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and quarters to the rudder. The fire is maintained with billets of wood, which produces a speedier and more extensive flame than coals—pine is preferred, but bass or hickory does very well; they are both more cheap and plentiful.

On deck are also placed the captain's office for receiving fares and transacting other business. There are also, a post-office, hair-dressers' shops, where perfumery and various articles for the toilet are sold, with hot chauffers for curling-irons always in readiness, and chairs for hair-cutting—not to forget an office for cleaning shoes and brushing clothes, all attended by friseurs and boots, neatly dressed, and wearing aprons, more or less white. Luggage-cabins and offices occupy the remainder of the deck accommodation. There is generally an awning-deck, supported on pillars, below which, the passengers may walk secure from. rain or the heat of the sun, and on the top of which they may again enjoy the open breeze, and the prospects of the voyage. Scats and chairs are placed in every direction. The number of passengers on the Hudson or Delaware will often, in the height of the travelling-season, amount in one trip to seven or eight hundred.

But the cabins display a still higher and more splendid richness and accommodation; there being no machinery below, the whole extent of the body of the vessel is left open, for the arrangement of the cabin, sleeping-berths, steward's rooms, bar, library, &c. The main or gentlemen's cabin, in the Carroll of Carrolton, is 120 feet long, intersected nearly in the middle, by two large folding-doors, on brass rails and runners. The whole floor is covered with the gayest Brussels carpetting, having couches, ottomans, and chairs placed around; all made of elegant cabinet-work, bronzed or gilt, and covered with showy moreen, or having cane bottoms. Two tiers of sleeping-berths, surround the sides of the cabin, furnished with good linen, blankets, and quilts, and hung with yellow damask, and heavy silk-bob fringe. The ceiling white, with gilded heads and panels; tables of mahogany, and easily separated into convenient and elegant sections, or arranged ensuite, to form the immense dinner-table when wanted. Between the sleeping-berths are pillars of maple or satin-wood, supporting a gilded cornice running all

round, and where there is any unoccupied panel work, as at the ends, a good landscape in oil, or a mirror fills up the space. At the fore-part of the cabin is placed the bar, where wines, spirits, liqueurs, cigars, and snuff are sold, and joining to which there is a fair library, of popular and entertaining histories, biographies, and novels, which are lent out to the passengers, during a voyage, for a trifling sum. The ladies' cabin is abaft, having a staircase up to another one on deck; both are most splendidly fitted out in crimson silk damask, gilt and bronzed furniture, large mirrors, a piano-forte, loo table, aud many of the elegancies of the drawing room.

The meals of breakfast, dinner, and tea, are at stated hours, to which the guests are summoned by the ringing of the great bell in the little belfry on deck; and the price of each meal is generally collected from the guests, either before they sit down, or while at table.

On the whole, these steam-vessels may be considered as floating hotels, and their fare and accommodation are preferred, by many travellers, to what the hotels on shore afford, in every respect, except the single one of there being few or no enclosed rooms for retirement and sleeping. X.

Suppose Us to have much spare time, and to want business, so that we are to seek for divertisement, and must for relief By to curiosity; yet it is not advisable to meddle with the affairs of other men; there are divers other ways, more advantageous, to divert ourselves, and satisfy curiosity.

Nature offereth herself, and her inexhaustible store of appearances, to our contemplation; we may, without any harm, and with much delight, survey her rich varieties, examine her proceedings, pierce into her secrets. Every kind of animals, of plants, of minerals, of meteors, preseuteth matter, wherewith innocently, pleasantly, and profitably, to entertain our minds. There are many noble sciences, by applying our minds to the study whereof, we may not only divert them, but improve and cultivate them. —Barrow.

LONDON: JOHN WILLIAM PARK.KR, WEST STRAND.

Published In Weekly N C unsus, Price One Penny, Aud In Monthly Parte,

Prick Sixpence, And

Sold by all Bookseller! ami Newsveuders in the Kiugdun;.

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UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE AND EDUCATION, APPOINTED BY THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE.

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THE ISLAND OF GUERNSEY

At a distance of about twenty-six miles from Cape La Hogtte, in that part of the English Channel called Mount St, Michael's Bay, on the coasts of Normandy and Britany, lies the Island of Guernsey; which, with Jersey, Alderney, Sark, and their dependencies, compose a group designated by the name of the L hannel Islands.

