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commanded our applause; it has been that generous and lofty spirit which inspired your troops with unbounded confidence, and taught them to know that the day of battle was always a day of victory; that moral courage and enduring fortitude, which in perilous times, when gloom and doubt had beset ordinary minds, stood, nevertheless, unshaken; and that ascendency of character, which, uniting the energies of jealous and rival nations, enabled you to wield at will the fates and fortunes of mighty empires. For the repeated thanks and grants bestowed upon you by this House, in gratitude for your many and eminent services, you have thought fit this day to offer us your acknowledgments; but this nation well knows that it is still largely your debtor; it owes to you the proud satisfaction, that amidst the constellation of great and illustrious warriors who have recently visited our country, we cauld present to them a leader of our own, to whom all by common acclamation conceded the pre-eminence; and when the will of heaven, and the common destinies of our nature, shall have swept away the present generation, you will have left your great name and example as an imperishable monument, exciting others to like deeds of glory, and serving at once to adorn, defend, and perpetuate the existence of this country among the ruling nations of the earth."
When the Speaker had finished his address, the Duke of Wellington withdrew, making his obeisances in like manner as upon entering, and the whole House rising whilst his Grace was reconducted by the Serjeant from his chair to the door of the House.
Such marks of honour did this great general receive from the three branches of the legislature,— from each the highest which it could bestow. It would be impossible to particularize the various acts by which his countrymen in general marked their gratitude and joy; one of the most memorable was that which we have recorded in this series of papers, —the offering of the Wellington Shield. But besides these he had other rewards ;—those arising
from a consciousness that his victories had ben gained in a good cause, and that the high powers intrusted to him had never been used for purposes of cruelty and oppression. On this point, the observations of Mr. Southey are just and eloquent; and we know not how we can more appropriately close this subject than with the following extract from the conclusion of his History of the Peninsular War.
"In Gascony, as well as in Portugal and Spain, the Duke of Wellington's name was blessed by the people. Seldom indeed has it fallen to any conqueror to look back upon his career with such feelings. The marshal's staff, the dukedom, the honours and rewards which his prince and his country so munificently and properly bestowed, were neither the only nor the most valuable recompense of his labours. There was something more precious than these; more to be desired than the high and enduring fame which he had secured by his military achievements, —the satisfaction of thinking to what end those achievements had been directed;—that they were for the deliverance of two most injured and grievously oppressed nations;—for the safety, honour, and welfare of his country;—and for the general interests of Europe, and of the civilized world. His campaigns were sanctified by the cause ;—they were sullied by no cruelties, no crimes ;—the chariot-wheels of his triumphs have been followed by no curses;—his laurels are entwined with the amaranths of righteousness, and upon his death-ded he might remember his victories among his good works."
Since the commencement of these papers, the world ha had to lament the death of the venerable artist, Stotbart, who was the author of this splendid work of genius, lie had lived long enough, however, to establish for lunucU» reputation which will not soon perish.
JOHN WILLIAM PAKKKR. WEST STRAND.
PUBUHMED KfODf KVMMU.niwOllI HtKHT. A»I>U'M•''»l',,*, FEICE SlXrEMCX. AND
SoH by ill BookteUers and Ntwiveuden io the Etal*".
UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE AND EDUCATION, APPOINTED BY THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE.
THE CATHEDRAL OF SENLIS. Among the many religious edifices that boast the »ame of Cathedrals, there are few less generally known than that which distinguishes the little town of Senlis, in France. In all probability, one half of our readers never beard of its existence, and will derive their first knowledge of the fact from the pages of this Magazine. It certainly is not a structure remarkable for the beauty of its outward form, or the attractions of its internal architecture; nor. is its name linked with any of those pleasing associations which impart so much interest to buildings richer in historic fame. Nevertheless, as our object is to furnish a complete illustration of the ecclesiastical architecture of foreign eountries, as well as of our own, it is quite impossible to overlook this modest cathedral, however humble and unpretending its merits; nay, were it even deformed with positive ugliness, still the comprehensive nature of our design would forbid us to pass it over in silence.
Senlis is but a little town, standing to the northeast of Paris, at a distance of about thirty miles. According to the ancient division of the French territory, it formed a part of what was called the Isle of Prance; it is now comprehended within the department of the Oise. It is a very ancient place, having existed in the time of the Gauls; and it still bears about it the marks of its antiquity, in the remnants which may yet be traced, of its old fortifications. The Romans first called it Augustomcigus; but it afterwards obtained the name of Silvanectum, probably, as has been suggested, on account of the forests which then surrounded it, and which have not wholly disappeared at the present day. In the modern history of France, it is not entirely destitute of interest. During the contest between Henry the Fourth and the celebrated League, it sided with the monarch, and furnished him with supplies for the prosecution of the siege of Paris.
