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seat; and, although the rooms it contains are much too small for modern habits, yet its delightful situation renders it a desirable residence during the summer months. The dining-room was formerly the refectory of the convent, and contains a curiouslycarved frieze, representing hunting subjects. It was formerly famous for a fine peal of bells, which have now entirely disappeared.
On the top of the tower, in one of the angles, is the remains of what is supposed to have been a moorstone lantern, kept, in all likelihood, by the monks, who had a tithe of the fishery, to give direction to the fishermen in dark and tempestuous ■weather. This is vulgarly called St. Michael's Chair, and will only admit one person to sit down in it at a
ST. MICHAEL S CHAIR.
time. The ascent to it is dangerous, but it is sometimes foolishly attempted out of bravado. There is also a legend attached to it, which, in former days, was firmly relied on, and even now is not entirely disbelieved, namely, that whoever first sits in St. Michael's chair after marriage, whether the husband or wife, shall from that time forth remain the ruler in domestic affairs.
The town of Marazion, or Market-Jew, with which the mountain is in fact connected for twelve hours out of every twenty-four, must formerly have been a place of considerable importance, and originally had three market-days in a week; but, in the third or fourth year of the reign of Henry the Eighth, and also at a later period, it was nearly destroyed by the French.
The climate of this part of the Cornish coast is considered the mildest in England, and the visiter from other parts of the country will be surprised to find myrtles, hydrangeas, and fuchsias flourishing in the open air, and scarcely ever receiving any injury from the severity of the winters; on this account it has been called the Montpelier of England.
Bk wondrous wary of your first comportments; pet a good name, and be very tender of it afterwards: for 'tis like the Venice-glass, quickly cracked, never to be mended, though patched it may be. To this purpose, take along with you this fable. It happened that Fire, Water, and Fame went to travel together, (as you are going now;) they consulted, that if they lost one another, how they might be retrieved, and meet again. Fire said, Where you see smoke, there you shall find me. Water said, Where you see marsh, and moorish low ground, there you shall find me. But Fame said, Take heed how you lose me; for, if you do, you will run a great hazard never to meet me again: there's no retrieving of me.—Howell"* Familiar Letter*, 1634.
THE WING OF A BAT.
The wing of the Bat is very commonly spoken of as a wing of leather, and the idea attached to this term, undoubtedly is, that it is composed of a callous membrane; that it is an insensible piece of stuff like the leather of a glove or of a lady's shoe; but nothing can be further from the truth. If one were to select an organ of the most exquisite delicacy and sensibility it would be the bat's wing; it is any thing but leather, and is, perhaps, the most acute organ of touch that can be found, though it is not easy to understand why it should be so. Spallanzani, a philosopher as noted for hie extreme cruelty, as for his ingenuity and love of research, had observed that bats could fly with great certainty, in rooms however dark, without striking against the walls. He found that when their eyes were covered, they could fly with as much precision as before; and even when their eyes were put out, no alteration in this respect was observed. When branches of trees or threads were suspended from the ceiling they avoided them, nor did they even brush the threads as they flew past or between them; and even when the space between was too small to admit their expanded wings, they contracted the latter so as to suit their dimensions to the breadth of the passage. Spallanzani thought that the bat must possess a sixth sense. The organs of vision had been destroyed, and therefore it could not be by sight that they avoided all obstacles. In many individuals the ears were stopped, so that it could not be by hearing. In others the nostrils wore stopped, so that it could not be by smelling; and taste is out of the question.
