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CROYDON PALACE. Our engraving of the interior of the Hall, or principal apartment of this ancient and interesting structure, speaks far more forcibly of the desolation which has fallen on its fortunes, than a page of verbal description. Once honoured with the oft-repeated pr—ence of royalty; the resort of the high-born and the far-descended; the scene of olden hospitality; it is now appropriated to the purposes of an outhouse! We could moralize for an hour on such a subject,— but let us turn to its changeful history.

The Manor of Croydon appears to have been attached to the archbishopric of Canterbury at a very early period. The Palace, or Manor-House, was long the occasional abode of the archbishops, particularly during the reign of Queen Elizabeth, who seems to have delighted to visit this place. The queen held a council here on the 30th of April, 1567; during which year she twice visited Archbishop Parker, who then held the see, and was eminently distinguished for his virtues and his learning. In July, 1573, the queen and her whole court remained here seven days; passing the time with "jousts" and rejoicings.

After the accession of Archbishop Whitgif't to the see, he was frequently honoured with visits from his sovereign, the last of which that we can find recorded was in 1600. When James the First, king of Scotland, was a prisoner in England, he was placed at this Palace, under the custody of Archbishop Arundel. It is singular, however, that although many interesting events must have taken place at Croydon, so little of its history remains to us; especially as almost all the archbishops, since we have any records of the see, have dated some of their public acts here.

In the olden time, one hundred and seventy acres of " cm parked ground" were attached to the Palace, and persons of note seem occasionally to have held the office of its keepers, amongst whom was the famous Sir William Walworth, in the reign of Richard the Second. It is probable that the grounds were thrown open and disparked during the disastrous times of the Commonwealth, when the whole of the property was seized by the Parliament. A lease was first granted by these spoliators to the Earl of Burlington, who did not hold it long; as shortly after we find it in the hands of Sir William Brereton: "A notable man," says an old writer, " at a thanksgiving dinner, having terrible long teeth, and a prodigious stomach, to turn the archbishop's palace into a kitchen, and to swallow up that palace and lands at a morsel." Archbishop Juxon, therefore, found it in a very dilapidated state at the Restoration; but although a considerable sum was subsequently expended upon it, the Palace seems, after this period, never to have been a favourite residence; and, about the middle of the last century, was wholly abandoned.

In 1780, an Act of Parliament was at last obtained for disposing of the structure, and fourteen acres of land attached to it—but a poor representative of the ancient demesne. The property was then purchased by Sir Abraham Pitches, for 2520/., which was invested in the funds, in aid of the erection of a new palace for the archbishops of Canterbury. The premises were subsequently used for the purposes of a calicD-printing establishment and bleaching-ground; and the chapel was converted into a School of Industry.

Croydon Palace has evidently been built at different periods. The precise date of the erection of the present structure has not been handed down; but it appears to have replaced the original palace, a wooden edifice, about the middle of the fourteenth century. The east and west sides of the principal court (which

were constructed entirely of brick) seem to possess the greatest antiquity. The foundation of the Guardchamber has been ascribed to Archbishop Arundel; the date of the chapel is quite unknown, but we find that it was greatly embellished and repaired by Archbishops Laud and Juxon, who, with many of their successors, expended large sums of money on the edifice. The hall, of whose fallen condition we have already spoken, was built by Archbishop Stafford; and here it may not be uninteresting to say a few words on this distinctive feature of old English residences.

We may premise that the architects of the old time seem to have had the principal feature of monastic establishments in view, in forming their designs for lay residences. The hall, which we need scarcely remind our readers, has given its name to many of our ancient mansions, was, in fact, the Refectory, or dining-apartment, which in the hospitable times of our ancestors, when the head of the family, and all his retainers and dependants dined together, was necessarily constructed of large proportions. The hall, with few exceptions, consisted of a lofty and undivided room, in form a parallelogram. At the upper end, the floor was raised a step, which was called the dais, or high place, designed for the reception of the master of the house and his chief guests, who sat at a table placed parallel to the wall. At the opposite extremity of the apartment was an elegantly enriched screen or partition of wood, behind which was a passage extending from side to side of the building, and the doors leading to the "kitchener's" department, buttery, &c. The wooden roof was the most striking part of the hall; from the richness of its carving, and boldness of its design. One of the finest examples yet remaining is at Hampton-court Palace, and that at Eltham is highly interesting.