Until a recent period, comparatively little was known in England, of the real condition of these remarkable Islands; "and this" (as Mr. Inglis, in his valuable work*, well remarks,) "is the more extraordinary, when we consider, that there are certain points of interest attached to them, peculiarly their own; and which essentially distinguish them from the other colonies and dependencies of Great Britain. Among these may be enumerated, their connexion with the Norman Conquest, and long dependence upon the British crown; their separate and independent constitution, and the peculiar laws by which they are governed; their singular privileges; their native civilized inhabitants; their vicinity to the coast of France; and the general use of the French language." As one object, however, in this paper, is to give our readers some account of Guernsey, the second island in extent and importance, we shall, for the present, only further premise, that the group altogether comprehends a population exceeding 65,000, nearly two-thirds of whom belong to Jersey.

The island of Guernsey, which lies considerably nearer to England than the sister isle, extends in extreme length, about eight miles from N.E. to S.W.; its breadth from N.W. to S.E. is nearly six, and its circumference exceeds thirty miles. Little is known of its early history. It appears to have been desolate and uninhabited, when first visited by the Romans, about seventeen years before the Christian era. In the Itinerary of the Emperor Antoninus, it is called Garnia, before which period, a governor was appointed over it. The religion of the Druids must have subsequently flourished here, as is evinced by the discovery of five Druidical temples; from which it may also be assumed that there must have been a considerable population. The Christian religion was first introduced about the year 620, by Sampson, Bishop of Dol, in Britany, who is said to have founded a chapel. As Christianity advanced, chapels were built in different parts of the island neir_ the sea-shore, and the inhabitants, at that period, subsisting entirely by fishing; the priests, who officiated, were allowed the tithe of all the fish that were caught, a custom which has been continued ever since.

About the middle of the tenth century, an abbey was founded, dedicated to St. Michael the Archangel: whose inmates became so famed for piety, that Guernsey acquired the name of Holy Island, an appellation which it long retained. The inhabitants of the island, who shortly after this period, from the persuasion of the monks, had taken in hand the plough, as well as the oar, suffered greatly from the piratical incursions of the Danes, to repel whom, a strong-hold or castle was commenced, which was subsequently completed in a style of irreat maanificenee, by the orders Of Robert Duke of Normandy, who, in the year 1030, had been preserved from shipwreck here, by the exertions of the Guernsey fishermen. Little more than the shell of this structure, consisting of the outer walls, and I lie flanking towers of the old portal, now exists; barracks have, however, been erected within, for a few soldiers. The Normans afterwards, erected two other very strong fortresses, one of which has now wholly disappeared; the shattered ruins of the other, from its walls being mantled with ivy* are known by the name of Ivy Castle.

The French, in the reign of Edward the Third, twice held possession of Guernsey. The island remained loyal to the crown during the Civil War, at which period it was twice besieged by the forces of the Parliament; but the inhabitants, after a protracted defence, were ultimately obliged to surrender on honourable terms. During the Revolution in 1688, the Inland fortification, called Castle Cornet, which had been garrisoned with Roinart Catholic soldiers by James the Second, was taken by a Well concerted stratagem on the part of the officers of the Protestant soldiery, and the magistrates of St. Peter's.

During the late war with France, Guernsey was frequently under serious apprehensions from threatened invasions; but from the active exertions which were made, the erection of the new fortress of St. George, the repara

• The Channel litanili; to which work, and Lewis's Topographical Dictionary, we have to coulees our obligations,

tion of the old fortifications, and the precipitous nature of the coast, the island was rendered almost impregnable, and the anticipated calamity averted.