The modern town, if that can be called modern ivhich has nothing but what is antiquated about it, presents very few attractions. It is badly built, and most of its streets are both narrow and crooked. A French author, who wrote towards the close of the last century, speaks of it in very unprepossessing language; he says, he never saw any place so near a great capital more dull, sad, and silent. Its character is somewhat altered at the present day, though not to such an extent as to give it a very lively appearance; but the inhabitants are animated by the same spirit of industry which so strongly marks some other towns in this portion of France, and carry on several manufactures to a considerable extent. The water in the river which flows close by, is supposed by them to possess a peculiar quality, that renders it better adapted than any other for the washing of wool; "the fact may be doubtful," says Malte-Brun, "but it must be admitted that many persons are employed in that branch of industry." There are also several establishments for bleaching, which is practised on a large scale; formerly, indeed, Senlis had such a reputation for its excellence in this art, that goods used to be sent thither for bleaching, from all parts of France. It has likewise, cottonmanufactories, besides establishments for the prosecution of other branches of industry; and the stone which is found in the neighbouring quarries, furnishes the material for a considerable trade. The number *f inhabitants is between four and five thousand.
The Cathedral, of course, forms a very prominent object in this little town. Of its origin and early history we have little to say, for scarcely any thing is known concerning them. The French writers
themselves, confess and lament this paucity of %(ox mation; and M. da Jolimont, one of the highest modern authorities on the subject, and the ouc who has been our chief guide in these notices of the French Churches, candidly tells us, that in spite of his mo<t active researches, his account of this structure savours overmuch of this "complete sterility of documents" The institution of the Church of Senlis, is referred to the third century, and is ascribed to a certain "Saint-Rieul," who visited Gaul with the renowned St. Denis, the well-known patron-saint of France, in order to effect the conversion of the pagan inhabitants. His mission was attended with success; the Sykanectes became Christians, and he became their bishop. We are to suppose, that under the auspices of this prelate, the first cathedral was erected; but, after wading through the usual mass of miraculous legends, we lose every clue to its real history. After being kept, for a long lapse of ages, in utter darkness as to every thing concerning it, we at last find ourselves on more solid ground, and learn, that at the beginning of the fourteenth century, there existed a cathedral, which soon afterwards met that too common fate of the early ecclesiastical buildings, destruction by lightning. On its ruins was raised the present edifice, though by very slow degrees; indeed, its appearance indicates the lingering nature of its construction, for it exhibits a mixture of the various styles which prevailed through several centuries.
Our readers will see, by a glance at the engraving contained in the preceding page, that the exterior of this cathedral has very little that is splendid or highly-finished in its appearance. The character of its architecture is severe; but there is something pleasing in its simplicity, and in the contrast which it offers to its more gorgeous brethren. Some of the French writers are much disposed to find fault with it; they see little in it to admire, and speak of its style as being in the worst taste. The traveller whom we noticed before, as being displeased with the town of Senlis, seems fairly in a passion with its cathedral; he calls it a mean building, and one of the ugliest gothics that he ever met with. The tower, he says, is lofty, but wanting in delicacy; —the portals are in the very worst taste;—and the nave is so short as to form scarcely a third of the church;—in short, it is labour and stone thrown away. Others of his nation view things with a different eye. M. de Jolimont is one of them; and he says that if the Cathedral of Senlis be of less general importance,—if it be less sumptuous in its appearance, and built in a style less uniform and regular than other buildings of its kind,—still it presents much richness in detail, and many things highly curious and interesting in its different parts.
The principal front is represented in our view. It is rather narrow, but perfectly regular in every thing excepting the towers; these were necessarily dissimilar, for Senlis was & suffragan bishopric, and was not entitled to that "uniformity of towers," which was confined to the cathedrals of metropolitan sees, to abbey churches, and to those attached to colleges of royal foundation. The portals arc, as usual, three in number, and decorated with thi customary profusion of statues and bas-reliefs; there are three little rose windows, but, contrary to the usual practice, these are placed at what is called the last stage of the edifice. But the chief feature of the building is the southern of the two towers—which is remarkahle for it loftiness, aud the elegant lightness of its architecture. It is about 220 feet hijjh, and as it surpasses in elevation all tb«
neighbouring hills, it is visible from a great distance. Like the rest of this front, it is faulty from its narrowness; which, besides being a drawback on its beauty, seriously obstructs its utility; the bells have not room to swing, and on more than one occasion have been broken by coming in contact with the wall. The interior of this Cathedral is of the same character with its outward form—simple and severe— exhibiting an absence of ornaments, almost even to nakedness. It is somewhat remarkable for the size and number of those side-chapels which are common in the French cathedrals, but rather a rarity in those of our own country. The choir is somewhat disfigured by bad pictures, which are little in harmony •with the general style of the building.
