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luxuriance of the foliage, 'which flourishes even to the very shore; myrtles and geraniums being found, of enoromous growth, almost within reach of the ■waves. The central parts of the island are subject to frequent rains, from the vapours attracted by the high range of hills that traverse it from east to west; and in the winter-months these rains prevail to a great extent. The general fertility is, however, so little affected, and the produce of the soil so abundant, that this island has long been styled "The garden of England."
Springs of clear water are very numerous, and are in general very pure and transparent, from the natural percolation they undergo through the limestone, of which all the higher portions of the island are composed.
Mineral springs have from time to time been discovered in different parts. At Shanklin, one of the most romantic spots in the island, a spring was discovered by Dr. Frazer, physician to Charles II., the waters of which are slightly tinged with alum. At Pitland, there is another, containing sulphur. And of those impregnated with iron, that at Black Gang Chine, under Chale Cliff, is the most celebrated.
But the attraction of this wild spot consists rather in the romantic grandeur of the cliff, than in the virtues of the chalybeate. Chale Bay, which extends from the southernmost point of the island towards the west, is about three miles in extent, and has at low water a fine broad beach, separated from the high country above by a continued range of perpendicular cliffs, extremely dangerous to shipping. This is the Undercliff before mentioned, and here is situated the chasm represented in our engraving. The pathway leading to the strand at Black Gang is very terrific, the descent being through an immense gully, among vast masses of broken ground and disjointed rock, the ruins of the land above. From an arched excavation, at the base of the rock—under the projecting crag, from whence water is continually dripping,— issues the chalybeate spring we have alluded to. From this depth the surrounding scene is truly grand, and from our engraving a very fair conception may be formed of its beauties. But art, as well as language, must ever fall far behind, in attempting to excite the sensations which Nature herself awakens in these wilder portions of her domain. We may admire, indeed, the fidelity of the picture—we may talk of the sublimity of the scene; but it is only amid the scenes themselves that we are truly humbled, and are compelled to acknowledge the littleness of man, and all his mightiest works, compared with the very meanest of Nature's productions. And insensible must be that heart, that is at such times unmoved—stubborn the understanding that does not here perceive the hand of that Almighty Architect, at whose word " the mountains were brought forth, and the earth and the world were made." Much, indeed, does that man deserve our pity, who cannot feel as did the poet, when he exclaimed—
To sit on rocks, to muse o'er flood and fell,
To slowly trace the forest's shady scene,
And mortal foot hath ne'er or rarely been;
With the wild flocks that never need a fold
This is Tio* solitude; 'tis but to hold
E. A. I.
The practices of the best men are more subject to error than their speculations. I will honour good examples: but I will live bv good precepts.—Bishop Hall.
ON WILLS. No. V. Wills Of Personal Property Continued. § 8. On Bequests of Annuities. In our last paper we explained the nature of legacies, and pointed out the difference between general and specific legacies. We will now say a few words on a particular sort of legacy: viz., on bequests of annuities.
There are several ways in which a testator may bequeath an annual sum to a legatee, to be paid during his life, or some other period. He may direct his executors to purchase an annuity of the proposed amount and duration from an insurance office, or from government. Or he may direct his executors to set apart a portion of his property, which will yield the intended amount, and to pay the income arising from that portion to the legatee durin>» his life, or during such other period as may be proposed: and proceed to declare what shall be done with the portion set apart when the annuity shall have ceased. Or, thirdly, he may bequeath the annuity in general terms; and then his whole property will be liable to the payment, and his executors must take care, at their own peril, to retain a sufficient part of it for the purpose.
Of these three modes, the first will generally be found the best. The gift is satisfied at once, and the testator's property is for ever discharged from it. In adopting the second mode, there is danger of the portion directed to be set apart falling in value, and not yielding enough to pay the annuity. And the third plan exposes the executors to too much hazard, and might prevent timid or cautious men from distributing any part of the property until the annuity has ceased to be payable.
§ 9. Of the Residue. When a testator has made all the particular bequests out of his property which he intends to do, he usually gives the remainder of it to some person, who is called the residuary legatee. If he omits to do this, he is said to die intestate as to the residue; and the surplus then goes to his next of kin in the same manner as the whole of his property would have gone, if he had made no Will at all.
The residue may be disposed of in the same form as was recommended in our last paper, for the disposition of the whole of a testator's property; except that, instead of_ bequeathing "all his personal estate and effects whatsoever and wheresoever," he will bequeath "all the residue of his personal estate and effects whatsoever and wheresoever, not otherwise by him disposed of." The same caution, too, which is there given against mentioning particular articles by name in a bequest of the whole, applies equally to a bequest of the residue.
