in this fair clime.
Thrice welcome, little English Flower!
I'll rear thee with a trembling hand: O! for the April sun and shower,
The sweet May-dews of that fair land, Where Daisies, thick as starlight, 6tand
In every walk!—that here might shoot Thy scions, and thy buds expand,
An hundred from one root!
Thrice welcome, little English Flower!
To me the pledge of Hope unseen; When sorrow would my soul o'erpower
For joys that were, or might have been, I'll call to mind, how—fresh and green,
I saw thee rising from the dust, Then turn to heaven with brow serene,
And place in God my trust.
FAMILIAR ILLUSTRATIONS OF EXPERIMENTAL SCIENCE.
No. IV. Heat. Temperature. Radiation. Conduction.
In the present state of our knowledge, it is impossible to determine whether heat should be regarded as a substance, endowed with extraordinary powers, by which it penetrates and diffuses itself among the particles of every other element; or as a quality, inseparable from matter, and depeudent on certain conditions for those unceasing fluctuations which constitute its most remarkable phenomena.
The resistless energies of this omnipotent and all-pervading agent arc in constant operation. There is not an instant of time that heat is not performing some important duty in fulfilment of the Divine purposes. Among all the works of God, we know of none on which the evidences of design are more conspicuously inscribed.
Whatever may be the nature of heat, be it a peculiar substance, or a peculiar property, we know that it exists. To its influence we are indebted for the due performance of all the functions of life, for all that cheers the eye, delights the ear, and gratifies the taste. Nor is it to heat only, but to its being 3upplied to us in its due proportions, that we owe so
much. Its excess, or its deficiency, would be equally fatal to vegetable and animal existence. In one case, the earth would become a parched desert, in the other, an ice-bound plain.
It is important that we should distinguish between heat itself, and the sensation of heat. The first is a cause, the second its effect. With a view to prevent mistakes, by the frequent interchange of terms, meaning sometimes one thing, and at other times another, the term caloric is now extensively employed by scientific writers, to denote that condition of bodies, by which the sensation of heat is produced, or, in other words, to define the cause of heat, as distinct from its effects. Wishing to refrain, as much as possible, from scientific phraseology, we shall restrict ourselves to the ordinary term (heat), requesting our readers to remember that, unless the contrary is distinctly stated, it always means heat, as an element, residing in, or operating upon, matter, without any regard to our feelings.
By the continual use of the terms)fieal and cold, in the affairs of common life, we sometimes employ the latter term, as if it was descriptive of an element, or agent, equally energetic in its effects as any other with which we are acquainted, but whose properties are directly the opposite of those possessed by heat. Cold is only the absence of heat. It is easier, and, because we are accustomed to it, more natural to say, "It is cold," than it is to describe that condition by saying, "There is a deficiency of heat." The latter, however, is a correct definition. We know by experience, that the gradual abstraction of heat from a body, which at first may possess so much of it as to be unapproachable, induces the sensation we denominate cold. But cold is only a relative term. We know nothing of matter where heat is not present. There is less heat in one substance than in another; but of absolute cold we have no conception.
Temperature is a term that will very often occur whilst treating of the properties of heat. We think it right at once to explain its signification. The temperature of a body means its sensible heat, that is, the heat of which some estimate may be formed by a thermometer *, a useful instrument, that we shall describe particularly hereafter. In comparing two different substances, or two distinct parts of the same substance, if we find the first communicates to the thermometer more heat than the second, we say the temperature of the former is higher than that of the latter, or, that the temperature of the latter is lower than that of the former. Higher and lower, as applied to temperature, are terms that evidently owe their origin to the operation of the thermometer; since the smaller the quantity of sensible heat present in any substance with which the bulb of a thermometer is placed in contact, the lower will the column of mercury, or other fluid within the tube, descend; the greater the quantity of sensible heat, the higher will it rise. The sensible, or as it is commonly termed, free heat, thus discoverable in any particular substance by the aid of a thermometer, must be viewed, as entirely independent of the heat which permanently resides in that substance, or which may be temporarily combined with it in a latent, that is, a concealed state. We may satisfy ourselves, that a vast quantity of heat has entered into some particular substance, but we can neither detect the presence, nor estimate the quantity, of that which is latent, by our ordinary perceptions, nor through the agency of a thermometer.