The form of the island is nearly triangular, and its coast is indented with small bays and coves, some of which are of great beauty. In parts, the cliffs rise boldly from the beach to a height of 300 feet. It is neither so well wooded nor so productive as Jersey; nor in the general attractions of its natural scenery, can it at all be compared with that island; taste and money, however, have effected much. Houses of a superior, and often elegant description, surrounded with wood, are almost every where to be met with; and the farm-houses, and even cottages, have an unusually comfortable appearance. There is, however, a considerable portion of waste land: and one part of the island bears a different aspect from the other, for while the east, south, and central parts, present all the characteristics of fruitfulness and industry, large tracts in the northern and western parts are but imperfectly reclaimed; and present a very uninviting and sterile appearance: much of the latter has, indeed, been but recently recovered from the sea. The position of Guernsey, exposed as it is to the force of the channel-stream, renders the navigation along its shores, extremely difficult, from the strength and impetuosity of the currents; the only good and safe anchorage, is on the southern side, where there is a sandy bottom about a mile and a half from the coast.

Vegetables of almost every description abound, and are of the finest quality; but the trees, with the exception of the elm, are seldom' either lofty or luxuriant. Most kinds of European fruit grow in profusion, and so genial is the climate, that many rare and beautiful plants, which require artificial heat, even in the south of England, flourish in Guernsey in the open air. Orange-trees grow well out of doors, even in winter, with a little occasional shelter.

The climate has been described by a competent medical authority, (Mr. S. E. Hoskins,) to be "milder than the west of France in the winter, and considerably warmer than the southern coast of Devonshire, at all seasons, without being more humid. The temperature is subject to frequent, but not extensive variations; the thermometer seldom rises above 80 degrees of Fahrenheit, and seldom falls as low as 37 degrees; the heat of summer is tempered by a gentle sea-breeze; and frosts are neither severe nor durable; indeed, whole winters often pass away without a single fall of snow." The island is, "on the whole, healthy, and rarely affected with epidemic diseases t."

Most of the English song-birds frequent Guernsey; but the sportsman will only find woodcocks and snipes in the list of game. Mackerel, tnrbots, mullets, soles, sea-pike, whitings, plaice, bream, pollocks, and rock-fish, abound off its shores; conger-eels are sometimes taken of the weight of forty pounds; nor are shell-fish less plentiful; crabs of the enormous size of three feet in circumference have occasionally been captured: there is also a variety called the spider-crab, from the resemblance of its form to that insect, which is also peculiar to this coast, and in high repute amongst tf&titinallifs; lobsters, prawns, and shrimps, are exceedingly abundant. "Shrimping" is described to be quite a passion amongst persons of all ranks; and so various are tastes in matters of recreation, that a writer iu a recent periodical remarks, that he has seen individuals who found quite as much pleasure in wading knee-deep for hall' a day among Ihe rocks, to make capture of some handful! of shrimps, as has ever been afforded to others in the pursuit of the deer or the fox!

Although the shake, the mole, and the toad, abound in Jersey, it is a remarkable fact that they are unknown in this island.

Agriculture in Guernsey is still in a rude and comparatively primitive condition. This arises from the almost infinite subdivision of the land, few "estates" in the island exceeding twelve English acres, whilst many are not more than five: and this evil, from the state of the law, is continually increasing; each son is entitled to an equal division of his fathers landed property, the only advantage enjoyed by the eldest, being, that he may retain possession of the dwelling-house, and twenty perches of land around. The cultivators of the ground, therefore, possess little or no capital, and can with difficulty raise sufficient for their subsistence and the payment of their rents, which, are extremely high.

t In Mr. Inglh's work will be found a lull examination of the ad vantages offered by the Channel Islands to ihe invalid,

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The soil of Guernsey is in many parts well suited for the production of grain: -wheat has of late years heen the most extensively sown; the barley is of the first quality, and is much used for malting. A remarkable custom, of high antiquity, prevails in harvesting this grain: instead of being cut, it is pulled up by the roots; women and boys, as well as men, are engaged in this employment, and the usual mode is to strike the root of the stalk against the shoes, to free it from the mould, before it is laid down in rows for the binder. The peasantry assert that the clover-crop is much benefited by this practice, in consequence of the loosening of the earth: and a greater bulk of straw is certainly obtained. One of the chief sources of profit to the Guernsey farmer is the dairy, the island possessing a very valuable breed of cattle.

The pleasing custom of giving mutual assistance in tillage, is generally resorted to; for, as few individuals keep more than perhaps a single horse and an ox, he would find it difficult to plough his land sufficiently deep for the growth of parsneps and potatoes. Each fanner fixes a day for what is termed his "grand plough," when his neighbours and friends cheerfully assemble, at an early hour, with their cattle, and generally accomplish all that is to be done in the course of the day, their fare being the only recompense which is looked for.