Some testators will omit to make any disposition of the residue, believing that they have exhausted all their property in particular legacies, and have nothing left to dispose of. But this ought never to be depended on; both because a Will operates on the personal property which the testator has at the time of his death, and he cannot therefore tell, when he is making his Will, what the amount of it will be; and also, because some of his particular legacies may fail by the objects of his bounty dying in his lifetime, and may thus create a residue to be disposed of.
§ 10. Of the Appointment of Executors and
In cases of complicated disposition of property, it becomes necessary to introduce in a Will various clauses and provisions, some of which we may shortly notice in a future paper. But in ordinary cases, when a testator has bequeathed all his particular legacies, and disposed of the residue, nothing remains to be done but to declare -who shall execute his Will.
Such a declaration is not necessary. The Will is not rendered less valid by the omission of it, but may be executed by any of the persons who are interested in carrying it into effect. But a testator would seldom wish to leave this to chance, and would prefer selecting those who are to distribute his property. Any form is sufficient for this purpose; for instance, " I nominate C. D. (or C. D. and E. F.) to be the executor (or executors, or executrix, if a woman) of this my Will."
It is very useful, if convenient in other respects, to appoint as your executor the person whom you have made your residuary legatee. You thus prevent the necessity of a general account, which is the chief source of dispute and litigation. For all that your executor has then to do is, to pay your debts, and to satisfy the particular legacies given by your Will; and if he discharges these duties, he is accountable to no one for his dealings. Whereas, if your executor and residuary legatee are different persons, the former must account to the latter for every fraction of your property, and for all his acts and dealings as executor; in the course of which it is easy to conceive that much difference of opinion may occur. As a general rule, therefore, the residuary legatee is the most proper person to be appointed executor.
Where a testator leaves infant children, he may choose to appoint some one to be their guardian. This may be done in the simplest form; but it is necessary, in order to give the guardian full power as such, that the Will be attested by two witnesses.
§11. 0/ the Date and Conclusion.
It is usual, after appointing executors, to conclude a Will in some such words as the following; "And I hereby revoke all former Wills by me at any time heretofore made, and declare this to be my last Will and Testament. In witness whereof, I, the said A. B., have hereunto" (or, if the Will consists of several sheets, '* to each of the three sheets hereof) signed my name this 1st day of August, 1834." And then follows the signature.
Sometimes a testator will seal, as well as sign, his Will; either for greater solemnity, or to render it a valid appointment under some power which requires that formality. And in such a case, if the Will consists of several sheets, he usually signs and seals the last, and contents himself with signing only the former sheets. He should then conclude his Will thus: "In witness whereof, I, the said A. B., have subscribed my name to each of the two first sheets of this my Will, and have set my hand and seal to the third and last sheet thereof, this 1st day of August, 1834.
It is hardly necessary to state that these forms are of no essential importance, and are recommended only for their convenience and on the ground of prudence. It is, however, of the highest consequence that the date of a Will or Codicil be distinctly given in some part of it, as upon that, the whole validity of the instrument may depend. We happen to know a case in which the want of a date caused the greatest perplexity.
A testator left a Will regularly drawn up and dated, and also a paper, written by himself, bequeathing several legacies, but without a date. If this paper was written before the Will, it was revoked by the Will: but if after, it was good as a Codicil.
It became, therefore, of the utmost importance, to learn the time when it was written; and the parties used every effort to discover that fact, but in vain. The question was at length decided by a test, which has been applied in other cases, but is, we believe, by no means a sure one. The residuary legatee named in the Will, whose interest it was to set aside the other paper, examined the watermark on the latter document, and found that it bore a date later than that of the Will. He had the generosity to communicate his discovery, and to allow the disputed paper to be established as a valid Codicil. W.
[To be continued.]
Arise, thou sluggard: thy death is near!
On one of the mightiest of those mighty streams which flow across America, and with which our largest rivers are in comparison but little brooks, is the noblest fall of water known in the world. The width of the river, and the enormous volume of water which comes roaring and splashing down an unbroken height of 100 feet, make it impossible for any boat to shoot the fall without being torn to atoms in the " hell of waters" below, nor is ever any vestige found of the vessel which has once plunged into the unfathomed and unfathomable gulf.
