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the animal seems to be aware of the greater facility with which a renewal of the claw can be effected at these parts; for if it chances to receive an injury at the extremity of the limb, it often, by a spontaneous effort, breaks off the whole limb at its junction with the trunk', which is the point where the growth more speedily commences. The wound soon becomes covered with a delicate white membrane, which presents, at first, a convex surface: this gradually rises to a point, and is found, on examination, to conceal the rudiment of a new claw. At first this new claw enlarges but slowly, as if collecting strength for the more vigorous effort of expansion, which afterwards takes place. As it grows, the membrane is pushed forwards, becoming thinner in proportion as it is stretched, till, at length, it gives way, and the soft claw is exposed to view. The claw now enlarges rapidly, and in a few days more acquires a shell as hard as that which had preceded it. Usually, however, it does not attain the same size; a circumstance which accounts for our frequently meeting with lobsters and crabs, which have one claw much smaller than the other. In the course of the subsequent castings, this disparity gradually disappears. The same power of restoration is found to reside in the legs, the antennae, and the jaws. O. N.
[Dn. Rocet's Bridgewaler Treatise.]
Thk angels of heaven, who are spirits, see God present to them; but we on earth can only see him through a glass darkly, when we contemplate his glory in the sun, his terrors in the thunder,—his wrath in the lightning, his quickening power in the air that gives us breath, his majesty in the noise of the sea, and the gathering of the clouds. Jones of Nayland.
The remains of the pious Bishop Kkn are deposited in Frome churchyard. It has been erroneously stated, that there is not a stone to mark where ho lies; whereas, there is a monument near the spot, probably erected at the time of his death, by the noble family at Long Leat, where the Bishop died; but the sculpture is decayed, and the epitaph has disappeared. Some years ago, one of the churchwardens was induced, by respect and veneration for his memory, to plant a few flowers round the grave, and some of these still remain. The following verses were composed by the Rev. W. L. Bowles, Canon Residentiary of Salisbury Cathedral, and writer of a Life of Ken.
Upov this nook of earth forlorn,
"Which Ken his spot of burial chose,
Peaceful shine, oh! Sabbath morn;
To him is raised no marble tomb,
This only monumental stone
Records his resting-place and name—
What recks it! when thy task is done;
Oh! far more grateful to thy God,
The voices of poor children rise*.
To pay then- morning sacrifice.
And who can hear their evening hymn—
Tolls o'er the fading landscape dim,
As if to say,—" Vain world, farewell!"
Without a thought, that, from the dust,
And bid the faithful and the just
• Alluding to 'Morning and Evening Hymns," by Bishop Ken-,
OF MODERATION. I Cannot but commend, says Bishop Hall, that great clerk of Paris, who, when King Louis of France required him to write down the best word that ever he had learnt, called for a fair skin of parchment, and in the midst of it wrote this one word Measure, and sent it sealed up to the king. The king, opening the sheet, and finding no other inscription, thought himself mocked by his philosopher, and calling for him, expostulated the matter; but when it was showed him that all virtues, and all religious and worthy actions were regulated by this one word, and that without this, virtue itself turned vicious, he rested satisfied; and so he well might; for it is a word well worthy of the seven sages of Greece, from whom, indeed, it was borrowed, and only put into a new coat. For while he said of old, (for his motto,) Nothing too much, he meant no other than to comprehend both extremes under the mention of one: neither in his sense is it any paradox to say, that too little is too much; for as too much bounty is prodigality, so too much sparing is niggardness. Neither could aught be spoken of more use or excellency; for what goodness can there be in the world without moderation, whether in the use of God's creatures, or in our own disposition and carriage. Without this, justice is no more than cruel rigour; mercy,unjust remissness; pleasure,brutish sensuality; love, frenzy; anger, fury; sorrow, desperate mopishness; joy, distempered wildness; knowledge, saucy curiosity; piety, superstition; care, wracking distraction; courage, mad rashness; shortly there can be nothing under Heaven without it, but mere vice and confusion: like as in nature, if the elements should forget the temper of their due mixture, and encroach upon each other by excess, what would follow but universal ruin?
It is, therefore, moderation by which this inferior world stands; since the wise and great God, who hath ordained the continuance of it, hath decreed so to contemper all the parts thereof, that none of them should exceed of their own proportion and .degree, to the prejudice of the other. Yea, what is the heaven itself, but (as Gerson compares it well) as a great clock regularly moving in an equal sway of all the orbs, without difference of poise, without variation of minutes, in a constant state of eviternal evenness, both of being and motion. Neither is it any other, by which this little world of ours (whether of body or mind) is upheld in any safe and tolerable estate; when humours pass their stint, the body sickens; when the passions, the mind.
