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the year, but will hatch five times in the season, each time laying six eggs.
The process of moulting, which takes place five or six weeks after they are hatched, is frequently fatal to them. The best remedy yet known, is to put a small piece of iron into the water they drink, keeping them warm during the six weeks or two months which generally elapse before they regain their strength. This malady, to which they are all subject, is often fatal to the hen after the sixth or seventh year; and even the cock, though from superior strength he may recover, and continue occasionally to sing, and survive his mate four or five years, appears dull and melancholy from this period, till he gradually droops, and falls a victim to this evil.
The most common cause of disease in birds, proceeds from a superabundance of food, which brings on repletion. In this case, the intestines descend to the extremities of the body, and appear through the skin, while the feathers on the part affected fall off, and the poor bird, after a few days, pines and dies. If the disease is not too far gone, putting them in separate cages, and confining them to the cooling diet of water and lettuce-seed, may save the lives of many: they are also subject to epilepsy, asthma, ulcers in the throat, and to extinction of the voice. The cure for the first is doubtful; it is said, that if a drop of blood fall from the bill, the bird will recover life and sense; but if touched prior to falling of itself, it will occasion death. If they recover from the first attack, they frequently live for many years without any alteration in their note. Another cure is to inflict a slight wound in the foot. Asthma is cured by plantain, and hard biscuit soaked in white wine; while ulcers, like repletion, must be cured by cooling food. For extinction of voice, the cure ought to be hard yolk of eggs, chopped up with crumbs of bread, and for drink a little liquorice-root, or a blade of saffron in water. In addition to these evils, the canary, if kept dirty, is infested by a small insect. To avoid this, they should have plenty of water to bathe in, a new cage, covered with new cloth, and their seeds well sifted and washed. These attentions, if troublesome, are nevertheless necessary to possess a thriving bird. When wild, all birds require water, and to a canary this is so necessary, that if a saucer or cup of snow be put into the cage, they will flutter against it with the utmost delight, even during the most severe winters.
Canaries are bred in immense numbers, both for amusement and commerce, in France, Tyrol, Germany, and in this country: those from Germany are in the least esteem, from their living only one or two years in this country, although the cock of this variety is an approved songster.
[From Montagu's Ornithological Dictionary.]
CHRISTIANITY IN CEYLON.
The province of Jaffna, which is the most northern province on the island of Ceylon, has, for the last three hundred years, been an object of curiosity to ail those who felt an interest in the state of Christianity in India.
When the Portuguese possessed that part of the island, the Jesuits, who were established there, divided the province into thirty-four parishes; building on each a very fine church and a schoolhouse, and taking active measures by preaching, ana by the representation of dramas founded upon Scripture, to propagate the principles of the Catholic religion amongst the natives .of the country. When the Dutch conquered this province from the Portuguese, they took equally active measures ht preserving the churches and schools which had been erected by the Portuguese, in each of the parishes, and for propagating the principles of the Reformed Religion amongst the natives.
One of the most active of the Dutch clergymen in Ceylon, who had charge of the province immediately after the Dutch had established themselves.in it, was Dr. Baldaeus. He published a very detailed account of the whole province, and of the state in which he found the churches and schools in all the different parishes. .
In the year 1796 the British took possession of the maritime provinces of Ceylon, and, in 1'- ■ the whole island was formally transferred to the British Crown. In 1810, Sir Alexander Johnston. then Chief Justice of His Majesty's Council B> Ceylon, among many other measures for improiin, the condition of the natives, proposed the establishment of a college for the education of the haltcasts, in European literature and science; and he! aW exerted himself in inducing missionaries to cstabli'1 schools throughout the country. T^e WeaejW
missionaries, soon after, on
the advice of S:f Alexander, and in the hope that it would forward his plans for the moral and spiritual improvement of the people, reprinted, at their press, that part of the old English translation of Baldaeus's history, which treated more particularly on the state of the churches and schools in the different parishes. for instance, "to A. X., and, in case of his death, to his son B. X." Such language might raise a question, whether, "in case of his death," did not mean "at his death," and whether the testator's intention was not, to give the property to A. X. for his life only, and, after his death, to his son. The sentence might easily be rendered free from doubt by a slight addition :—" and in case of his death in my lifetime to B. X."
The annexed Prints of the churches of Tellipally and Point Pedro, are taken from the plates in one of the old editions of Baldaeus; the accounts of the parishes in which they stand, are from that part of his history which was republished at the Wesleyan press.