The following remarks from Cuvier are sufficiently demonstrative, I think, that it is by the acuteness of the sensation of touch in the wing, and not by any additional sense, that the phenomenon is to be accounted for. *' The bones of the metacarpus, and the phalanges of the four fingers which succeed the thumb, are excessively elongated. The membrane which unites them presents an enormous surface to the air; the nerves which are distributed to it are numerous, and minutely divided; they form a network very remarkable for its fineness and the number of its anastomoses. It is probable, that in the action of flight, the air, when struck by this wing, or very sensible hand, impresses a sensation of heat, cold, mobility, and resistance on that organ, which indicates to the animal the existence or absence of obstacles which would interrupt its progress. In this manner blind men discover by their hands, and even by the skin of their faces, the proximity of a wall, door of a house, or side of a street, even without the assistance of touch, and merely by the sensation which the difference in the resistance of the air occasions. Letters to a Young Naturalist. O. N.
Carefully avoid those vices which most resemble virtue, they are the most dangerous of all vices.
He that riseth late in the morning must ho in a hurry all the day, and scarce overtake his business at night.
"Some people act as if they deemed happiness to consist in good eating and drinking, and in an expensive and splendid way of life. I, for my part, am of opinion, that to have need of nothing is a divine perfection: hence it follows, that as there.is nothing more excellent than the Deity, whatever approaches nearest to this state, is likewise most near the Supreme Excellence." Socrates.
None are so seldom found alone, and are so soon tired of their own company, as those coxcombs who are on the best terms with themselves.
"the Cities Of Old.
"How doth the city sit solitary, that was full of people! All her gates are desolate."—Lamentations i. 1, 4.
"where are the cities which of old in mighty grandeur rose?
Hark! hark! the voice of prophecy comes o'er the desert wide,
hide, Oh " Daughter of Clialdea," thou no more enthroned shalt be, For the desert and the wilderness, alone shall tell of thee.
Though old Euphrates still rolls on his everlasting stream, Thy brazen gates and golden halls as though they ne'er had
been, Where stood thy massy tower-crowned-walls, and palaces of
The " besom of destruction" o'er thee hath swept its way
Lament, ye seas, and howl, ye isles, for Tyre's virgin daughter,
"My merchant-princes bear the wealth of every land and clime, The choicest things that earth can give, in sea, or air, are mine, The vestments rich of purple dye, alone are made by me, Aud kings that robe can only wear, the robe of sovereignty."
And haughty Zidon, she too stood enrobed in dazzling light, The precious stone her covering was, with pearl and diamond
bright, The ruby and the emerald, the sapphire's glowing gem, Blazed on her star-embroider'd vest, and on her diadem.
Thou "city of a hundred gates," through whose folding leaves
of brass, Ten thousand men in arm'd array, from each at once might
pass, Could not thy warriors and thy walls thee from the spoilers
save? Alas! alas! thy gates are down, thy heroes in the grave.
And where those sumptuous summer-homes, those bowers of
kingly pride, That rose amid the "palm-tree shade," far in the desert wide? Where that gigantic structure the temple of the sun? Is thy day of beauty too gone by, thy race of glory run?
Imperial " Mistress of tho World," where are thy triumphs
The seven hills thy ancient throne, the hand of time defy,
Thy Caesars, and thy citizens, the emperor, and slave,
And thou, beloved "Jerusalem," tho' desolate thou art,
heart, Tho' the harp of Jesse's son now lies neglected, mute, and
still, Yet Abraham's God cannot forget liis own most holy hill.
The silver trumpet yet shall wake in thee a joyous sound, Thy golden altars be once more with sweetest incense crown'd, Yet not the blood of bulls or goats, that shall be offered there, But the sweet incense of the heart, in notes of praise and prayer.
The seven-branch lustre yet shall shed its rays of holy light, On every clustered capital, with sculptured traceries bright, And He whose presence dwelt between the cherubims of gold, Shall to his bright pavilion come, as he was wont of old.
For Israel's King of David's line, the Crowned, the Crucified,
No light of sun or moon shall then again be needed there,
And down the streets of purest gold, bright as transparent
glass, Diffusing health and happiness, o'er nations as they pass, The everlasting streams of life, their healing waters pour, And he who tastes those crystal floods, shall faint with thirst
no more! Stonebrakes. H. Brownx.ee.