The hearth, instead of being placed at the side, was in the middle of the room; the fagots (for wood was then the universal fuel,) were placed against a sort of fire-iron called the rere-dosse; the smoke escaping through the louver, a light open-work turret in the roof, which, as may be seen by the beautiful example at Westminster Hall, generally formed a highly ornamental feature in the exterior of the edifice, to which it gave a distinctive character. The windows were placed at a considerable height from the floor, on one or both sides of the room, of which the hall at Croydon affords an illustration.

Early in the sixteenth century, the alteration of manners gradually led to the withdrawal of the family from the hall, and to the introduction of the dining-parlour or banquetting-room. We may remark, that the halls at our Universities, especially at dinner, furnish an excellent idea of the style, and in a certain degree, of the customs of the times of our ancestors. The following passage from the Aubrey MSS. describes the ancient hall.

"The lords of manours did eate in their great gothicque halls, at the high table or oreile, the folk at the side tables. The meat was served up by watchwords. Jacks are but an invention of the other daye; the poor boys did turn the spits and lick the dripping-pan, and grew to be great lusty knaves. The body of the servants were in the great hall, as now in the guard-chamber,, privy-chamber, &c. The hearth was commonly in the midst, as at colleges, whence the saying, 'round about our coal fire.' Here, in the halls, were the mummings, cob-loaf stealing, and great number of old Christmas playes performed. In great houses, were lords of misrule during the twelve dayes after Christmas. The halls of justices of peace were dreadful to behold. The screenes were garnished with corslets and helmets gaping with open mouth, with coates of mail, lances, pikes, halberts, brown-bills, battle-axes, and *he modern callevers, petronells, and (in King Charles's time) muskets and pistolls."

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The parish of Croydon is one of the most extensive in the kingdom, being thirty-Bix miles in circumference, and comprising within its limits more than 10,000 acres and eight hamlets. There is nothing very remarkable in the history of Croydon, which is a considerable market-town, pleasantly situated in "sylvan Surrey," about ten miles to the south of London. The most memorable event in its annals, is a battle whieh took place there during the disputes between Henry the Third and his barons, when the forces of the latter were defeated with great loss.

The ancient church, which is dedicated to St. John the Baptist, is worthy of the notice of the lover of hoar antiquity. The structure is distinguished by a lofty square tower, built with stone and flint, and adorned with pinnacles. The nave is separated from the north and south aisles by clustered columns, and pointed arches of elegant proportion, between which are several grotesque ornaments and rude heads. Some remarkable monuments are to be found here. The eastern end of the north aisle is called Heron's Chapel. On either side of the north and west doors arc the arms of Archbishops Courtney and Chichele, who are supposed to be the founders of the edifice. In consequence of the increasing population of the parish, a new church, in the early pointed style of architecture, was built in 1827, from a design by Mr. Wallace. This beautiful structure is calculated to accommodate twelve hundred persons; two-thirds of

the seats are free. The sum of 3500/. was granted by the commissioners for building churches and chapels, in aid of this most desirable object.

At the latter end of the sixteenth century, an hospital was founded here by Archbishop Whitgift, at a cost of 2700/., and endowed with lands of the annual value of 185/., for the support of a warden, schoolmaster, and forty poor brethren and sisters, if the income proved sufficient to support so large a number. The lands have since greatly improved in value.