St. Peters Port, or Port St. Pierre, of the High Street of which we give an engraving*, is situated on the shore of a bay on the eastern side of the island, possessing a good road for shipping. When viewed from seaward, it rises from the foot to the summit of a hill, with an effect at once picturesque and imposing, which is heightened by the massive proportions of Elizabeth College, the Church of St. James, and Castle Carey, standing boldly out on the upper part of the elevation. Mr. Inglis, however, says, that all the apparent attractions of the town disappear on stepping on shore: and he proceeds to designate the "narrow, steep, and crooked streets, Hanked by substantial, but old-looking dusky houses," as " execrable.'

This remark may be extended to most sea-port towns; but the environs of St. Peter's, it appears, are so delightful, as to make ample amends to the disappointed visitant. Considerable improvements, we learn, however, from other sources, have of late years been made in the town, particularly the removal of most of the old houses in High Street, which has been considerably widened.

St. Peter's Church, partially seen in our view, is of considerable antiquity, having been erected in 1312. This structure, which is of greater architectural pretension than any other in the island, consists of a nave, two aisles, and a chancel, with a tower in the centre, surmounted by a low spire. Divine service is performed both in the English and French languages, at different periods. St. James's Church, previously alluded to, was built by subscription, expressly for the performance of the service of the Church of England in English. There are two chapels of ease, and several places of worship for dissenters in the town.

St. Peter's Port is, in most parts, well paved, and some of the streets are provided with foot-ways. Ga3 has also been introduced; and the town possesses a public library, assembly rooms, and five newspapers. But the most important public building in St. Peter's Port, is the Fishmarket, a structure which, in its way, is perhaps unrivalled, both for its convenience and the abundance of its supplies.

The harlwur of St. Peter's Port was first commenced in

the reign of Queen Elizabeth, when the south pier, at

present existing, was constructed; it extends 757 feet,

curving inwards at its extremity to within about 80 feet

of the northern pier, which was built in the reign of Queen

Anne. It has recently been proposed to construct a new

harbour, accessible from the depth of water at all states of

the tide; but it is generally thought, that the undertaking

would not pay the cost. About half a mile to seaward

situated on a rocky islet, which it completely covers, is

Castle Cornet, a venerable pile of very high antiquity. It

is an important defence to the harbour, and has therefore

sustained several sieges; some parts of the structure are

considered of Roman origin.

The most interesting institution in Guernsey is Elizabeth College, which, as already mentioned, forms a very striking feature in the scenery of St. Peter's Port. This college, which was originally called the "School of Queen Elizabeth," was founded under the Letters Patent of that

• From one of a beautiful series of lithographs, published at Guernsey, highly creditable to the enterprise of Mr. Moss, a bookseller of that island.

sovereign, in the year 1563, as a "Grammar School, in which the youth of the island may be better instructed in good learning and virtue." Certain lands were assigned for its maintenance, but for more than two centuries after its foundation, it existed in little more than its name, sometimes not a single boy being on the institution.

In 1824, however, the public feeling was at last awakened, and after various plans had been suggested, it was determined that a new college should be erected ana maintained at the expense of the states. The present noble structure was first publicly opened in 1829, and has since prospered exceedingly. Guernsey also possesses an institution improperly named an "hospital," which has met with high praise from travellers, by whom it has been designated a " poor-house; a refuge for the destitute; a workhouse; and, for the young, a seminary for instruction."

The environs of St. Peter's Port are picturesque and attractive; villas, generally in good taste, rise on every side; the sea-views are extensive and varied; whilst the beauty of the inland scene is greatly enhanced by the numerous gardens, "and the passion for flowers, which is every where prevalent amongst all classes" in the island.

Amongst the upper classes in Guernsey, civilization has attained a high standard; and "whether in dress, manners, appointments, or language," the best society is, we are told, on a level with a similar rank in England. The lower orders still preserve, as we have already slightly illustrated, many of their primitive customs; a visible change has, however, taken place in the manners, as well as in the dress of the younger portion, since the commencement o the present century.