Sceptical modes of thinking have a direct and natural tendency to beget a captious, quibbling, sophistical habit; to create and foster literary arrogance and conceit; to destroy whatever is candid and ingenuous in controversial warfare; to make the mind diminutive, ricketty, and distorted; to induce men to set a higher value on crotchety sophisms, than on the inspirations of real wisdom aud science; to make them more eager to puzzle and bewilder, than to convince and instruct; to lead them to view questions of great and acknowledged interest to their species, with coldness, apathy, and distrust; to throw a gloom and cloudiness over the whole mind; to cause men to take delight in picking holes in the garment of knowledge, instead of endeavouring to multiply its sheltering folds over their race; to mistake verbal wranglings, and snarlish disputations, as certain indications of real talent and genius; to make men slaves to ambitious singularities and mental eccentricities; and, in one word, the general and most valuable of our mental principles become paralyzed and enfeebled, by a constant habit of frivolous doubting and minute fastidiousness, as to the degree of evidence required to produce firm
and rational conviction on subjects of vital importance
Very few persons consider how early children receive their first impressions, how soon they learn to follow the tempers and manners of those about them. How important, then, must be the example of their father and mother! How naturally will the child be guided by the daily conversation, the daily conduct of its parents. How strong must be their influence on the young mind, taught to look up to them with love and respect.
There is no age at which we are not apt to follow the example of those around us, but it is in childhood, above all, that example exerts its greatest power. It is the nature of children to imitate all they see; it is by this means they learn so much during the first years of their life. We see that speech is taught them by imitating those around them, but we are too little aware how many of the passions and feelings we call natural, are often taught in the earliest infancy.
It is a great satisfaction to me that my daughters will be educated well, and taught to depend upon themselves for their happiness in this world: for if their hearts be good, they have both of them heads wise enough to distinguish between right and wrong. While they have resolution to follow what their hearts dictate, they may be uneasy under the adventitious misfortunes which may happen to them, but never unhappy; for they will still have the consolation of a virtuous mind to resort to. I am most afraid of outward adornment being made a principal study, and the furniture within being rubbish. What they call fashionable accomplishment, is but too often teaching poor Misses to look bold and forward, in spite of a natural disposition to gentleness and virtue. Lord Collingwood.
He that at midnight, when the very .abourer sleeps securely, should hear, as I have often done, the sweet descants, the natural rising and falling, the doubling and redoubling of the nightingale's voice, might well be lifted above earth, and say, Lord, what music hast thou provided for the saints in heaven, when thou affordest bad men such music upon earth.—Izaak Walton.
FAMILIAR ILLUSTRATIONS OF EXPERI-
No. III. Divisibility Of Matter.
All material substances may be divided into two general classes,—simple and compound. A simple substance retains its original character, under every variety of form it may assume, whether solid, liquid, or aeriform. It corresponds, in this respect, with the description we have already given of an element. A compound substance consists of two or more simple or elementary substances, held together by certain laws of affinity or attraction, and presenting properties essentially different from those possessed by either of the simple bodies when in its separate state. The number of simple substances at present known is fifty-three, of which five only are found capable of combining with all the others. By a series of combinations that, in number, far exceed our limited comprehension, these fifty-three elementary bodies constitute all that is known to us amidst the wonders of creation.
In our last paper, alluding to the changes going on around us, we remarked that, notwithstanding the apparent waste and dissipation to which every substance, animate and inanimate, is. by a wise ordination of Providence, subjected, nothing is really lost or destroyed. These mutations of form and of character result from the most complete separation of the particles of matter of any with which we are acquainted; implying the reduction of compound bodies to their elements, which elements assist in constructing new substances, whose round of duty being performed, they become, in their turn, liable- to the same immutable law of decay and reproduction. The minuteness of division necessary to these transformations may, very properly, be termed elementary. The elementary division of matter not only extends beyond the range of our visual organs, but it exceeds the most laborious stretch of our imagination. We will endeavour to illustrate this subject by a reference to some instances of the extreme divisibility of matter, by a process that may be denominated mechanical.