Early Inhabitants Of Britain,—In times past, men were contented to dwell in houses builded of sallow, willow, &c., so that the use of the oak was in a maimer wholly dedicated unto churches, religious houses, princes' palaces, navigation, &c.; but now sallow &c, are rejected, and nothing but oak any where regarded: and yet see the change: for when our houses were builded of willow, then had we oaken men: but now our houses are come to be made of oak, our men are not only become willow, but a great many altogether of straw, which is a sore alteration. In them the courage of the owner was a sufficient defence to keep the house in safety: but now the assurance of the timber must defend the men from robbing. Now have we many chimneys; and yet our tender lines complain of rheums, catarrhs, and poses, then had we none but reredosses, and our heads did never ache. For as hardening for the timber of the house, so it was reputed a far better medicine to keep the good man and his family from the quack or pose, wherewith, as then, very few were acquainted.

HOLLINGSHXD.

LONDON:

JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND.

rOBLISHED IK Wrrrxt NVMMtU, T-KICI OKR 1'kkky, AKD IK MoXTBI.Y Tauti, PRICK SlXRKKCR, AKO

Sol'l by all Bookicllert and Newtvenilen in the Kingdom.

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UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE AND EDUCATION APPOINTED BY THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE.

CAERNARVON CASTLE.

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The county of Caernarvon is, in almost every respect, the most interesting district in Wales. For centuries the scene of one of the noblest struggles for national independence which has ever been recorded—its history abounds with stirring recollections. The magnificent mountain-range of " Snowdonia," (so called from its central and highest elevation, Snowdon,) which covers so large a portion of its surface, is picturesque in the highest sense of the term. Druidical and other remains of antiquity, of a very remarkable character, are frequently to be met with; and its people still preserve, through the lapse of ages, the language, and many of the distinguishing features, of the early inhabitants of these isles.

Caernarvonshire, surrounded as it is by the sea on all sides, except on the east and a portion of the south, is extremely irregular in its outline. Its aspect, as we have stated, is generally wild and mountainous, the hills rising abruptly from the skirts of narrow valleys into stupendous elevations, which intersect each other, and afford, by their combinations, an endless variety of romantic scenery. Cattle and sheep are fed in considerable numbers on these mountains; they are generally tended by their owners, who, for the season, dwell in temporary huts, Vol. V.

"The

living chiefly upon the produce of their dairies, bread of the peasantry," says a recent writer, "in Welch called bara ceirch, is of oats, and their principal beverages whey and buttermilk, with a few bottles of cwrw, or ale, preserved as a cordial in cases of illness. One daily meal throughout the year consists of a very wholesome vegetable mucilage, called llymrv, (in English flummery,) which is made by adding as much warm water to finely ground oatmeal as it can well absorb, to which some sour butter-milk is added; in three or four days' time more warm water is put in, to make it thin enough to be strained through a hair-sieve; it is then boiled, after which it is ready for use. The slight fermentation which it undergoes gives it a pleasant acidity, which contrasts well with the sweetness of the milk with which it is generally eaten." Crime is almost unknown amongst these rude, but sober and industrious people. Following, from age to age, and from father to son, their peaceful occupations, amongst mountain-passes and sequestered hollows, intellectual pursuits have necessarily hitherto made, comparatively, but little progress amongst them; the recent introduction of popular literature, in Welch, however, bids fair to effect a wide change in the rising generation, and to drive away from the land tha race of fanciful

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beings, with' which superstition has peopled almost every hill, and glen, and lake, and ■waterfall, and river.

More than fifty llyns (lakes), are to be found in this country, which generally abound with char and other fish, peculiar to alpine waters. The llyns of Llanberris, Ogwen, Idwal, and Cawellyn, are amongst the most beautiful of these lakes, though of comparatively small extent. Westward of the mountain-range is a considerable expanse of level country, stretching to the bold shore of the Menai Strait, which abounds with large rounded fragments of rock, of the same conformation as those of the hill-country; the memorials of some vast convulsion of nature in other days. The geological features of the country are, indeed, of extreme interest. Mines of lead and copper are worked in several parts, and slates are exported to a considerable extent. The climate, although moist and variable, is considered very favourable to longevity; this, however, may be partly owing to the temperate habits of the people.