"The Church of Tellipally is a large and noble structure; the house thereunto belonging is the work of the Jesuits, beautified with a pleasant garden, handsome court, and most delicious vineyards, affording most sorts of Indian fruits, and watered with several springs. In August, 1658, the Reformed Religion was the first time (as in all other churches of Jaffnapatam and Manaar,) introduced and taught here by me. The 12th of January, 1GG1, the Holy Sacrament was the first time administered to twelve communicants of the natives. The 19th of April the same year, their number increased to fifteen, and before my departure to thirty. In the year 16 65 we had above 1000 school boys, among whom 480 who could answer all the questions relating to the chief points of our religion. I have sometimes had no less than 2000 auditors in this church.
"Most of the churches here have certain scaffolds or theatres near them, where the Jesuits used to represent certain histories of the Bible to the people on holidays *. The Church of Paretiture is the finest
• It is from the sacred dramas having been acted upon the stages in front of the churches, as described by Baldeeus, that Sir Alexander Johnston took the idea of having translations of Miss Hannah More's dramas acted amongst the people, and of getting
and largest of this province, called by the Portuguese Punto das Pedras, or the Rocky Point; Paretiture signifies in the Malabar tongue, as much as Cotton's Harbour, from the great quantity of cotton that grows thereabouts on small trees.
'Not long ago, whilst we were engaged in war with the English, a fort was ordered to be erected here. During the war with Portugal, the Dutch carried off from hence one of their priests, and plundered Manaar at the same time. Hereabouts, also, happened a smart engagement, betwixt the Portuguese and us, wherein we were hard put to it, and lost, among others, Captain John Hoogstraten. During the siege of Jaffnapatam, the Portuguese expected the landing of their succours in this place.
"The road is so good here, that ships may ride safe at anchor for seven or eight months; but they must take care to depart before the northern monsoon, which renders this shore very dangerous. So soon as any ships are discovered at sea, a flag is put out on a long pole for their direction. The church was much decayed, but has been repaired of late. Just before the church stands a tall tamarind tree, which affording a very agreeable shadow in the heat of the day, the people are often instructed under it by the minister, to the number of 3000. The school has about 1000 children f."
Miss Johanna Baillie to write her drama called The BrMe for the same purpose.
t It is at Point Pedro that Sir Alexander Johnston intended to have had the college for the education of the half-casts, and to this place the celebrated Missionary .Schwartz, in 1769, paid the visit described in Pearson's life of that celebrated man. "On the 5th oi September, prior to his departure, Mr. Schwartz went to Point Pedro for the purpose of seeing tie large tree under which the celebrated Balda;us, who accompanied the Dutch expedition which took possession of Ceylon in the seventeenth century, addressed his first discourse to the natives. Schwartz conversed with some Malabar people whom he met on the spot, and preached the Gospel to them.'
II. A testator will sometimes bequeath a legacy by Will to some person, and afterwards make a Codicil to that Will, in which some other legacy is given to the same individual. A doubt is often raised in this case, whether the second legacy is intended to be in lieu of the first, or in addition to it; and many have been the suits occasioned by this doubt. It should, therefore, always be expressly stated in the Codicil, whether the person in question is to have both legacies, or only the latter one.
III. A similar doubt may arise, if you bequeath a legacy to a person to whom you owe money. The general rule is, that your creditor' must take the legacy in satisfaction of the whole or a part of his debt. But this rule is not universally adhered to, and the decision of the court may often disappoint the wishes of the testator. Your intention, therefore, on this point, should be clearly stated; that your executor may know, whether he is to pay the debt and the legacy too, or whether the former is merged in the latter.
IV. The reverse of the last case may occur; for it may happen that you are bequeathing a legacy to one who owes you money. In this case, also, you should clearly declare your intentions, whether the debt is to be forgiven, or to be set off against the legacy.
V. In bequests to infants, confusion often arises from the testator directing that they shall have their legacies at twenty-one. He may either mean, that the legacy bequeathed to the child shall not be paid over to it, till he comes of age, but that, in the mean time, he shall have a fixed right to it, and, if he dies under twenty-one, that it shall go to his next of kin: or he may mean to give the legacy conditionally only, in case the child attains twenty-one, and not otherwise. If he means the former, it is hardly necessary for him to say any thing about it, because no person can legally receive a legacy till he attains twenty-one, and the executor is bound to take care of it for him in the mean time. If the latter is meant, the testator should put his meaning beyond a doubt, by declaring that, if the infant dies under twenty-one, his legacy shall go to some one else, or shall sink into the residue of the property. In either case, it is as well to direct what shall be done with the annual income of the property, if it yield any, during the interval; especially if the testator wishes it to be applied to the maintenance or education of the child.