Although we possess no means whereby to render visible to our senses the form, size, colour, weight, and other peculiarities of an ultimate particle of matter in its separate state, we justly conclude that matter is incapable of division or diminution beyond certain limits; consequently, that each particle is endowed with some specific characteristic, and that the quantities of the particles of matter are as various and as dissimilar as those exhibited by the simple bodies they compose.
Gold affords a remarkable proof of the minute mechanical division of which a solid body is susceptible. In the form of gold-leaf it may be beaten so thin, that fifty square inches weigh only one grain *. By the aid of a magnifying-glass the j^th (one thousandth) part of an inch may be distinctly seen. A square inch of gold-leaf may, therefore, be divided into 1,000,000 (one million) equal parts, each of which, weighing ^gj^tu (one fifty millionth) of a grain, will be distinguishable by the eye. On silverwire gold is reduced much thinner than it is in the state of leaf. It has been shown by an eminent French philosopher (Reaumur), that one grain of gold, of the thinness which it is upon silver-wire, will cover an area of 1400 square inches. Dividing the square inch, as in the former case, into 1,000,000 (one million) equal parts, it follows that a piece of
* There are 5760 grains in a pound (Troy) of 6old.—An avoirdupois pound is equal to 7000 grains.
gold, effectually covering silver-wire, and weighing onlv i.wwoo.ooo"' (one fourteen hundred millionth) of a grain may be seen by the aid of a common magnifier. Small and insignificant as the fourteen hundred millionth of a grain of gold may appear, it is, comparatively, a rough fragment of the metal, consisting, probably, of many thousands of its ultimate particles. The most perfect state of separation to which we can subject a metallic body is that of vaporization. To detach a single particle of vapour, weigh it, and measure it, is a process too refined and complicated for man to perform, notwithstanding the aids with which science has supplied him. In the focus of a burning-glass, the heat of which far exceeds that of a furnace, gold has not only melted, but vaporized. This fact was attested by a piece of silver, placed at some distance above it, being gilded by the condensation of the vapour of gold upon its surface.
When a solid body, as salt, is dissolved in water, we have an instance of the minute separation of its particles. By evaporating some of the solution, the quantity of salt recovered will be proportionate to its diffusion throughout the mass. On this principle it is that common salt is obtained from sea-water. Spring-water generally holds in solution great quantities of earthy matter, especially carbonate of lime. By a very simple process, that we shall, in some future paper, describe, the lime may be separated from the water, and deposited at the bottom of the vessel that contains it, in the form of an impalpable white powder. Under ordinary circumstances the lime, thus dissolved in water, is so finely divided, that it passes readily through the most perfect filters that have ever been invented, imparting not the slightest trace of turbidity to the liquid. Its presence may be detected by sprinkling a few drops of the water on a piece of clean glass; when the water has evaporated, the lime will remain, communicating a faint white stain to the surface of the glass.
In the evaporation of water, and other liquids, we have an example of the minute separation of those bodies. The vapour of water at a certain temperature is invisible, and perfectly dry. It becomes visible, and imparts moisture, only when in a state of transition from the vaporous to the liquid form. The vapour of ether may be poured, like water, from one vessel to another, without being seen by the operator. The diffusion of odours through the atmosphere may be noticed in illustration of the divisibility of matter. These odours may be either agreeable or offensive; emanating from solids or liquids, or a mixture of both, and dependent on certain conditions annexed to the products of the animal, vegetable, and mineral kingdoms.