There is one tribe of caterpillar called Surveyors, or Geometers, which walk by first fixing the fore-feet, and then doubling the body into a vertical arch; this action brings up the hind part of the caterpillar, which is furnished with prolegs, close to the head. The hind extremity, being then fixed by means of the prologs situated at that part, the body is again extended into a straight line; and this process being repeated, the caterpillar advances by a succession of paces, as if it were measuring the distance, by converting its body into a pair of compasses. At the same time that they employ this process, they further provide for their security, by spinning a thread, which they fasten to different points of the ground, as they go along.
Many other species of caterpillar practise the same art of spinning fine silken threads, which especially assist them in their progression over smooth surfaces, and also in descending from a height through the air. The caterpillar of the cabbage-buttcrliy, is thus enabled to climb up and down a pane of glass, for which purpose it fixes the threads that it spins in a zigzag line, forming so many steps of a rope-ladder. The material of which these threads are made, is a glutinous secretion, which, on being deposited on glass, adheres firmly to it, and very soon acquires consistence and hardness by the action of the air.
Other caterpillars, which feed on trees, and have often occasion to descend from one branch to another, send out a rope made with the same material, which they can prolong indefinitely; and thus either suspend themselves at pleasure in the air, or let themselves down to the ground. They continue, while walking, to spin a thread as they advance, so that they can always easily retrace their steps by gathering up the clue they have left, and reascend to the height from, which they had allowed themselves to drop. O. N.
[Da. Roget's Bridgewaler Treatise.]
The Globe Volvox.—This extraordinary animalcule is of a globular form, and usually of a light-green colour, sometimes of an orange-brown. The envelope is composed of a diaphanous membrane, beneath the surface of which, are disposed at equal distances, small spherical bodies of a green colour. The proximity of these tubercles is greater, the younger the" specimen; and as these tubercles contain the colouring matter of the animalcule, the young always appear more coloured than the old ones, as the transparent spaces between the pustules are augmented in the latter, and spread over a greater surface. Within the parent are often seen a number of from six to forty smaller ones, and even within these, when about to be excluded, another generation maybeobserved. The youngwithin the parent,— and this forms the most striking character of this species,— may be observed at first attached to the inside of the membranous covering, but long before their birth revolving freely in the parent, and others again with thorn. At length the parent globe bursts, and the young arc slowly evolved; when this is completed, the parent, like the fabular phoenix, dies, and its body separates into numberless parts. This animalcule moves in all directions, forwards, backwards, up and down, rolling over and over like a bowl, spinning horizontally like a top, or gliding along smoothly without turning itself. Its diameter, when full grown, is about one-thirtieth of an inch, and is, therefore, easily perceived by unassisted vision. It is found most abundant during
spring and summer, in pond* and stagnant water.
THE SCILLY ISLANDS. About nine leagues west' by south from the Land's End, Cornwall, from which they are clearly visible, lie the Scilly Islands. This wild and romantic cluster of rocks, many of which, on a distant view, appear like old castles and churches rising out of the sea,— although scarcely known, except, perhaps, by name, to most persons in this country, possesses very considerable claims on our attention.
These Islands were known to the ancients. By the Greeks they were called Hesperides and Cassiterides, or the Tin Islands, probably from their contiguity t« Cornwall (where the Phoenicians traded), for not a vestige of any ancient mine can now be discovered upon them.
It is evident, however, that they have undergone great changes since the period referred to, as Strabo speaks of the islands as not exceeding ten In number, whilst now there are upwards of one hundred and forty, only six of which, however, (for the greater portion are mere rocks,) are inhabited. These are,— St. Mary's, which contains twelve hundred inhabitants; St. Agnes, three hundred; St. Martin's, six hundred; Trescow, three hundred and fifty; Bryer*, two hundred; and Sampson, one hundred and fifty ft making an aggregate of about two thousand eight hundred inhabitants, which are rapidly increasing, the births greatly exceeding the burials; indeed, so healthy is the climate, and so robust arc the people, that it is a common sajing amongst the Scillonians, "that for one man who dies a natural death, nine are drowned.'' Cases of deformity are unknown.
St. Mary's is the largest of the Scilly Islands, being about nine miles and a half in circumference, and containing, as we have seen, nearly as large a population as the rest of the group. It possesses an excellent harbour and pier; and carries on some trade, vessels to the value of £20,000 belonging to it; indeed, twelve fine schooners were at one period launched in the space of six months. The hills are rocky, rising in some places to a great height, and are enriched with mineral ores. The valleys are generally fertile; although there is some marshy ground: the island contains three towns, has a custom-house, a garrison, and druidical remains abound in several places. It seems not improbable, that St. Mary's will, at no great distance of time, be divided by the sea.