On the industrious and frugal habits of the people, and on their morality, most writers indeed are fully agreed. We have previously alluded to the comfortable exterior of the farm-houses generally, and we may add, that the interior, from the neatness of the arrangements, fully realizes the expectations thus excited. Mr. Inglis says, "even in entering a cottage, where there is only a 'but and ben,' I have seen as clean floors, and as neat a display of cookery and kitchen utensils, as one could find in any of the more comfortable English cottages." It may not be uninteresting to add, that sea-weed is much used by the poor for fuel, and by the farmer for manure.

The trade of Guernsey, although from various causes, particularly the introduction of the bonding system into England, not so extensive as formerly, is considerable. Its trade in wine and spirits, has always been the most important: and in 1833, there were also exported 116,832 galions of cider, of which, also, there is a very extensive home-consumption in the island; and 19,568 gallons of potato spirits, besides 49,837 bushels of that vegetable, and a small quantity of wheat, flour, biscuit, and apples, all of the growth or make of the island. A large quantity of granite of the finest quality, besides bricks and cement, are also annually exported. The export of cows, heifers, and calves, amounted to 553. The imports are not extensive. The manufactures of Guernsey consist of cordage paper, cement, bricks, soap, and candles, but none of t.'nese' trades are carried on to any extent. The principal part of the commerce with England is conducted through the port of Southampton, which possesses some peculiar* privileges with respect to the island. Government steam-vessels, carrying the mails, sail regularly c ry Wednesday and' Saturday from Weymouth, to Guernsey and Jersey: but the preferable port of embarkation, iu consequence of its being nearer to the metropolis, is Southampton, from whence steamers also sail twice weekly.

The people, both of Guernsey and Jersey, have always been celebrated in privateering annals; when the freetrade, which from time immemorial had been enjoyed by the islands, both in war and in peace, between England and France, was abolished by William the Third, in 1689, the inhabitants carried on this somewhat hazardous pursuit so successfully, as to capture no less than 1500 vessels, in about twenty years. During the late war, the islands again extensively engaged in privateering, as well as in smuggling; and strange stories have been told respecting them.

The states, or legislative body of the island, is composed of the bailiff, named by the crown; the rectors of parishes., the constables, representatives of parishes, and the jurats;' Trial by jury is unknown, all judicial power residing in tha bailiff and jurats.' The public expenditure, of almost cvecy description, is defrayed by a general property-lax. The* island contains ten parishes, and is within the diocese of Winchester,

KNOTS.

It is always worth while, even in the simplest acts of our lives,' to endeavour to be as nearly perfect as possible. A well-tied knot is often a matter of considerable moment, and may ensure the safety of lives and property, while many a serious accident has happened, both on sea and shore, from the want of skill or care in this apparently easy operation. At first sight, few things would seem to be more easy than the tying of a knot; but to perform this simple operation well, that is, so as to produce the effect required with the least labour and the greatest degree of neatness, is the result of considerable practice, and of some judgment.

The following are a few of the principles necessary to be attended to in making good knots. In the first place, the knot should be so made as to prevent the cords with which it is formed crossing each other at right angles, for in such case there would be more chance of the rope breaking, than if the strain was in an oblique direction; this may be illustrated by the two following diagrams, which represent two methods of tying the ends of a cord together. In the first case, which is

Fig. 1. ^B Fig. a.

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the common method, if the cords A B and c A are pulled in opposite directions, the strain will act at right angles at A A, and the friction at those points will be so great as to risk the breaking, or rather the cutting, of the string at those places. But if we look at the Weaver's Knot, fig. 2, we shall see that, when drawn tight, the strain which occurs at A and B, is in an oblique direction. There is, also, another advantage attending this knot, namely, the greater compactness of its form, and from its allowing, when drawn tight, both the ends to be cut off nearly close. In many cases, however, knots, particularly those formed by fishermen and sailors, must possess other properties besides that of security; they must be quickly tied and as quickly undone, and, in these instances, the thickness of the ropes must be also taken into consideration.

On ship-board, it is frequently necessary to form a loop at the end of a rope, for the purpose of obtaining a better hold or purchase; tcj effect this the two following methods are adopted:

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