The Romans, during their sojourn in Britain, founded an extensive military station on the shores of the Menai, called Segontium; in the immediate neighbourhood of which there is good ground for concluding, that the native princes of the district first commenced the building of Caernarvon.

Constantino, who married Helena, a daughter of one of the princes of North Wales, is supposed, from some remains which have been found here, to have resided for a short time at this station;—in Welsh it is called Caer Custenit, the City of Constantino.

The town of Caernarvon, which has been designated "the boast of North Wales," is beautifully situated at the mouth of the river Seiont, on the south-eastern side of the strait of Menai, about four miles from St. George's Channel. It is chiefly surrounded by the massive and lofty remains of its aucient walls, which are flanked and strengthened by numerous semicircular towers. Of late years, Caernarvon, from the salubrity of its site, and the eminent beauty of the adjacent district, has not only ranked high as a " watering-place," but has become the permanent residence of many respectable families. A new town, as it were, has in consequence arisen beyond the ancient precincts. It possesses a very considerable coasting trade, to facilitate which, great improvements have been recently made in the harbour. But the glory of the place is its Castle; a fortress, which it has been well observed, from whatever point or whatever distance it is viewed, assumes a romantic singularity of appearance, that excites mingled feelings of awe and pleasure in the beholder.

A fortification seems to have been erected here shortly after the Norman Conquest of England, by Hugh Earl of Chester, who had, after an arduous conflict, succeeded in temporarily dethroning the Welsh monarch, and in nominally possessing himself of the greater part of North Wales. The present structure, however, was built by Edward the First, after the completion of his conquest of North Wales, in 1282. The care bestowed in the plan and construction of this magnificent fortress*, sufficiently indicates the important light in which Edward regarded his acquisition, and the difficulty which he foresaw would arise in keeping it, from the restless and undaunted character of the Welsh people.

The castle occupies the summit of an extensive rock, boldly projecting into the Menai Strait. On one side it was surrounded by the sea, on another by

• This monarch also constructed the castles of Conway and 1 lartoch, little inferior in estcm and splendour to that at Caernarvon.

the river Seiont, whilst the two other sides were environed partly by a fosse and partly by a creek from the adjacent strait. .Its external fortifications are still nearly perfect, and display an example of decorated castellated architecture, which is perhaps unrivalled; it is indeed this combination'of strength with ornament, which gives so remarkable an effect to Caernarvon Castle. Above the embattled parapets of the walls, rise numerous turreted towers of singular beauty, not uniform, but pentagonal, hexagonal, and octagonal in their shape. Of these, some idea may be formed from the turrets seen on the summit of the Eagle Tower in the centre of our engraving.

The walls of the castle are of great height, and generally about ten feet thick, having, within, a narrow gallery, with occasional loop-holes for the discharge of arrows in time of siege. In front of the principal entrance tower is a statue of Edward, who is represented with a sword half-drawn from its scabbard in his hand. This -massive gateway is defended by four portcullises. The interior of the castle is in a state of considerable dilapidation, but it is magnificent in its ruin. The state apartments have been extremely extensive, and were lighted by spacious windows profusely adorned with tracery, much of which remains. A corridor, or covered way, ran completely round the entire stracture, of which about seventy yards are nearly perfect.

We cannot even glance at the changeful history of this stupendous relic of the olden time. It was last used for the purposes of defence during the Civil War, when it was repeatedly taken and retaken by the Royalists and Republicans.