There is nothing, therefore, in the world more wholesome, or more necessary for us to learn, than this gracious lesson of moderation; without which, in very truth, a man is so far from being a Christian, that he is not himself. This is the centre wherein all, both divine and moral, philosophy meet; the role of life, the governess of manners, the silken string that runs through the pearl-chain of all virtues, the very ecliptic line, under which reason and relup011 moves without deviation; and, therefore, most worthy of our best thoughts, of our most careful observance. Bishop Hall.
Nothing but the sanctifying influences of religion can subdue, and keep in tolerable order, that pride which » the concomitant of great talents with a bad education.— Hannah More.
Riches, honours, and pleasures, are the stcecti which destroy the nvnd's appetite for its heavenly food; poverty disgrace, and pain, are the bitters which restore it---" Bishop Horns.
TUNNELS. The Thames And Medway Canal. Until Mr. Brunei commenced his great and interesting undertaking below the bed of the Thames, but little attention seems to have been excited to the important works of the kind previously completed in this country above-ground, or indeed, to the subject of tunnelling generally. The idea, however, of constructing tunnels for the purpose of facilitating inland navigation, is by no means new; and appears to have been first carried into effect in France, by M. Regnet, an eminent engineer in the reign of Louis the Fourteenth, who thus conveyed the canal of Languedoc through a mountain which obstructed its progress. It was not until about the middle of the last century, that Brindley, who js, perhaps, the greatest engineer which this country has produced, excavated the first tunnel in England, on the Duke of Bridgewater's canal, in the neighbourhood of Manchester. Subsequently to this, the same eminent individual drove a tunnel through Harecastle Hill, in Staffordshire, for the purpose of uniting the navigation of the Trent with the Mersey; a work of great magnitude, in consequence of the nature of the ground. This excavation is 2880 yards in length, and between 70 and 80 yards under ground.
The Sapperton tunnel, by which the Thames and Severn were united, is another splendid instance of public enterprise, and individual ability; it extends for a distance of two miles aud three quarters, two miles of which were cut through the solid rock. The Great Drift, or tunnel in the neighbourhood of Newcastle, however, is the most extensive undertaking ever executed in this department of engineering. This great work, (which was completed in 1797,) is excavated through a whinstone rock of extreme hardness, (equalling the hardest flint in the density of its texture,) for the greater part of its extent. The Liverpool tunnel, at the commencent of the railway, is one of the most considerable works recently executed. Its length is 2250 yards; it is twentytwo feet wide, and sixteen feet high. A double line of railway runs throughout, and a row of gas-lights is suspended from the centre of the arched roof, at a distance of twenty-five yards from each other. "The effect," remarks Mr. Stephenson, the engineer to this splendid national work, "is strikingly beautiful, for the rays of light from each lamp throw a distinct luminous arch on the roof, and the series diminishing according to the laws of perspective, gives the appearance of a number of distinct arches, instead of one continued vault." Another tunnel of some extent has still more recently been executed near Buxton, on that extensive public undertaking, the Cromford and High Peak railway.
These notices of some of the most remarkable tunnels now existing in this country, may not be uninteresting, as introductory to a notice of the subject of our engraving, the tunnel on the Thames and Medway Canal, between Gravesend and Rochester, itself a work of no ordinary magnitude.
By referring to a map, it will be seen, that that part of Kent which lies immediately to the eastward of Gravesend, projects into the German Ocean between the courses of the Thames and Medway, which previously to their junction at the Nore run for about twelve miles, nearly parallel. Across the neck of the peninsula thus formed between Gravesend and Rochester, a canal has been constructed, for the purpose of avoiding the circuitous navigation, which vessels and hoys trading in the Medway had formerly to make in their passage to London. The saving in distance thus effected, is fully thirty miles, as the
breadth of the peninsula along the line of the canal is only seven miles, whilst it is nearly forty miles between the respective places in sailing round by the Nore; and all delay from easterly winds is thus also avoided.
The canal, (which is twenty-eight feet wide at the bottom, fifty feet at the top, and has seven feet water,) commences on the southern bank of the Thames, in the parish of Milton; and for more than four miles crosses a dead level, chiefly marsh-land. It then meets with a hill or rib of chalk, which intervenes between this place and the Medway. Through this elevation the tunnel is perforated. Our engraving furnishes a vivid idea of the effect of this subterranean canal. Its entire length exceeds two miles and a quarter, but so true is the line, that the light, at either extremity, is clearly visible when viewed near the opposite end. The width of the excavation is about thirty feet, of which,twenty-four feet is appropriated for the canal, whilst the remainder of the space is reserved for a towing-path, which is protected by a stout rail of oak, bolted to supports of cast iron, which are let into stone bearers, embedded in the solid chalk.