Heat is communicable from one substance to
• The thermometer obtains iu name from two Greek word*, thermt, heat, and metron, a measure.
another by radiation and by conduction.' Radiation takes place between bodies whose temperatures are unequal, at sensible distances. Contact is a condition essential to conduction.
If a piece of heated metal be fixed in the centre of a room, midway between the ceiling and the floor, heat will be disengaged from it equally in all directions, upwards, downwards, horizontally, and obliquely, which may be proved by the melting of a' small quantity of tallow placed at certain distances around the metal. This is an instance of radiation. When the bowl of a metal spoon is left, for a few minutes, in a cup of hot tea, the handle of the spoon acquires the same temperature as that of the tea. Here we have an instance of conduction. In one case, the heat separated from the metal will afreet the tallow at some distance, passing readily through, or among, the particles of the intervening air. In the other case, the heat first communicating with that part of the spoon in contact with the tea, it is, if we may employ the expression, pushed forward from particle to particle of the metal, along the handle, until it reaches its extremity.
As radiation and conduction commonly operate together, they may be considered as different parts, or rather, different forms, of the same process; both equally dependent on that property peculiar to heat, by which it tends to diffuse itself in every direction, and among the particles of every species of matter, whatever may be its form, size, colour, or quality. Thus, if any number of vessels, some constructed of metal, others of wood, others of stone, and others of glass, each vessel containing a liquid of a different kind and at a different temperature, be placed in the same room, the liquids and the vessels containing them will, in a few hours, all arrive at the same temperature, which will be that of the air in the room. The same would, of course, be the result, with solid or aeriform bodies, as with liquids.
Radiation and conduction may be further explained by considering the former as operating at the surfaces of bodies, whilst the latter goes on throughout their interior parts. The rate at which heat is radiated and conducted by any substance, depends very much on the nature of the materials of which that substance is composed. Radiation is also influenced in a remarkable degree by the colours and other conditions of the surfaces of bodies.
Those bodies into which heat enters with facility,
and among whose particles it is transmitted rapidly, are called good conductors. Those, on the contrary, which offer considerable resistance to the progress of heat among their particles, are termed bad conductors. The latter are frequently denominated non-conductors, a description not philosophically correct; since every substance with which we are acquainted will conduct heat, although in some its transmission is exceedingly slow.
Among good conductors the metals are the best: of these gold, platinum, silver, and copper, are nearly equal. The next in order are iron and zinc, then tin, and the slowest conductor of them all is lead. Wood, rtone, and bricks, are among the bad conductors: of this class the most perfect are wool, hair, cotton, the fur of animals, the feathers of birds, and especially the down of the swan. Liquids and agriform bodies, when there is no motion among their particles, are bad conductors of heat. If freedom of motion be established, they become good conductors.
In our next paper, we will endeavour to illustrate more fully the operation of Heat as respects conduction and radiation. We rather desire that our readers may complain of the brevity of our remarks, than that they should feel fatigued by our becoming tedious. R. R.
The energy of every function is regulated in a great measure by the quantity of blood which the organs exer cising that function receive. The muscles employed in the most vigorous actions, are always found to receive the largest quantity of blood. It is commonly observed that the right fore-leg of quadrupeds, as well as the right arm in man, is stronger than the left; much of this superior strength is, no doubt, the result of education, the right arm being more habitually used than the left. But still the different mode in which the arteries are distributed to the two arms, constitutes a natural source of inequality. The artery supplying the right arm with blood, first arises from the aorta, and it proceeds in a more direct course from the heart than the artery of the left arm, which has its origin in common with the artery of that side of the head. Hence it has been inferred, that the right arm is originally better supplied with nourishment than the left. It may be alleged in confirmation of this view, that in birds, where any irregularity in the action of the two wings would have disturbed the regularity of flight, the aorta, when it has arrived at the centre of the chest, divides with perfect equality into two branches, so that both wings receive precisely the same quantity of blood, and the muscles, being thus equally nourished, preserve that equality of
strength, which their function rigidly demands. Da.
Roget's Bridgewater Treatise.