VI. It is sometimes wished fo bequeath property to a married woman, so as to be for her separate use, and independent of her husband's control. This is most properly done by giving the legacy, not to the woman herself, but to a trustee for her, and by directing him to hold it in trust for her "sole and separate use," and to dispose of it according to her direction. Where it is not intended to give her the absolute control over it, the trustee may be directed to pay the interest or dividends arising from the property to the lady, or as she shall appoint, during the joint lives of herself and her husband, but so that she shall not be able to make any appointment in anticipation. If she survive her husband, the trustee should, be directed to pay over the capital to
her absolutely: if she die in her husband's lifetime, the property may be made subject to such appointment of it as she may make by Will, and may be given, in default of appointment, to her next of kin. But these trusts may be varied at pleasure. It is often attempted to limit property in this way to the separate use of single women, in order to provide against a future marriage: but the effect of some late decisions seems to be, to render all such provisions void.
VII. Personal property may be tied up in the same way, though not to the same extent, as land, by bequeathing it to several persons, in succession, one after the other. In this case also, the disposition should properly be effected by means of trustees, to whom the property should be given, and who should be directed to hold it in trust for A during his life, and, after his death, in trust for B during his life, and so on. But there is so much risk of rendering bequests of this nature void, by attempting to tie up the property too long, and to make the enjoyment of it dependent on too remote conditions, that a testator should hardly ever trust himself to frame a Will of this nature without legal assistance; more especially as such bequests ought to be accompanied by clauses providing for a succession of trustees, indemnifying them against loss, and declaring how the property shall be let on lease, invested, or otherwise managed, according to its nature, during the continuance of the trust; all whuch provisions it is hardly possible for an unpractised man to draw up correctly, or even intelligibly. We, ourselves, shall not venture to make any further observations, lest we should be led beyond our depth.
We will conclude the subject by mentioning, tnat a Bill was brought into Parliament last Session, and will probably be introduced again next year, for regulating the execution of Wills of Personal Property. The intention seems to be, to put them on the same footing as Wills of Real Property, or with the distinction only of requiring two witnesses instead of three. Should this Bill pass into a law, the effect will be to make that mode of execution necessary, which, in our third section, we pointed out as expedient to be observed. W.
BEAUTIFUL PROVIDENTIAL- Xrrangement
IN THE VEGETABLE WORLD. As another instance of adaptation between the force of gravity, and forces which exist in the vegetable world, we may take the positions of flowers. Some flowers grow with tie hollow of their cup upwards: others, "hang the pensive head," and turn the opening downwards.
Now of these "nodding flowers," as Linnaeus calls them, he observes that they are such as have their pistil longer than the stamens; and, in consequence of this position, the dust from the anthers .which are at the ends of tie stamens, can fall upon the stigma, or extremity of the pistil, which process is requisite for making the flower fertile. He gives as instances the flowers Campanula, Leucoium, Galanthus, Frilillaria. Other botanists have remarked that the position changes at different periods of the flowers progress. The pistil of the Euphorbia, (which is a little globe or germen on a slender stalk,) grows upright at first, and is taller than the stamens: at the period suited to its fecundation, the stalk bends under the weight of the ball at its extremity, so as to depress the germen below the stamens: after this it again becomes erect, the globe being now a fruit filled with fertile seeds.
The posit) jns in all these cases depend upon the length and flexibility of the stalk which supports the flower, or in the case of the Euphorbia, the germen.
It is clear that a very slight alteration in the force of gravity, or In the stiffness of the stalk, would entirely alter the position of the flower-cup, and thus make the continuation of the species impossible. We have, therefore, here, a little mechanical contrivance, which would have been frustrated if the proper intensity of gravity had not been assumed in the reckoning. An earth greater or smaller, denser or rarer, than ther one on which we live, would require a change in the structure and strength of the footstalks of all the little flowers that hang their heads under our hedges. There is something curious in thus considering the whole mass of the earth from pole to pole, and from circumference to centre, as employed in keeping a snowdrop in the position most suited to the promotion of its vegetable health.