It has not been found necessary to construct an archway of brickwork, except at intervals, during the line; so great is the solidity of the material through which it is carried. The crown of the arched roof rises more than fifteen feet above the level of the towing-path: the sections of the tunnel are of different curvatures, part being parabolic, and part circular, the crown of the arches all coinciding. It is to the reflection of the light from the chalk roof, that we must in a great measure attribute the absence of the almost total darkness, which might be expected to exist in some parts of the tunnel. So far is this from being the case, that about the middle of the excavation, there is sufficient light at noon, to decipher print of a large size. Had the tunnel been arched with brick throughout, however, the absorption of the light would have been so considerable, as to have rendered it necessary to introduce some artificial light; which is evidenced by respectively observing the appearance of the chalk and brick surfaces.
The sensations produced on the mind of a stranger, in exploring this vast and dusky passage, are powerful and impressive, and increase with each succeeding step, as the cheerful light of day is left behind: "the reflection of the chalk on the clear surface of the water," says an ingenious writer, '' (more distinctly visible as you approach cither end,) apparently doubling the magnitude; and the entire absence of every sound but that of the slow and measured footsteps of the quadrupeds employed in towing the craft, stealing on the ear at a distance, and becoming gradually louder and louder as it reverberates through the tunnel, combine to produce an emotion of sublimity, which enhances not a little the interest with which the work will be contemplated by the intelligent passenger."
In consequence of the canal not being sufficiently wide within the tunnel to permit two barges to pass different ways, they are only allowed to enter either extremity at stated times; an encounter cannot, therefore, possibly take place. The periods arc so arranged, as to allow sufficient time for the passage of one line of barges ope way, and that of another line in the opposite direction; and all barges arriving in the interval, are compelled to wait until the regulated period expires, so that it is necessary for the barges to be ready at the extremities at the precise time, or they are not permitted to pass until the next turn.
About three years since, a small steamer plied on the canal with passengers, between Gravesend and Rochester, passing through the tunnel; the echo made by the noise of her machinery and paddles, was singular and powerful. The roof of the tunnel, except a portion near the Frindsbury or Medway end, is generally remarkably dry. This whole ■undertaking, from various causes, was more than twenty years in progress. The capital was raised in 4805 shares; the average cost per share, was 30/. 4s. 3d.; but, although an important public accommodation, it has proved an unfortunate undertaking for the original proprietors, the selling price of the shares being recently quoted at only 1/.
During the hop-season, the traffic on the canal is very considerable; the hop-growers of Kent being thus enabled to transport their hops to the London market from Maidstone, in twenty-four hours. The river Medway, which is rendered navigable as high as Tunbridge, proves of infinite utility to the county of Kent, as well as Sussex, on the borders of which it takes its rise. Its course is exceedingly circuitous throughout; the tide flows up as far as Maidstone, a distance from Sheerness, by water, of about thirtyseven miles.
The immediate vicinity of the Thames and Medway Canal to Gravesend, is of some advantage to that town, as in consequence of its basin being just
without the limits of the port of London, the inhabitants have the advantage of obtaining their coals exempt from certain duties.
In the centre of the grove there stood an oak, which, though shapely and tall on the whole, bulged out into a largo excrescence about the middle of the stem. On this a pair of ravens had fixed their residence for such a series of years, that the oak was distinguished by the title of the Raven Tree. Many were the attempts of the neighbouriiig youths to get at this eyry: the difficulty whetted their inclination, and ench was ambitious of surmounting the arduous task. But when they arrived at the swelling, it jutted out so in their way, and was so far beyond their grasp, that the most daring lads were awed, and acknowledged the undertaking to be too hazardous. So the ravens built on, nest upon nest, in perfect security, till the fatal day arrived in which the wood was to be levelled. It was in the month of February, when those birds usually sit The saw was applied to the butt, the wedges were inserted into the opening, the woods echoed to the heavy blows of the beetle, or mallet, the tree nodded to its fall; but still the dam sat on. At last, when it gave way, the bird was flung from her nest; and, though her parental affection deserved a better fate, was whipped down by the twigs, which brought her dead to the ground. White"s Selborne.
JOHN WILLIAM PARKKR, WKST STRAND.
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UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE AND EDUCATION, APPOINTED BY THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE.
The Village Of Hofwyl, six miles north of the city of Berne, in Switzerland, is in a beautiful situation, surrounded by hills and interspersed with woods, with the Jura mountains and the Alps in view.
The singular institution of which we are about to give some account, and which has lately become more interesting, from many of our countrymen having sent their sons thither, has been established upwards of thirty-two years, under the direction of M. de Fellenberg, a native of Switzerland, and of noble birth. This zealous and persevering man, who had long directed his mind to the subject of education, started Hofwyl with one poor country lad. At the age of sixty-two, he has now 260 youths under his especial charge, and has brought his establishment to consist of four different stations, distinct from one another, and in separate houses.