In many of the inferior animals, the sense of smelling is more refined than in the human species. Beasts of prey seem to be guided by the intimations received through their olfactory organs to the haunts of such animals as are adapted for their sustenance. In some particular species of birds the senses of' sight and smell are eminently acute. Fish also are attracted by the odours exhaled from particular substances, as is well known to anglers. Sharks will follow a ship for many successive days, when any of the crew happen to be sick. We are not without satisfactory evidence, that insects, in searching for their food, or proper recipients for their eggs, are stimulated at considerable distances, by impressions made upon organs corresponding with those of smell in animals. In all the cases we have cited, the impressions must necessarily be dependent on actual contact with minute portions of the respective substances.
The exhalations from the human body, when in health, differ materially from those consequent on disease; hence domestic animals, as dogs and cats, evince symptoms of uneasiness when sickness prevails, or death occurs, in their master's family. These emanations may be modified, and are very often totally changed by change of food, habit, occupation, or climate.
It would appear, that every body in nature is surrounded by an atmosphere peculiar to itself. In animals and vegetables this may be more distinctly recognised than in minerals. But although in the latter wo meet with some apparent exceptions, they are, evidently, due to our incapacity for detecting them, rather than to any departure from a law which we may rationally infer is universal. We know that some of the metals may be distinguished by their odour on being rubbed, or subjected to a slight elevation of temperature. The most familiar instances are iron, lead, copper, zinc, and brass.
The number of odorous particles liberated from certain substances, without any apparent diminution in their weight or bulk, bids defiance to every thing like estimate or calculation. That each particle must be inconceivably small is quite certain; yet small as it is in the majority of cases, it retains its compound form, consisting of two or more simple substances in chemical union. This spontaneous separation of the particles of a body, is preparatory to its final decomposition.
The rapid diffusion and extensive distribution of odours through the atmosphere, is not the least remarkable property possessed by them. This cannot be too often impressed upon us in connexion with fever, small-pox, and other dangerous diseases. It points to the importance of cleanliness and effectual ventilation whenever sickness prevails, and especially in prisons, workhouses, and hospitals.
The odour of newly-mown hay has been detected at least seven miles from land. A late traveller, in sailing along the coast of Ceylon, at a distance of nine leagues from the shore, recognised the delicious aroma of the spices, particularly cinnamon, for which that island is celebrated.
Our distinguished countryman, the Honourable Robert Boyle, almost two hundred years ago, made some very curious experiments on the divisibility of matter. The following we select, as being highly interesting as well as instructive. .
Mr. Boyle found that the materials resulting from the explosion of half a grain of gunpowder, occupied a space SOOyOOO (five hundred thousand) times greater than the powder in its original state. A grain of copper dissolved in. muriate of ammonia (sal ammoniac) imparted a blue tint to 32,000 (thirtytwo thousand) gallons of water; and a perceptible discoloration was produced in double that quantity of water.
A pair of Spanish perfumed gloves that Mr. Boyle had in his possession, preserved their odour, apparently unimpaired, for nearly thirty years. A piece of ambergris, carefully counterbalanced in scales that would turn with a very small part of a grain, was exposed to the air for three days and a half; and although there must have been disengaged from it, an incalculable number of odorous particles during that time, yet no loss of weight or of. bulk could be discovered. A lump of assafoetida similarly treated, was found, after five days and a half, not to have undergone any appreciable diminution.
Whilst occupied in these investigations, we perceive, at every step we take, incontrovertible proofs of the power, and wisdom, and goodness of God. The,
hand that sustains and directs, throughout all their mighty revolutions, our own and myriads of other worlds; controls, amidst its successive combinations, every particle of matter of which those worlds consist. We may well adopt the language of the Psalmist, "Great is the Lord and greatly to be praised; and his greatness is unsearchable. I will speak of the glorious honour of thy majesty, and of thy wondrous works."—Psalm Cxlv. 3. 5. R. R.