[whewell's liridgewatcr Treatise.']
ANECDOTE OF SIR SAMUEL HOOD.
There are some men who go about every thing they undertake with all their hearts and souls, and Sir Samuel Hood was one of these. He did nothing by halves and quarters; the greatest deeds of arms, or the most trivial objects of passing amusement, engrossed his whole attention for the time. In illustration of this, Captain Basil Hall gives the following anecdote. A working party of the crew of the Illustrious had one morning commenced constructing a wharf before the dock-yard. The stones of which this platform or landing-place was to be built, were, by Sir Samuel Hood"s orders, selected of very large dimensions, so much so, that the sailors came at last to deal with a mass of rock so heavy, that their combined strength proved unequal to moving it beyond a few inches towards its final position at the top of one corner. The Admiral sat on his horse looking at the workmen for some time, occasionally laughing, and occasionally calling out directions which the battled engineers could by no means apply. At length his Excellency, the Commander-in-chief, became fidgety, and having dismounted, he tried to direct them in detail; but never a bit would the stone budge. Finally, losing all patience, he leaped from the top of the bank, and roared out, in a voice of reproach and provocation, " Give me the crow-bar." Thus armed, he pushed the officers and men to the right and left, while he insisted upon having the whole job to himself, literally, single-handed. He first drove the claws of the instrument well under the odge of the stone, then placed with his toe a small iron pin on the ground under the bar, and across its length, to act as a fulcrum or shoulder. When all things were carefully adjusted to his mind, he slipped his hand to the upper end of tha lever, and weighing it down, gave what he called "life" to the huge stone, which, just before, half a dozen strong men had not been able to disturb. Sure enough, however, it now moved, though only about half an inch towards its intended resting-place. At each prize or hitch of the bar, the rock appeared to advance further, till, after five or six similar shifts, it was finally lodged in the station prepared for it, where, doubtless, it rests to this day, and may occupy for centuries to come.
The Admiral himself was delighted with his triumph, and his provocation against the men subsided at each successful march of the stone, until, at length, when the operation was completed, he thing down the bar, and called out to the grinning party, but with infinite good humour, "There, you hay-making, tinkering, tailoring follows, that's the way to move a stone,—when you know how!" CapTain Hall.
Never let man imagine that he can pursue a good end by evil means, without sinning against his own soul! Any other issue is doubtful; the evil effect on himself is certain. ——Southey.
It is enough for the present state of things, that men act well. Of their motives, none but God can judge.— Skklton.
THE MINES OF GREAT BRITAIN.
No.V. Interior or Mines. Mode Of Working The Ore.
The interior of mines is very seldom visited, except by those who are actually engaged in carrying on the works, or in superintending these operations. Sometimes, indeed, a tourist feels his curiosity sufficiently strong, to overcome the repugnance naturally felt at quitting, "the warm precincts of the cheerful day,"—attires himself in a miner's dress, and ventures to descend into a mine. Whether the gratification received in such cases is a sufficient equivalent for the fatigue and inconvenience (not perhaps wholly unaccompanied by danger) which is sustained, is perhaps a matter of some doubt.
It must not be inferred, however, from this, that the subterranean world has no wonders of its own, which can repay the visiter. The mine itself, with its apparatus of pumps and machinery, as well as many of the processes employed, are all objects of considerable interest. The structure of the earth, with its marks of change and revolution, is no where so clearly laid open to our view as in mines, and here too alone, we have an opportunity of examining the wonderful depositories in which nature has stored up those mineral substances, which are so indispensable for the use of man. But to appreciate these objects requires some preliminary knowledge; they are by no means obvious to an unpractised eye, nor can they be embraced by a mere cursory glance. It must be remembered too, that the broad light of day is wanting, and its place is but ill supplied by the feeble glimmer of the miner's candle, which, to those unaccustomed to its light, has little more effect than to render "darkness visible." When we take all these circumstances into account, it will not be difficult to believe, that an imperfect and confused impression, is all that can generally be obtained by the adventurous traveller.
Familiar description, aided by the graphic illustrations of the Saturday Magazine, can however accomplish much, and in this manner we have no doubt of being able to convey to our readers a tolerably accurate idea of the nature of mines, the mode of working them, and some of the most extraordinary natural phenomena which they present to our notice. In thus opening, as it were, a new world to their view, we shall at once be gratifying a reasonable curiosity, and affording useful and interesting information.