St. Agnes, which forms the subject of the accompanying engraving, being the most elevated of the Islands, and lying directly exposed to the Atlantic Ocean, has been chosen for the*, erection of a very high and strong granite light-house, which stands nearly in the centre, in the latitude forty degrees, fifty-three minutes, thirty seconds, north. This structure, which was built in 1680, has been rendered admirably adapted for the purpose for which it is designed. The machinery is now so contrived, that its light progressively sweeps the whole horizon at intervals of three minutes]; and by its regular intermission and increase, is readily distinguished from every other on the western coast. There is also an obelisk on the island of Trescow, which is almost as valuable a sea-mark in the day-time, as the lighthouse is at night.
The inhabitants of St. Agnes, and the most western of the islands, derive their chief source of support in winter from piloting ships; whilst in summer they cruise about the channel for the purpose of disposing
• Between Trescow and Bryer, there is a very commodious and safe harbour, called New Grimsby, much frequented by coasUng vessels in the winter.
t Scilly, which gives its" name to the group, is, singularly enough, oae of the saiaUett, not exceeding an acre in extent.
of fish, eggs, vegetables, &c., to homeward-bound vessels. There are five boats at St. Agnes, employed in this way, each sloop-rigged, of a burden of twenty-two tons, and navigated by seven or eight men, who are joint-proprietors in the venture, and respectively share the produce of their industry on shore. They sometimes run on these excursions thirty leagues to the westward, and in case of the homeward-bound being detained by contrary winds, make their terms accordingly—the market being here regulated by the winds alone.
One important good, however, results from the summer-cruises of the Scillonians, for they are thus enabled to give information of their situation to those vessels which have been driven out of their reckoning from stress of weather and other causes: this information, we are told, has saved many hundred ships, and almost numberless lives, which would otherwise have been lost on the rocks of Scilly. On this ground alone, the Scillonians have a strong claim on the generosity, not only of the British merchant and ship-owner, but on the Government itself. And this leads us to advert to an interesting passage in the history of these wild and cheerless rocks.
"In 1819, from a combination of unfortunate circumstances," remarks Dr. Paris, in his admirable work on the Land's End district *, "the inhabitants were reduced to such extreme distress, that it became necessary to appeal to the generosity of the public in their behalf; and notwithstanding the difficulties of the times, the sum of 9000/. was collected for their relief. In this great work of charity, it is but an act of justice to state, that the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, by their purse, as well as by their writings, performed a very essential service. The funds thus obtained, were in part appropriated to the relief of the immediate and pressing distress under which they laboured, whilst the remainder was very judiciously applied towards the promotion of such permanent advantages, as might prevent the chance of its recurrence. A fish-cellar
• To which, and to the communications of a correspondent, we have to confess out obligations in the present paper.
was accordingly provided in the island of Trescnw, for the purpose of storing and curing fish; boats adapted for the mackerel and pilchard fisheries were purchased, and others were repaired; nets ami various kinds of tackling were at the same time liberally supplied."
The Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge has for many years had a Mission established in these islands; but it has long been felt that the Religious instruction of these islands, which as a part of the Duchy of Cornwall, yield a revenue to the Crown, ought not to be left dependent upon the bounty of any Society whatever. Memorials have therefore been presented, on several occasions, to His Majesty's Government, earnestly requesting that some public provision may be made for the spiritual wants of the islanders; and it was hoped that, as the obstacles which formerly existed were removed on the expiration of the lease, the prayer of the memorial would have been complied with; but the islands still remain in the same state. In the winterseason, it frequently happens, that the Rev. George Woodley, one of the two missionaries sent by the Society, and resident minister at St. Mary's, is prevented from passing over to the islands alluded to, in consequence of the boisterous state of the weather for many weeks together, during which period the people are left wholly destitute of spiritual instruction. At such periods, in St. Agnes, the church-serv'ice is read by the infirm and aged schoolmaster, who is described as being nearly deaf aud Mind. Our correspondent feelingly alludes to the state of the poor people, who are thus deprived of "the one thing needful;" and we trust that the present allusion to the circumstance may awaken the desired spirit. , ,
A wide field then still remains for philanthropic and Christian exertion, by providing requisite means for the spiritual instruction of the members of the Church, and by enabling the Scillonians to avail themselves ot the advantages of their locality, as for want of proper boats they are unable to extend their fisheries. There arc four Wesleyan chapels in the islands.