The grub of the large Tipula, sometimes called Tom Taylor, or Tommy Longlegs, says a writer on this subject, commits iU ravages chiefly in the first crop, after the breaking up of the grass-land, also after clover and after beans; the fly, from which this insect is produced, having deposited its eggs on the soil amongst the grass, clover, or beans. I endeavoured some few years ago, to acquaint myself with the natural history of this insect, and 1 was so successful as to ascertain the different stages of existence through which it passes; the fly, the egg, the grub, and the chrysalis; as well as the season of the year when the different changes take place, and some degree of usefulness was the result. I found that it took the fly-slate about the beginning of the month of August; I therefore concluded, as we got our clover-hay from the land a little after Midsummer, that if we ploughed the clover-stubble any time after that, and before the month of August, it would be nearly free from the grub, as instinct has directed the fly uot to leave iu eggs upon the naked soil, where no living vegetable is growing. I know of no application to the land that will in any degree destroy the grub, but we are much indebted to the rook and a variety of other birds for keeping its depredations within limited bounds. A family of rooks would consume 3847 grubs per day; supposing the consumption to be continued throughout the year, it would amount to 1,404,155; and supposing a grub to destroy as many wheat or other plants as might grow on a space of ground equal to nine inches square, a family of rooks would preserve from destruction more than two acres of corn. If we extend our ideas further, and suppose all these grubs to live and propagate their species, it appears to me more than probable, that if this one species of bird alone were extinct, the labour of the husbandman would be nearly, if not altogether, in vain.
Every body who is fond of petting a canary-bird, and making the little stranger as happy as he can be in a foreign land, is well acquainted with the Ribwort Plantain, which, with the groundsel and duckweed, is a favourite food of all the leathered tribes. But few persons, perhaps, who have been in the habit of introducing it between the wires of their bird-cages are aware how very curious a plant it is which they have in their hands. It has no pretensions to beauty, taken as a whole; but when dissected it is as full of wonder as any. specimens of the vegetable kingdom more attractive to the eye. When out of bloom, it appears more like a piece of dark worsted, twisted round a piece of stick into the form of a slender cone, than like a flower, but on examination, this cone is found to contain a succession of perfect flowers from the bottom upwards, easily separated from each other, and all containing four "stamens and a pistil. The filaments are extremely fine, like silk just wound from the ball of the silkworm. They are, also, very long, and, bearing an anther at their extremities, they seem constantly agitated, and in danger of being torn from their receptacle; but to this they are so tightly fixed, that it requires considerable force to displace them. Thus, flower after flower blows and withers, and gives place to those which are formed beneath them on the cone; till at length the whole have gone through the separate stages of vegetation, till their seed is perfected; when the first person who passes by, possessing a canary-bird, snaps its stem and carries it away to the bird-cage or aviary. E. T.
Never doth reason show itself more reasonable than when it ceaseth to reason about things which are above reason.
JOHN WILLIAM PARKER. WEST STRAND.
Published In Weekly Kimiir.iii, Price One Penny, Ihu In Monthly Parti, Pkice Sixpence, And '" Sold by mil BoolueLUtn ami K?» Ivcuumiv in the Kliigilum.
UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE AND EDUCATION APPOINTED BY THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE.
". , „ ■ ■
THE SHEEP-EATER OF HINDOSTAN; ■•
Some years ago, there existed in the East Indies, a man with an appetite so voraoious, and which was displayed in practices so revolting, as to procure for him the appellation of the cannibal. He exhibited his extraordinary propensities in various parts of India, and a detailed account of one of his extraordinary exhibitions, communicated to the Royal Asiatic Society, by Major-General Hardwicke, an eye-witness of the scene, is published in the Transactions of the Society for the year 1833. The following is the substance of that communication. Vol.. V.
Early in the morning, the Sheep-Eater, attended by his Guru, or spiritual father, appeared in front of the assembled crowd. He had with him two living sheep; and after a short harangue to the people, he commenced his attack on the first sheep, by seizing its fleece with his teeth; and having held it thus for about a minute, he then, by a swing of his head, flung it on its back on the ground. In this position he held the animal down till he tore it open, which he effected with his teeth only, by stripping off the skin from the flank to the breast; he then removed