The subterranean operations described in the preceding article, constitute what is termed "tutwork," and is paid for at so much per fathom, forming one of the heaviest expenses of a mine. When a productive vein has been laid open to a sufficient extent, in the manner before described, the remunerative part of the miner's labour begins. The rectangular portions of the vein, included between two contiguous winzes and the levels above and below them, is generally divided into two equal parts by an imaginary perpendicular line, and a party of the class of miners called "tributers," agree to "work," or excavate, the ore in each portion, on being paid a certain sum in the pound, on its actual value, the agreement generally continuing in force for a period of two months.
The tributers generally begin working at the bottom of the mass, attacking the ores upon the richest points only. In this manner they gradually work upwards, excavating the ground between the two levels, in such a manner as may be most convenient and advantageous to themselves. By working upwards, it will be seen that the ore, when detached from the vein, falls down at once to the level below, thus avoiding the trouble and expense of raising it in small quantities, either by manual labour or machinery, to the level above; which would be necessary by a contrary mode of proceeding. When the lode is not very hard, the tributers arc able to work it out with the pick and other tools; but in some cases, recourse must be had to blasting! with gun-powder. As the tributers always undertake to work their pitch at as low a rate of payment as possible in the first instance, they can only afford, while working at that rate, to take out the best ore they find. When, however, the best ore is gone, the pitch is again taken (generally by the same party), but at a higher rate of tribute, and so on as long as any ore remains, which is of sufficient value to be worth extracting. In this manner the pitches at length become exhausted, no parts of the vein being left standing, except where the ore is very poor, or where none exists. These patches of the vein, which appear like islands in the midst of extensive excavations, are not, however, without use, as they serve to prevent the rock which surrounds the vein, from pressing inwards and crushing the workings of the mine. For this reason, they are called pillars or arches; and where the vein is so productive, that no part of it is left standing for a considerable extent, it is necessary to introduce artificial supports, for which purpose strong pieces of timber are used, as shown in the drawing.
The annexed sketch represents a scene in the extensive Tin-mine, called Polgooth, situated near the town of St. Austell, in Cornwall.
The excavation here shown, is what is termed "a tribute pitch," being on that part of the vein or "lode" included between two adjoining winzes and the levels above and below them. From this solid rectangular mass, the ore has been extracted in the manner just described, and it is in this operation that the men are seen employed.
The excavation shown in the sketch is, however, of much greater size and more regular form than is usually the case, the lode being here of the extraordinary width of more than twenty feet, and worked out for the whole of that extent. The bottom of the excavation was originally a level or horizontal passage, similar to, and indeed forming merely the continuation of, the one seen on the left, which, however, as it runs in a direction crossing the lode,
and therefore through tha solid rock, is termed a cross-cut.
A considerable extent of the lode above this level having been productive of ore, has been worked out by tributers, forming the great excavation shown in the drawing, and which is supported by strong pieces of timber, placed at intervals across it, so as to press against the rock on each side. The inclined direction of the excavation, is of course occasioned by the dip or inclination of the vein, whose place it occupies, and of which the rock on the left hand formed the upper wall, and that on the right, the loicer wall.
Two tributers are seen at the further end of the pilch, breaking down the ore with their picks, and another, supported on a ladder, is working a little above them. A lighted candle is stuck to the rock beside each, having a piece of clay wrapped round it for the purpose, as shown in the sketch.
As the ore is detached from the vein, and falls down, the pieces are shovelled into a barrow, by ahul who stands by for the purpose, and afterwards conveys it through the cross-cut and adjoining levels, to the shaft, where it is raised to the surface by a machine called a whim. In large mines, however, railways are frequently laid down in the levels, in which case, the ore is of course transported to the shaft by means of tram-waggons.
One of the superintendents of the mine, ternied an underground-captain, is seen entering the pitch through the cross-cut. The principal objects of this inspection, are to examine the kind of ore the tributers are breaking; to see that the terms of the contract are complied with; and to place a check on any fraud which might be attempted by the men. The business of the captains includes also, the direction of all works of trial, such as sinking shafts, driving levels, &c.; together with every other circumstance connected with the internal economy of the mine. F. B.
The unhappy prepossession, which men commonly entertain in favour of ambition, courage, enterprise, and other warlike virtues, engages generous natures, who always love fame, into such pursuits as destroy their own peace, aim that of the rest of' mankind. II r Mr.
JOHN . WILLIAM PARK.KK,- WEST STRAND.
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