The Eagle Tower, (so called from a figure of that bird sculptured on its walls,) to which we have previously alluded, is, perhaps, the most interesting part of the fabric. "Within a little dark room of this tower," says Mr. Pennant, "not twelve feet long, nor eight in breadth, was born Edward the Second; so little, in those days, did a royal consort consult either pomp or conveniency." This assumption has, however, reasonably been doubted; and the scene of the royal accouchement has, with greater probability, been fixed in a spacious adjoining chamber on the same floor. Leaving this point to be contested by future antiquaries, we shall glance at some remarkable circumstances connected with the event, "Edward," says the historian, "had, by what are termed the statutes of Rhuddlan, annexed the principality to the kingdom of England, and in a great degree incorporated it, as to the administration of civil justice, with that country." But the Welst) became impatient under this usurped dominion, and the principal chieftains, who mostly remained in their inaccessible mountain-fastnesses, at last acquainted the English monarch, that they would never acknowledge him as their sovereign, unless he would reside in Wales. This being a proposition which it was impossible to comply with, the Welsh ultimately modified their requisitions, and after setting forth the cruel oppressions and unjust exactions of the English officers, stated, in a strong remonstrative memorial, that they never would acknowledge or yield obedience to any prince, but of their own nation and language, and of an unblamable lire. "King Edward," continues the historian, "perceiving the people to be resolute and inflexible, and absolutely bent against any other prince than one of their own country, happily thought of this politic, though dangerous expedicut. Queen Eleanor was then daily expecting to be confined; and though the season was very severe, it being the depth of winter, the king sent for her from England, and removed her to Caernarvon Castle, the place" designed for her accouchement. When the time of her delivery was come, King Edward called to him all the barons and chief persons throughout Wales, to Rhuddlan, there to consult about the public good, and safety of their country. And being informed that his queen was delivered of a son, he told the Welsh nobility, that whereas they had oftentimes entreated him to appoint them a prince, he, having then occasion to depart out of the country, would comply with their request, on condition they would allow of, and obey, him whom he should name. The Welsh readily agreed with this proposition, only with the same reserve, that he should appoint them a prince of their own nation. King Edward assured them he would name such a one as was born in Wales, could speak no English, and whose life and conversation nobody could stain; he then named pis own son, Edward, but little before born in Caernarvon Castle. The conqueror, having by this bold manoeuvre succeeded in obtaining what might be deemed the unqualified submission of the country, began, without any regard to justice, to reward his English followers with the property of the Welsh." It was not, however, until his son had attained his sixteenth year, that the wily monarch deemed it advisablp to invest him with the delegated sovereignty. In that year, (1300,) we are told " the Prince of Wales came down to Chester, and received homage of all the freeholders in Wales. On this occasion, he was invested, as a mark of imperial dignity, with a chaplet of gold round his head, a golden ring on his finger, and a silver sceptre in his hand." It is very remarkable, that long after this event, neither the title of Prince of Wales, nor the sovereignty of that country, was apparently considered absolutely hereditary in the heirs apparent of the British throne. The Black Prince, and many of the eldest sons of our kings, were elevated to the dignity, by letters patent; and it was not until the reign of Henry the Seventh, that the title was looked upon as descendible by birthright. In the following reign, Wales at list became tranquil, after a long series of intestine commotions, and was finally incorporated with England.

We say of a false man, Trust him not, he will deceive you; we say concerning a weak and broken staff, Lean not on it, for it will deceive you. The man deceives because ho is false, the staff because it is weak, yet our own heart is both. The heart of man hath not strength to think one good thought of itself; it cannot command its own attention to a prayer ten lines long, and no wonder then that in secret it should grow weary of a holy religion, which consists of so many parts as to make the business of a whole life.—Jeremy Taylor.

Nature passeth nurture, said the Abbot of Crosraquet to Knox.

To feel is amiable; but to feel too keenly is injurious both to mind and body ; and a habit of giving way to sensibility, which we should endeavour to regulate, though not to eradicate, may end in a morbid weakness of mind, which may appear, to romantic persons, very gentle and very interesting; but will undoubtedly render the victims of it very useless in society. Our feelings were given us to excite to action, and when they end in themselves, they are impressed to no one good purpose that I know of. This is the chief reason why novels are so dangerous to voung persons. My dear daughter will be persuaded that I say this from motives of the tenderest affection to her, and because I would have her not stifle the good and amiable emotions of her heart, but direct them rightly. I would not have my child become one of those, of whom it may be said, that they feel, and only feel. It is the most absurd and useless of all characters.—Bishop Sanbtord.