Above this frightful scene, two or three miles up the stream, an Indian canoe was one day observed floating quietly along, with its paddle upon its side. At first, it was supposed to be empty: no one could imagine that a man would expose himself to such well-known anil imminent danger. But a turn in the current soon gave the travellers a sight of an Indian, lying idly asleep at the bottom. They were shocked. They called aloud, but he did not hear: they shouted in an agony of pity and alarm; but he was deaf to their saving cry. It chanced that the current, which was now hurrying along with increased speed as it neared the fatal precipice, drove the little boat against a point of rock with such violence, that it was whirled round and round several times. He's safe! He's safe! cried the spectators, joyfully: the man is safe; that shock must wake him. But, alas! No! Fatigue or drunkenness (to which savages are particularly addicted) had so oppressed his senses, that it seemed more like death than sleep which held him;—it was, indeed, the sleep of death. All chance was gone, and they hurried along the shore, more in alarm than hope, to see the end. It soon came; for the torrent was now rolling so rapidly, that they could scarcely keep pace with the object of their interest. At length the roar of the water, which had been hitherto almost buried within the high banks below, by a sudden change of the wind broke upon them with double violence. This dreadful noise, with which the Indian ear was so familiar, did at last arouse him. He was seen to start up, and snatch his paddle. But it was too late: the same dinning sound which had roused him from insensibility, told him at the same time that it was in vain to seek for safety now by rowing: nor, indeed, had he time to try—upright, as he stood, he went over the precipice, and the boat and its occupant were seen no more.
Reader, the river is the current of life—the falls, are man's end—the travellers, the ministers of the Gospel: listen thou to their call, for the boatman is, perhaps, thyself! D. K.
Thk gift of prayer may have the praise of men, but it is the grace of prayer that has power with God.
BARBAROUS MODES OF PUNISHMENT IN
PERSIA. Many barbarous modes of punishment now in use in Persia are of ancient institution. Rebels were burned alive, or sawed in two. The victims of political differences had their eyes put out, or their ears, noses, or hands cut off. These were amusements for the ancient, as they are for the modern sovereigns of this country. During the civil contests which followed the death of Kerim Khan, Zachce Khan, who usurped the government, coming to the town of Yezdikhast, made a sudden demand on the magistrates for a sum of money due to the government, which he accused them of secreting. They denied the arrears, asserted they had no money concealed, and it was out of their power to collect the sum he required. On finding the unhappy citizens firm in their declarations, he, without more ado, ordered a certain number of the most respected characters in the town to be taken to a rock, near the window where he sat, and immediately hurled to the bottom of the precipice, where they lay a mangled spectacle of horror. One of the wretched victims still survives, a circumstance which, to those who look at the height of the rock, appears miraculous. The present rulers are of a more benignant character, but the infliction of punishment is still often too summary.
Robbery is treated with the utmost severity. One of the princes, having, in a journey, found a band of mountaineers in the act of dividing their plunder, caused their bodies to be frightfully mutilated, and sent them to their friends and neighbours, to warn them of the consequences which that crime would be sure to bring after it in Persia.
How different this from the institution of regular trials, which, by the delay and deliberation they imply, accustom the offended, however powerful, and however justly indignant, to repress the acts which flow from their hasty resentment!—Mr. Kinneir tells us, that he saw two thieves built up in a wall, where they were left to perish.—Malte Brtjn.
THE BLOOD-FISH, OR CARIBITO.
Our Indians caught with a hook the flsh known in the country by the name of Caribe, or Caribito, because no other flsh has such a thirst for blood. It attacks bathers and swimmers, from whom it often carries away considerable pieces of flesh. When a person is only slightly wounded, it is difficult for him to get out of the water without receiving a severe wound. The Indians dread extremely these Caribes; and several of them showed us the scars of deep wounds in the calf of the leg, and in the thigh, made by these little animals. They live at the bottom of rivers; but if a few drops of blood be shed on the water, they arrive by thousands on the surface. When we reflect on the number of these fish, the most voracious and cruel of which are only four or five inches long; on the triangular form of their sharp-cutting teeth, and on the amplitude of their retractile mouth, we need not be surprised at the fear which the Caribes excite in the inhabitants of the banks of the rivers Apure and the Oroonoko. In places where the river was very limpid, and where not a fish appeared, we threw into the water little morsels of flesh covered with blood. In a few minutes a cloud of Caribes came to dispute the prey. The belly of this fish has a cutting edge, indented like a saw; its body towards the back is ash-coloured, with a tint of green; but the under part, the gill-covers, and the pectoral fins, are of a fine orange. The Caribito has a very agreeable taste: as no one dares to bathe where it is found, it may be considered as one of the greatest scourges of those climates, in which the sting of the mosquitoes, and the irritation of the skin, render the use of baths so necessary. Humboldt.