The first comprises the higher class of students; they belong to what is called la Grande Maison d'Educatio-n, and receive a regular course of instruction in the classics, and in various arts and sciences, every branch of elegant and useful learning being attended to. The second division is known by the name of Mittel Schule, or Middle School, where young men, generally of the grade of farmers' sons, are taught the business of agriculture. The third is I'Ecole Rurale, comprising poor boys of Switzerland, and the adjoining countries. The fourth and last, lEcole des Filles, which comprehends girls in humble life, who are brought up in such a way as to enable them to gain an honest livelihood, the produce of their work while at school, going towards the expense of their maintenance.
The chief Academy, la Grande Maison, consists of sixty youths, some being of the highest ranks, and sent from various parts of the world, with the exception, it appears, of Germany. To train these pupils in the several departments of knowledge, there are thirty-two professors, principally clergymen of the Lutheran church, who are always at hand to propose questions and explain difficulties, M. de Fellenberg, himself a classical scholar, often superintending the different lessons in person, and laying great stress on explanation and examination in the teacher's presence. His wish is to receive the boys at an early age, that he may educate them wholly according to his own system. The distinguishing excellence of this consists in the practical details which comprise an infinite variety of ingenious methods for economizing the resources within reach, and gaining proposed ends by sure means. To enter fully into particular points, would exceed our bounds; and, indeed, it is a question how far any description could enable the reader, who had not been upon the spot, to form an adequate idea of the system in all its bearings. In teaching the sciences, much aid is derived from the method of Pestalozzi, which consists in exercising the reasoning faculties more than is done by the ordinary process of instruction, and in making the acquirement of knowledge much less a matter of rote. No intervals of idleness are permitted to interfere with the general object. The boys first apply to Greek and Grecian History; afterwards to Latin, Roman History, and Ancient Geography: subsequently to Modern Languages and Literature, Modern History and Geography, the Physical Sciences and Chemistry: and during the whole period to Mathematics, Drawing, Music, and bodily exercises.
The founder, who is personally extremely active, encourages all those manly sports which tend to form and strengthen the frame; and gymnastics are
constantly practised in the grounds, the most skilful among the youths being chosen from among themselves to take the lead, and to regulate the rest. It is the same with the military exercises, in which they elect their own captain, who confers the honour of lieutenant and ensign on those he thinks fit, the choice being generally acceptable to the rest, and it is pleasing to notice the harmony that prevails among them. They have, likewise, their own head gardener, or Meier, as they call him, who looks after the portion of ground allotted to them, that they keep it in proper order; and with regard to the household affairs, the head man, or Hauswart, must see to the class-rooms, or nominate a lad weekly, for each department, to take care of the pens, paper, chalk, &c.
During the heat of the summer, instead of gymnastics, they employ a portion of the time of recreation in swimming, for which they have an excellent bath, with a fountain in the centre: and thus they become excellent swimmers.
Every evening, M. de Fellenberg holds an assembly, at which all are obliged to be present, when he either finds fault or praises, as their conduct merits, and closes with an evening prayer. He seldom has to speak of a thing twice, so willingly are his orders, or rather desires, attended to. His first care is to make himself acquainted with a boy's character, and he then treats his scholars as his own sons. Every possible attention is paid to the morals and manners, and seldom can any thing be done in secret without its coming to his ears. There are not more than twenty Roman Catholics in the institution; the great bulk of the establishment, with M. de Fellenberg and his family at their head, being Protestants. Sunday is strictly attended to: the Church Service is performed in German, and a Confirmation is held every year at Hofwyl.
This short account will give our readers some idea of the good order which reigns throughout the whole, and which tends so greatly, not only to present advancement, but to success in after-life. And it is still more important to trace the effects of religious cultivation, without which all other endeavours after knowledge must be valueless and vain. It is a judicious provision of de Fellenberg, not to allow of an)' interference with politics; .newspapers are forbidden, and card-playing is out of the question. A boy is not obliged to take books with him, as he finds access to a good library, as well as to a collection of natural history, to which he may contribute whatever specimens he can procure. Though a regular correspondence with relations and friends is encouraged, a part of the plan is to prevent, as much as possible, the interruption caused by visits home; and the vacations at Easter, Midsummer, and Christmas, making little more than two months altogether, are spent either in visiting the country in parties, on botanical and other excursions, or, in the colder weather, in agreeable but harmless reading, and in getting up concerts and plays, superintended by the principals, and in which the students take a part. We are informed . that no particular charges are specified, but that the parents receive, at regular intervals, the accounts of expenses for their children.
In the Middle School are thirty young men, chiefly farmers' sons, who are not less busy or happy than those we have just described, though differing from them in the nature of their occupations and amusements. Their main pursuit is agriculture, in which M. de Fellenberg is an adept. With this they are made practically acquainted, and their hours of relaxation are employed in examining and making models of several machines invented bv him. They