THE OCEAN.

Oh! tell mo no more of the forest and field,
Old Ocean has breathed a new spirit in me:

For the landscape with all its enchantment must yield
To the nobler expanse of the dark-heaving sea!

Yet think not, my feelings are dead to the scene

Of a country all smiling in summer array,
When the meadows are clad in their brightest of green,

And distance envelops the mountains in grey.

Not mine the cold pulse, or the heart's leaden chill,
Unmoved to contemplate the mountain or plain,

When the lake and the meadow, the cot and the hill,
Enamelled in beauty before mo have lain.

Ye hills and yo shades of sweet Devon, declare
Where so oft I have strayed with increasing delight,

And have thought that no scenery on earth might compare,
With the rich varied views that have greeted my sight.

Yet not upon nature's mild features alone,
Has my young vivid fancy delighted to dwell,

Put such scenes as in craggy magnificence strown,
Salvator's rude pencil depicted so well.

I have seen the rude torrent rush madly along,

Till plashing and thund'ring it rolled from the steep;

But what torrent so fierce, and what rushing so strong,
As the billow and roar of the marvellous Deep?'

Though merry it is in the thick spicy grove,
When the soft gale is breathing his sighs in the tree,

Though the voice of the zephyr is music and love,
Yet the gush of the waves hath more music for me.

How oft where the proud cliff frowns over the deep,
On some dark nigged brow which no footstep has known;

Have I been in thought, while the world was asleep,
For I love to hold commune with Ocean alone.

Then, beautiful Moon! throned Empress of night,
I have gazed on thy visage so meek and so fair,

While the little waves danced in the pale liquid light,
That lingered so softly and meltingly there.

In that pale liquid beam, as it brightened the seas,
I have marked a smali vessel skim rapidly o'er,

While the sail that it bore, Ughtly flapped to the breeze,
In a moment it passed—and 'twas dark as before.

'Tis an emblem of Man! For so brief and 60 vain,

His little life sparkles awhile in the ray, But turn to the spot where it sparkled, again,

Like a dream of the morn it has melted away.

'Tis an emblem of Man! For that bark re-appears,
When the morning-star beckons the darkness away,

So the Christian, released from his prison of yea»s,
Hails the Star of th' Eternal, and lives in his 'ay.

Thy way, mighty Ocean, no changing doth know,
Thy footsteps are trackless, thy billows are free,

The vale may be raised and the mountain made low,
But who shall prescribe any order to thee?

Ah! Who, save His voice, whose inscrutable will,
Has the power to destroy, but the mercy to save?

Who said to the wind, and the tempest, " Be Still,"
And calmed the blind wrath of the perilous wave.

Then let our warm tribute of praise and of prayer,
From nature's best works as an incense ascend,

To the throne of that Being who makes us Ids care,
Whose pow'r has no limit, whose mercy no end.

M.

During the tremendous hurricane at the mouth of the Ganges, in May, 1833, an unusual occurrence took place at Mud Point. A number of the natives had taken shelter from the pitiless storm, in Mr. Campbell's bungalow, while there, a full-grown tiger, quite overpowered by the storm, entered, and going past them, too much fatigued to attempt to do any injury, lay down in a corner, and fell fast asleep. He was not considered, however, a welcome guest, and as it was uncertain in what humour he might awake, Mr. Campbell thought it prudent to shoot him with his rifle through the head. The skin, we believe, is in Mr. Campbell's possession, in remembrance of this remarkable

event. Narrative of the Loss of the Hon. East India

Company's Ship, the Duke of York, in the Bay of Bengal, May 21st, 1833.

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