It may justly be feared, that those persons never grieved for their own sins who can rejoice at other Deople's.
larger than a sparrow, is very fond of honey, and it points out in the most sagacious manner the nests of the bees to the bears. When these brutes destroy a nest of bees, this bird feeds voraciously upon the honey which is spilt. As soon as it has discovered a nest of bees, it looks out for some companion to attack it. It entices a bear by its piercing cries, and conducts it to the vicinity of the nest. The bird flies before it, and rests at intervals, awaiting its companion in the chase, and exciting it, by fresh cries, to follow it. But, in proportion as it approaches the nest, it shortens the space of its stations, and its cry becomes less frequent. If, sometimes impatient of arrival at the nest, it has left its companion far behind it, it returns to him, and appears, by its redoubled cries, to reproach him for his slowness. Having arrived at the nest of the bees, it alights, and rests quietly on a neighbouring tree or bush, awaiting the end of the expedition, and that part of the booty which belongs to it. The Hottentots never fail to leave it that portion of the comb which contains the eggs and young, of which this bird is more voracious than of honey itself. M. Sparrman having offered to' the Hottentots who accompanied him an ample recompense of tobacco and glass beads, if they would assist him in catching a honey-guide; they rejected his proposal, saying that this bird was their friend, and they would not betray it.
It is particularly worth observation, that the more we magnify, by the assistance of glasses, the works of nature, the more regular and beautiful they appear; while it is quite different in respect to those of art: for when they are examined through a microscope, we are astonished to find them so coarse, so rough and uneven, although they have been done with all imaginable care by the best workmen. Thus God has impressed, even on the smallest atom, an image of his infinity. Sturm.
Whknkvbr, (said Dr. Johnson,) whenever chance brings within my observation, a knot of young ladies busy at their, needles, I consider myself as in the school of virtue; and though I have no extraordinary skill in plain-work or embroidery, I look upon their operations with as much satisfaction as their governess, because I regard them as providing a security against the most dangerous insnarers of the soul, by enabling them to exclude idleness from their solitary moments, and, with idleness, her attendant train of passions, fancies, chimeras, fears, sorrows and desires.
PVSUIKI* 1.1 W irniT Numiai, mine OKI P«KKV, Alls IK Moxthlt Fait*
Sold by all Bookiellen and NewavencWts In ta« Kingdom.
UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE COMMITTEE OK GENERAL LITERATURE AND EDUCATION APPOINTED BY THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE.
LLANDAFF CATHEDRAL. The early history of the See of Llandaff is involved iii considerable obscurity. Godwin adverts to the rumour, that the church was founded by King Lucius about the year 180; but as he covdd not discover that any bishop sat there before Dubritius, it is probable that he had no predecessors, since the memory of his successors is so carefully preserved. According to Fuller, Dubritius was consecrated Bishop of Llandaff by Germanus and Lupus in the year -126, and sat sometimes at Caerleon and sometimes at Llandaff. Usher, Godwin, and other authorities, state that he was not appointed Archbishop of Caerleon till 490, and that he held the two sees till 512, when he resigned Llandaff to his disciple, St. Teilo. In 519 he resigned Caerleon to his successor, St. David, (who removed the metropolitan see from Caerleon to Menevia,) and retired to Bardsey Island, on the coast of Carnarvonshire. I lis bones were removed from thence to Llandaff in 1120, and deposited before the high altar, where stood a monument attributed to him.
St. Teilo, to whom several churches in Wales are dedicated, (as Llandilo,) lived in great repute for sanctity till his death in 5-10. A ring* was found on opening a tomb in the cathedral in 1704, supposed to be the episcopal ring of St. Teilo, a large, dull, heart-shaped amethyst, set in gold, and ornamented with enamelled leaves, probably of Italian workmanship; it was in the Strawberry Hill collection.
St. Teilo was succeeded by St. Odoceus, and it is said by Godwin, "that during these three bishops' times, so much riches had been bestowed on Llandaff, that if it enjoyed the tenth part of that which it has been endowed with first and last, it would be one of the wealthiest churches in Christendom, whereas it has now hardly sullicient to repair itself." The date of the death of Odoceus is uncertain. Bishop Urban may fairly be considered as the founder of the present church. He was consecrated in 1108. He found the old cathedral (a structure of small dimensions), in a ruinous state; in 1119 he exerted himself to obtain funds for the projected edifice, which was commenced on the 14th of April, 1120, and dedicated to St. Peter and St. Paul. The west front, (with the exception of the north-west tower, which •was built by Jasper, Duke of Bedford, about the year 1485,) and the Lady Chapel, with its roof of groined stone, are favourable specimens of early English architecture; the south-west tower, which is in the same style, was tolerably perfect in 1787.
There are three circular enriched doorways in the nave; over that to the west is a small statue of St. Dubritius.
Among the individuals who have filled this see, we may also notice John de Monmouth, consecrated in 1296, who was recommended to the Pope by Archbishop Peckham * for his skill in the Welsh language. Nor should Bishop Morgan be passed over in silence, termed by Wood "a very learned man," and the translator of the Bible into Welsh. He was consecrated in 1595. His successor, Godwin, compiled the catalogue of the Bishops of England, " a work," says Wood, hi his Athena: Oxonienscs, "which will ever be admired and read by all true lovers of antiquities." Within the last seventy years, the See of Llandaff can boast of the distinguished names of Shipley, Barrington, Watson, Marsh, Van Mildert, Sumner, and last, though not least, of Copleston, the talented and munificent prelate who at present presides over this diocese.
* Cole MSS, Brit. Mm.
In 1717 Mr. Wotton gives a detailed description of the cathedral to Browne Willis. He notices the Duke of Bedford's, or north-west tower; the southwest tower, "seeming to be as old as the church;" the nave and side aisles, 110 feet in length from the west door to the screen; the choir, with its stalls; the bishop's throne, erected by Bishop Marshall in Edward the Fourth's reign; the altar-screen, also the work of Bishop Marshall; the organ-loft over the stalls on the north side of the choir, with some shattered remains of an organ, given after the Restoration of Charles the Second by Lady Kemeys, of Cefn Mabley; the Chapter House, and the Lady Chapel. He enumerates various monuments, and adds, that the roof of the nave and choir was of timber, and that there was no painted glass in the windows.
The cathedral had been much injured during the great Rebellion. In 1697, Bishop Bull, Archdeacon of Llandaff, observes, in writing to a friend, " I have a true desire to. see you, and discourse with you, especially about our sad and miserable church at Llandaff. Tremendous storms in 1703 and 1720 damaged the battlements, and expedited the ruin of the nave and choir. In 1723 a large portion of the roof of the nave fell in, and the choir becoming useless, the service was removed to the Lady Chapel.
Strenuous exertions were made by Bishops Clavering and Harris, and the Chapter, to procure subscriptions for the restoration of the cathedral. In 1737, £2000 had been expended, and about £1500 more was required. It would be superfluous to observe, that the worst taste is exhibited in these reparations. The greater part of the nave was suffered to remain a ruin. A Grecian facade deforms the entrance to the present nave and choir, while the Gothic windows and pointed arches in this part of the original building are unaltered, except the two eastern arches. The clerestory windows, and those over the altar and west door, are Grecian. The cumbrous screen, stalls, bishop's throne, and pulpit, as well as the stuccoed ceiling and cornices, are in the same style; the old screen, stalls, altar-screen, and Bishop Marshall's throne having been destroyed; but a portion of the painting on the latter representing the bishop on his knees, addressing the Virgin in the clouds, was discovered a few years ago, on the removal of the heavy Grecian portico erected over the altar: Bishop Harris, in a letter to Browne Willis, written in 1736, says that the "conceit of this portico" was taken by Wood the architect, "from a description in Josephus."
To the east of the choir stands the Lady Chapel, seventy feet in length. It has sustained but little mischief from the devastating hand of renovation; a large Grecian window has . replaced the pointed one at its eastern extremity. The circular arch which separated this chapel from the choir, is worthy of notice, from the peculiarity of its form.
The monuments suffered severely during these operations. A beautiful monument of Sir William Matthew, and Jenette his wife, which stood in the old nave, was taken to pieces, and deposited in the chapter-house. Sir W. died in 1500. . Various tombs of bishops changed their position, but the elaborate monuments of Christopher Matthew, who died in 1500, and Elizabeth his wife, to the north side of the Lady Chapel; that of Christian Audley, of the time of Henry the Fourth, to the south of the same; and that of David Matthew, in Edward the Fourth's reign, at the end of the north aisle j remain untouched.
la the modern nave is a massive monument*